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#biology #neurology #sleep

Caffeine: Sleep experts will often tell you to wean yourself off caffeine. However, I beg to disagree. A cup of early morning coffee or tea will likely have a beneficial effect. Its impact on the homeostatic sleep drive will increase your alertness, which on its own has a phase shifting power. Early caffeine will help you advance your phase! You should avoid caffeine in the later parts of the day though. Before sleep you will already be in mild withdrawal, which, theoretically, should boost your homeostatic sleep drive and allow for a slightly earlier bedtime. This way, caffeine may help you achieve phase advances at both ends of your night sleep

...

i.e. drink it to get more active, which automatically gives more homeostatic sleepiness and coffeine crash. Triple profit.

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
that we have not evolved to be alert and productive all day. 100% sharp mind is only our desire that has, among others, contributed to the DSPS problem in the first place. See: Best nap timing <span>Caffeine: Sleep experts will often tell you to wean yourself off caffeine. However, I beg to disagree. A cup of early morning coffee or tea will likely have a beneficial effect. Its impact on the homeostatic sleep drive will increase your alertness, which on its own has a phase shifting power. Early caffeine will help you advance your phase! You should avoid caffeine in the later parts of the day though. Before sleep you will already be in mild withdrawal, which, theoretically, should boost your homeostatic sleep drive and allow for a slightly earlier bedtime. This way, caffeine may help you achieve phase advances at both ends of your night sleep. Alcohol: Drinking alcohol before sleep may have disastrous effects on your effort to balance the cycle. One of your major enemies will be premature waking after premature bedtime. Alco




India has the second highest number of children who are not vaccinated against measles, the report published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) says. With 2.4 million, Nigeria has the most number of unvaccinated children. The other four countries with the most number of unvaccinated children are Pakistan (1.4 million), Ethiopia (1.3 million), Indonesia (1.2 million) and the Philippines (0.7 million).

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table condition Measles can be prevented through two doses of vaccination. But the number of children who are not vaccinated against measles is alarmingly high in six countries. At 2.3 million, <span>India has the second highest number of children who are not vaccinated against measles, the report published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) says. With 2.4 million, Nigeria has the most number of unvaccinated children. The other four countries with the most number of unvaccinated children are Pakistan (1.4 million), Ethiopia (1.3 million), Indonesia (1.2 million) and the Philippines (0.7 million). In 2017, 2.9 million children in India under one year of age had not been vaccinated with the first dose, according to UNICEF. In one year, the number of unvaccinated children in India




The first dose of measles vaccine was introduced as part of the national immunisation programme in the 1990s. Based on the WHO’s recommendation to administer a second dose to prevent infection and death in 90-95% of vaccinated children, India introduced the second dose from 2010 onwards. India was one of the last countries to add a second dose of measles vaccine as recommended by the WHO.

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ctive strategy for delivering vaccination to children who have otherwise been missed by routine services. But it does reflect how many children get missed by the routine immunisation programme. <span>The first dose of measles vaccine was introduced as part of the national immunisation programme in the 1990s. Based on the WHO’s recommendation to administer a second dose to prevent infection and death in 90-95% of vaccinated children, India introduced the second dose from 2010 onwards. India was one of the last countries to add a second dose of measles vaccine as recommended by the WHO. The first mass immunisation campaigns for the second dose of measles vaccine were launched in 2010 in 14 States where the coverage for the first dose was below 80%. The campaign targete




World's oldest artwork uncovered in Indonesian cave: study

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vered in Indonesian cave: study Share On 1 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Using human sweat as diagnostic tool and source of power Sci-Tech Sci-Tech <span>World's oldest artwork uncovered in Indonesian cave: study AFP Jakarta, Indonesia, December 12, 2019 12:46 IST Updated: December 12, 2019 12:49 IST AFP Jakarta, Indonesia, December 12, 2019 12:46 IST Updated: December 12, 2019 12:49 IST The lim




At least 40,000 years old

The discovery comes after a painting of an animal in a cave on the Indonesian island of Borneo was earlier determined to have been at least 40,000 years old.

For many years, cave art was thought to have emerged from Europe, but Indonesian paintings have challenged that theory. There are at least 242 caves or shelters with ancient imagery on Sulawesi alone, and new sites are being discovered annually, the team said.

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Upper Paleolithic period. "This hunting scene is — to our knowledge — currently the oldest pictorial record of storytelling and the earliest figurative artwork in the world," researchers said. <span>At least 40,000 years old The discovery comes after a painting of an animal in a cave on the Indonesian island of Borneo was earlier determined to have been at least 40,000 years old. For many years, cave art was thought to have emerged from Europe, but Indonesian paintings have challenged that theory. There are at least 242 caves or shelters with ancient imagery on Sulawesi alone, and new sites are being discovered annually, the team said. In the latest dated scene, hunters are depicted in dark red colours with human bodies and the heads of animals including birds and reptiles. The painting, which is in poor condition, su




World’s oldest fossil forest uncovered in US

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t fossil forest uncovered in US Share On 0 Sci-Tech Science Technology Health Agriculture Environment Gadgets Internet Watch | All about the National Recruitment Agency Sci-Tech Science Science <span>World’s oldest fossil forest uncovered in US PTI New York, December 20, 2019 13:45 IST Updated: December 20, 2019 13:45 IST PTI New York, December 20, 2019 13:45 IST Updated: December 20, 2019 13:45 IST Share Article 0 PRINT A A A




The team harvested water hyacinth leaves, removed the chlorophyll, dried and powdered it. The sieved powder underwent several treatments including heating at 150 degree Celsius to convert it to carbon dots. “When a nanoparticle is less than 10 nanometre we call it a dot or nanodot. Our carbon dots were able to give a green fluorescence under UV light. The extremely small oxygen functional groups on the surface of the dot are responsible for the fluorescence,” explains the first author of the paper Manash Jyoti Deka.

The herbicide pretilachlor is mixed with water and carbon dots, and studied using special equipment. The fluorescence intensity increases in the presence of the herbicide. The team also tested using different pesticides and other compounds having similar chemical structure and found that the carbon dot was extremely sensitive to pretilachlor and could detect even very small quantity of the herbicide. After successful testing in the laboratory conditions, the team collected soil samples from different places across the State and proved the efficiency of the carbon dots in detecting pretilachor in soil samples.

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wdhury from the Material Nanochemistry lab at the Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Assam. He is the corresponding author of the work published in Heliyon. Leaves to carbon <span>The team harvested water hyacinth leaves, removed the chlorophyll, dried and powdered it. The sieved powder underwent several treatments including heating at 150 degree Celsius to convert it to carbon dots. “When a nanoparticle is less than 10 nanometre we call it a dot or nanodot. Our carbon dots were able to give a green fluorescence under UV light. The extremely small oxygen functional groups on the surface of the dot are responsible for the fluorescence,” explains the first author of the paper Manash Jyoti Deka. The herbicide pretilachlor is mixed with water and carbon dots, and studied using special equipment. The fluorescence intensity increases in the presence of the herbicide. The team also tested using different pesticides and other compounds having similar chemical structure and found that the carbon dot was extremely sensitive to pretilachlor and could detect even very small quantity of the herbicide. After successful testing in the laboratory conditions, the team collected soil samples from different places across the State and proved the efficiency of the carbon dots in detecting pretilachor in soil samples. Fluorescence enhancement The paper also describes the mechanism by which electron transfer happens between the dot and the herbicide which enables the fluorescence enhancement. Dr. Chow




The verification of all the available records proved that the Chebrolu inscription of Satavahana king Vijaya issued in his 5th regnal year – 207 A.D. — is also the earliest datable Sanskrit inscription from South India so far, said Dr. Muniratnam.

So far the Nagarjunakonda inscription of Ikshavaku king Ehavala Chantamula issued in his 11th regnal year corresponding to the 4th century A.D. was considered the earliest Sanskrit inscription in South India, he added.

The place also yielded another inscription which is in Prakrit language and of Brahmi characters and belongs to the 1st century A.D. This is the earliest epigraphic reference to Mutts and records the gift of a cloister mandapa and chaitya to the bhavatho (Lord) of the Gadasa Mutt by a person hailing from Tabaava, according to Dr. Muniratnam.

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re are references of Saptamatrika worship in the early Kadamba copper plates and the early Chalukyas and Eastern Chalukya copper plates. But the new discovery predates them by almost 200 years. <span>The verification of all the available records proved that the Chebrolu inscription of Satavahana king Vijaya issued in his 5th regnal year – 207 A.D. — is also the earliest datable Sanskrit inscription from South India so far, said Dr. Muniratnam. So far the Nagarjunakonda inscription of Ikshavaku king Ehavala Chantamula issued in his 11th regnal year corresponding to the 4th century A.D. was considered the earliest Sanskrit inscription in South India, he added. The place also yielded another inscription which is in Prakrit language and of Brahmi characters and belongs to the 1st century A.D. This is the earliest epigraphic reference to Mutts and records the gift of a cloister mandapa and chaitya to the bhavatho (Lord) of the Gadasa Mutt by a person hailing from Tabaava, according to Dr. Muniratnam. Calling for conservation and preservation of the pillar given its historical importance, he pointed out that there were many such ancient monuments and structures across the country tha




Saptamatrika cult evidence dates back to 207 A.D. in Satavahana king Vijaya’s era

In a significant find, the Epigraphy Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India has discovered the earliest epigraphic evidence so far for the Saptamatrika cult. It is also the earliest Sanskrit inscription to have been discovered in South India as on date.

Saptamatrikas are a group of seven female deities worshipped in Hinduism as personifying the energy of their respective consorts. The inscription is in Sanskrit and in Brahmi characters and was issued by Satavahana king Vijaya in 207 A.D.

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ptamatrika cult evidence dates back to 207 A.D. in Satavahana king Vijaya’s era Share Article 1 PRINT A A A The inscription on Saptamatrikas discovered by the ASI near Guntur in Andhra Pradesh. <span>Saptamatrika cult evidence dates back to 207 A.D. in Satavahana king Vijaya’s era In a significant find, the Epigraphy Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India has discovered the earliest epigraphic evidence so far for the Saptamatrika cult. It is also the earliest Sanskrit inscription to have been discovered in South India as on date. Saptamatrikas are a group of seven female deities worshipped in Hinduism as personifying the energy of their respective consorts. The inscription is in Sanskrit and in Brahmi characters and was issued by Satavahana king Vijaya in 207 A.D. Dr. K. Muniratnam, Director, Epigraphy branch, ASI, Mysuru told The Hindu that it was discovered in Chebrolu village in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh earlier this month. The inscrip




The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan organised food and cash transfers to urban residents of Gujarat and the Deccan as well as to rural migrants who had come into the towns. He set up langars to feed them, in much the same way that some State governments and civil organisations have done during the lockdown. Shah Jahan disbursed money to the poor on Mondays, the day he had acceded to the throne.

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s Lahori recalled, “Every man whose dire sufferings did not terminate in death and who retained the power to move wandered off to the towns and villages of other [provinces].” Imperial largesse <span>The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan organised food and cash transfers to urban residents of Gujarat and the Deccan as well as to rural migrants who had come into the towns. He set up langars to feed them, in much the same way that some State governments and civil organisations have done during the lockdown. Shah Jahan disbursed money to the poor on Mondays, the day he had acceded to the throne. Over 20 weeks, Shah Jahan spent 150,000 rupees in those two regions. Today, the central government is still vacillating over substantive cash transfers to migrant workers. In the Early




Historian André Wink details how, in 1690, the Maratha King Rajaram granted revenue privileges to ryots in order that they hold a “stake in the country”.

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ly Modern era, when peasant desertions occurred, rulers encouraged their return by sometimes invoking ideologies that allowed farmers to believe they were active contributors to state building. <span>Historian André Wink details how, in 1690, the Maratha King Rajaram granted revenue privileges to ryots in order that they hold a “stake in the country”. While such participatory doctrines are useful, contemporary governments must ensure that they do not slide into the comfort of nativism. Some States today are contemplating restricting




In the 18th century, the Peshwas offered abhaypatras or letters explicitly promising security to encourage migrants to return. They exempted ryots from land revenue. In 1752, the Nizam’s army encamped near Pune destroyed crops and scorched homes, pushing villagers to migrate. To induce their return, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao’s abhaypatra promised to forgo revenue collections the next year, increasing it to the full rate by the fourth year.

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are contemplating restricting medical services to local residents, while others plan “sons of the soil” campaigns to spur production, all of which may prove counter-productive in the long run. <span>In the 18th century, the Peshwas offered abhaypatras or letters explicitly promising security to encourage migrants to return. They exempted ryots from land revenue. In 1752, the Nizam’s army encamped near Pune destroyed crops and scorched homes, pushing villagers to migrate. To induce their return, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao’s abhaypatra promised to forgo revenue collections the next year, increasing it to the full rate by the fourth year. Peshwa Balaji Bajirao. | Photo Credit: Wiki Commons An end to disorder The Peshwa urged villages to invite trading families, promised an “end to disorder”, and instructed them to “culti




In the midst of the great famine of 1876-78, Viceroy Lord Lytton organised a grand Imperial Assemblage in Delhi — where Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India

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hiring. The greatest heartlessness, however, was shown during the Raj. Distress migrations during this era were heightened by the inhuman attitude of the British towards the struggling farmers. <span>In the midst of the great famine of 1876-78, Viceroy Lord Lytton organised a grand Imperial Assemblage in Delhi — where Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India — at the cost of a million rupees; much like the ₹20,000-crore Central Vista plan notified during the pandemic. Lytton said, “The task of saving life irrespective of cost is one which i




In Odisha, an ancient temple has resurfaced in the Mahanadi river. It is believed to be around 500 years old. The temple got submerged in the river due to floods around 150 years ago.

It was found mid-river near Baideswar in the Padmavati area in Cuttack. The construction type of this temple indicates that it dates back to the late 15th or early 16th century. The region used to be known as ‘Satapatana’ in the past.

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ty passport? Watch: 'My Village Show' Gangavva goes global Watch | All you need to know about pulse oximeters Close X A video on the 500-year-old temple that has resurfaced in Odisha's Mahanadi <span>In Odisha, an ancient temple has resurfaced in the Mahanadi river. It is believed to be around 500 years old. The temple got submerged in the river due to floods around 150 years ago. It was found mid-river near Baideswar in the Padmavati area in Cuttack. The construction type of this temple indicates that it dates back to the late 15th or early 16th century. The region used to be known as ‘Satapatana’ in the past. It was located as part of a project by the Indian National Trust for Art & Cultural Heritage (INTACH). As many as 65 ancient temples submerged in the Mahanadi river have been locate




The ritual of placing terracotta horses is connected to deaths in the family. “I’ve seen families get a horse or a human statue made and placed by the seaside after the death of a loved one. They believe these departed souls will protect villages from natural disasters,” he says.

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c has been hard on all of us, and more so on fishermen who are not able to go to sea. “There are around 35 fishing hamlets in the region and the images I posted are from Goonankuppam,” he adds. <span>The ritual of placing terracotta horses is connected to deaths in the family. “I’ve seen families get a horse or a human statue made and placed by the seaside after the death of a loved one. They believe these departed souls will protect villages from natural disasters,” he says. Over the years, the practice turned into an annual one, in which families got together to install the statues during Pulicat’s Pongal festival. “They positioned the statues in the North




Odisha to give facelift to 11th century Lingaraj Temple

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erala Tamil Nadu Telangana Other States Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu Telangana Other States Watch | All about the National Recruitment Agency News States Other States Other States <span>Odisha to give facelift to 11th century Lingaraj Temple Satyasundar Barik BHUBANESWAR, August 18, 2020 04:55 IST Updated: August 18, 2020 10:22 IST Satyasundar Barik BHUBANESWAR, August 18, 2020 04:55 IST Updated: August 18, 2020 10:22 IST T




Swiss bank Credit Suisse said on August 25 that it plans to close 37 branches in its home country as part of an effort to streamline its business, and said that some job cuts are inevitable.

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land to 109 from 146. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Credit Suisse said it expects to implement the changes by the end of this year, reducing the number of branches in Switzerland to 109 from 146. <span>Swiss bank Credit Suisse said on August 25 that it plans to close 37 branches in its home country as part of an effort to streamline its business, and said that some job cuts are inevitable. Credit Suisse said it expects to implement the changes by the end of this year, reducing the number of branches in Switzerland to 109 from 146. Some of the reduction will result from me




Major loss in subscriber base was recorded in the mobile telephony segment, with Bharti Airtel and Vodafone Idea losing around 47 lakh mobile customers each in May

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akh mobile customers each in May Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Reliance Jio continued to grow its subscriber base with a net addition of over 36 lakh new connections. | Photo Credit: Nagara Gopal <span>Major loss in subscriber base was recorded in the mobile telephony segment, with Bharti Airtel and Vodafone Idea losing around 47 lakh mobile customers each in May Telecom consumer base in the country dipped to around 116.36 crore in May but service providers were able to narrow the loss of subscriber base to 57.6 lakh as compared to the previous




Reliance Jio led the broadband market share in the country with 39.37 crore connections, Bharti Airtel 14.59 crore, Vodafone Idea 11.3 crore, BSNL 2.2 crore and Atria Convergence 16.4 lakh subscribers.

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with 66.37 crore connections, while wired connections accounted for 1.93 crore customers. Out of the total 344 broadband service providers, top-five operators accounted for 98.93 market share. <span>Reliance Jio led the broadband market share in the country with 39.37 crore connections, Bharti Airtel 14.59 crore, Vodafone Idea 11.3 crore, BSNL 2.2 crore and Atria Convergence 16.4 lakh subscribers. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




India’s steel exports more than doubled between April and July to hit their highest level in at least six years, boosted by Chinese buying.

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22:08 IST Reuters NEW DELHI/BEIJING, August 28, 2020 22:08 IST Updated: August 28, 2020 22:08 IST Purchases buck bilateral tensions Share Article 1 PRINT A A A Purchases buck bilateral tensions <span>India’s steel exports more than doubled between April and July to hit their highest level in at least six years, boosted by Chinese buying. Traders said reduced prices had driven the purchases as Indian sellers sought to get rid of a surplus generated by the impact of COVID-19 on domestic demand and generate much-needed inc




Who is the largest exporter of steel? China Global crude steel output increases by 3.4% in 2019
Top 10 steel-producing countries
RankCountry2019 (Mt)
1China996.3
2India111.2
3Japan99.3

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india+in+steel+export - Cerca con Google
rce of India - Jagran Josh www.jagranjosh.com › general-knowledge › list-of-top-1... www.jagranjosh.com › general-knowledge › list-of-top-1... Search for: What is India the largest exporter of? <span>Who is the largest exporter of steel? China Global crude steel output increases by 3.4% in 2019 Top 10 steel-producing countries Rank Country 2019 (Mt) 1 China 996.3 2 India 111.2 3 Japan 99.3 7 more rows • Jan 27, 2020 Global crude steel output increases by 3.4% in 2019 | worldsteel www.worldsteel.org › media-centre › press-releases › Glo... www.worldsteel.org › media-centre




Who is the largest exporter of steel? China Global crude steel output increases by 3.4% in 2019
Top 10 steel-producing countries
RankCountry2019 (Mt)
1China996.3
2India111.2
3Japan99.3

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india+in+steel+export - Cerca con Google
rce of India - Jagran Josh www.jagranjosh.com › general-knowledge › list-of-top-1... www.jagranjosh.com › general-knowledge › list-of-top-1... Search for: What is India the largest exporter of? <span>Who is the largest exporter of steel? China Global crude steel output increases by 3.4% in 2019 Top 10 steel-producing countries Rank Country 2019 (Mt) 1 China 996.3 2 India 111.2 3 Japan 99.3 7 more rows • Jan 27, 2020 Global crude steel output increases by 3.4% in 2019 | worldsteel www.worldsteel.org › media-centre › press-releases › Glo... www.worldsteel.org › media-centre




What are the main exports from India? Top 10
  • Mineral fuels including oil: US$44.1 billion (13.7% of total exports)
  • Gems, precious metals: $36.7 billion (11.4%)
  • Machinery including computers: $21.2 billion (6.6%)
  • Organic chemicals: $18.3 billion (5.7%)
  • Vehicles: $17.2 billion (5.3%)
  • Pharmaceuticals: $16.1 billion (5%)

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india+in+steel+export - Cerca con Google
4% in 2019 | worldsteel www.worldsteel.org › media-centre › press-releases › Glo... www.worldsteel.org › media-centre › press-releases › Glo... Search for: Who is the largest exporter of steel? <span>What are the main exports from India? Top 10 Mineral fuels including oil: US$44.1 billion (13.7% of total exports) Gems, precious metals: $36.7 billion (11.4%) Machinery including computers: $21.2 billion (6.6%) Organic chemicals: $18.3 billion (5.7%) Vehicles: $17.2 billion (5.3%) Pharmaceuticals: $16.1 billion (5%) More items... • Jul 20, 2020 India's Top 10 Exports 2019 - World's Top Exports www.worldstopexports.com › indias-top-10-exports www.worldstopexports.com › indias-top-10-exports Search f




Vietnam has been a regular buyer of Indian steel, but China’s emergence as a leading buyer, replacing New Delhi’s traditional markets, such as Italy and Belgium, is more surprising.

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since data was first collated in the current form beginning with the fiscal year 2015-2016. Neither Tata, JSW nor India’s ministries of steel and commerce responded to e-mails seeking comment. <span>Vietnam has been a regular buyer of Indian steel, but China’s emergence as a leading buyer, replacing New Delhi’s traditional markets, such as Italy and Belgium, is more surprising. An already uneasy relationship between New Delhi and Beijing, became severely strained after violent border clashes in June, when 20 Indian soldiers were killed at the disputed Himalaya




Also, according to RBI’s Financial Stability Report, gross NPAs of banks may rise to 12.5 per cent by March 2021 under baseline scenario, from 8.5 per cent in March 2020.

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ormer RBI Governor noted that with the economy contracting by at least five per cent this fiscal year, non-performing assets (NPAs) will balloon. Also read: Comment | Why a ‘bad bank’ is tricky <span>Also, according to RBI’s Financial Stability Report, gross NPAs of banks may rise to 12.5 per cent by March 2021 under baseline scenario, from 8.5 per cent in March 2020. “The bankruptcy framework is already overloaded and it simply will be unable to deal with this huge additional burden. It is important, therefore, indeed more than ever before, that muc




On consumer price index (CPI) inflation staying outside the mandated 2-6 per cent target for some months, Mr. Subbarao said he does not see that as a failure on the part of the MPC.

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argeting framework is up for review next year and I hope the ‘flexible’ inflation targeting framework will be allowed further flexibility to deal with unusual economic situations,’ he observed. <span>On consumer price index (CPI) inflation staying outside the mandated 2-6 per cent target for some months, Mr. Subbarao said he does not see that as a failure on the part of the MPC. “We are in a very unusual economic situation, hit simultaneously by a demand slump and supply disruptions,” he said adding that and there is a great deal of uncertainty from outside the




RBI bars People’s Co-operative Bank from granting fresh loans, accepting deposits for six months

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ccepting deposits for six months Share On 1 Business Agri-Business Industry Economy Markets Budget 2020 Stock Quotes Watch | All about the National Recruitment Agency Business Industry Industry <span>RBI bars People’s Co-operative Bank from granting fresh loans, accepting deposits for six months PTI Mumbai, June 12, 2020 10:31 IST Updated: June 12, 2020 10:38 IST PTI Mumbai, June 12, 2020 10:31 IST Updated: June 12, 2020 10:38 IST These directions will remain in force for six m




On these grounds, we are going for an appeal to the appellate body at the GST Council with a hope that this order will be reversed

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ataka VAT authority notification, our products also come under 5 per cent VAT. Our partner in Mumbai got a favourable ruling from GST Council that parotas are classified under 5 per cent GST.” “<span>On these grounds, we are going for an appeal to the appellate body at the GST Council with a hope that this order will be reversed. I feel the AAR ruling was a result of a confusion around the category for parotas. We have to ask the authority how parotas, layered flatbread, are different from rotis,” he said. As p




As per a recent Authority for Advance Rulings (Karnataka Bench) notification, parotas will attract 18 per cent GST, even as its siblings rotis, naans, kulchas and khakhras are under 5 per cent bracket.

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1 PRINT A A A India'sready to cook parota segment is close to ₹500 crore industry annually | Photo Credit: S.R. Raghunathan Rotis, naans and kulchas in 5% slab; iD Fresh Food to challenge order <span>As per a recent Authority for Advance Rulings (Karnataka Bench) notification, parotas will attract 18 per cent GST, even as its siblings rotis, naans, kulchas and khakhras are under 5 per cent bracket. Bengaluru-based iD Fresh Food, which sells on an average 8.5 parotas a day or parotas worth over ₹100 crore across the country in a year, is readying to go for an appeal questioning the




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Question
difference b/w term "ligand" in chemistry vs biology?
Answer
in biology a ligand doesn't necessarily bind to metal (but might; e.g. haemoglobin)


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easurably irreversible covalent bonding between a ligand and target molecule is atypical in biological systems. In contrast to the definition of ligand in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry , <span>in biochemistry it is ambiguous whether the ligand generally binds at a metal site, as is the case in hemoglobin . In general, the interpretation of ligand is contextual with regards to what sort of binding has been observed. The etymology stems from ligare, which means 'to bind'. <span>

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Ligand (biochemistry) - Wikipedia
a function of charge, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. The instance of binding occurs over an infinitesimal range of time and space, so the rate constant is usually a very small number. <span>Binding occurs by intermolecular forces, such as ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. The association or docking is actually reversible through dissociation. Measurably irreversible covalent bonding between a ligand and target molecule is atypical in biological systems. In contrast to the definition of ligand in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry, in biochemistry it is ambiguous whether the ligand generally binds at a metal site, as is the case in hemoglobin. In general, the interpretation of ligand is contextual with regards to what sort of binding has been observed. The etymology stems from ligare, which means 'to bind'. Ligand binding to a receptor protein alters the conformation by affecting the three-dimensional shape orientation. The conformation of a receptor protein composes the functional state.







Flashcard 5742477315340

Question
biology receptors: constitutive activity
Answer
when receptor is active even without ligand bound to it


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A receptor which is capable of producing a biological response in the absence of a bound ligand is said to display "constitutive activity".

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Receptor (biochemistry) - Wikipedia
ogenous GABA. Note that the idea of receptor agonism and antagonism only refers to the interaction between receptors and ligands and not to their biological effects. Constitutive activity[edit] <span>A receptor which is capable of producing a biological response in the absence of a bound ligand is said to display "constitutive activity".[9] The constitutive activity of a receptor may be blocked by an inverse agonist. The anti-obesity drugs rimonabant and taranabant are inverse agonists at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor an







#biology
Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate them. This results in a receptor blockade, inhibiting the binding of agonists and inverse agonists. Receptor antagonists can be competitive (or reversible), and compete with the agonist for the receptor, or they can be irreversible antagonists that form covalent bonds (or extremely high affinity non-covalent bonds) with the receptor and completely block it. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole is an example of an irreversible antagonist. The effects of irreversible antagonism can only be reversed by synthesis of new receptors

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Receptor (biochemistry) - Wikipedia
ficacy). Partial agonists do not activate receptors with maximal efficacy, even with maximal binding, causing partial responses compared to those of full agonists (efficacy between 0 and 100%). <span>Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate them. This results in a receptor blockade, inhibiting the binding of agonists and inverse agonists. Receptor antagonists can be competitive (or reversible), and compete with the agonist for the receptor, or they can be irreversible antagonists that form covalent bonds (or extremely high affinity non-covalent bonds) with the receptor and completely block it. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole is an example of an irreversible antagonist. The effects of irreversible antagonism can only be reversed by synthesis of new receptors. Inverse agonists reduce the activity of receptors by inhibiting their constitutive activity (negative efficacy). Allosteric modulators : They do not bind to the agonist-binding site of




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Note that the idea of receptor agonism and antagonism only refers to the interaction between receptors and ligands and not to their biological effects.

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Receptor (biochemistry) - Wikipedia
binding sites, through which they modify the effect of the agonist. For example, benzodiazepines (BZDs) bind to the BZD site on the GABAA receptor and potentiate the effect of endogenous GABA. <span>Note that the idea of receptor agonism and antagonism only refers to the interaction between receptors and ligands and not to their biological effects. Constitutive activity[edit ] A receptor which is capable of producing a biological response in the absence of a bound ligand is said to display "constitutive activity".[9] The constitut




Learned industriousness theory asserts that reinforcing an individual for achieving a performance standard increases the likelihood of that individual's performing those behaviors again. If the individual exerted high levels of effort during the completion of the task, the effort takes on its own reinforcing value. This is because the individual enjoys the sensation of working hard because it is associated with reinforcement. Therefore, this individual is more likely to generalize this high level of effort to other tasks because it is less aversive and is associated with positive results. On the other hand, the theory also claims that if an individual has a history of being reinforced for completing tasks with very low levels of effort, that individual will eventually generalize this low level of effort to other tasks. This facet of the theory is termed "learned laziness."[2] Evidence for these claims is provided below.

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Learned industriousness - Wikipedia
mulus after a behavior that increases the frequency of that behavior. Both positive and negative reinforcement are effective in the development of industriousness. Reinforcing high effort[edit] <span>Learned industriousness theory asserts that reinforcing an individual for achieving a performance standard increases the likelihood of that individual's performing those behaviors again. If the individual exerted high levels of effort during the completion of the task, the effort takes on its own reinforcing value. This is because the individual enjoys the sensation of working hard because it is associated with reinforcement. Therefore, this individual is more likely to generalize this high level of effort to other tasks because it is less aversive and is associated with positive results. On the other hand, the theory also claims that if an individual has a history of being reinforced for completing tasks with very low levels of effort, that individual will eventually generalize this low level of effort to other tasks. This facet of the theory is termed "learned laziness."[2] Evidence for these claims is provided below. Eisenberger's theory claims an essentially dichotomous relationship between effort and reinforcement: the exertion of low effort on a simple tasked paired with high levels of reinforcem




And there is one key difference between IQ and Conscientiousness: increasing IQ is a tricky and often impossible task, but there is weak evidence that Conscientiousness can be improved by trying harder tasks. (There is an irony here—it’s hard tedious work to develop the ability to do hard tedious work, so how does one start?) Interestingly, Conscientiousness increases steadily over a lifetime (in contradistinction to IQ’s steady fall), which is a hopeful observation. I like how put it in :

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Conscientiousness &amp; Online Education · Gwern.net
y academy graduation, and spelling bee performance.) Along with Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness is one of the main correlations with creative scientists (stronger than Introversion!). <span>And there is one key difference between IQ and Conscientiousness: increasing IQ is a tricky and often impossible task, but there is weak evidence that Conscientiousness can be improved by trying harder tasks. (There is an irony here—it’s hard tedious work to develop the ability to do hard tedious work, so how does one start?) Interestingly, Conscientiousness increases steadily over a lifetime (in contradistinction to IQ’s steady fall), which is a hopeful observation. I like how Richard Hamming put it in “You and Your Research”: …Now for the matter of drive. You observe that most great scientists have tremendous drive. I worked for ten years with John Tukey at Bell Labs. He had tremendous drive. One day about t




Extensive research with animals and humans indicates that rewarded effort contributes to durable individual differences in industriousness. It is proposed that reinforcement for increased physical or cognitive performance, or for the toleration of aversive stimulation, conditions rewards value to the sensation of high effort and thereby reduces effort's aversiveness. The conditioning of second- ary reward value to the sensation of effort provides a dynamic mechanism by which reinforced high performance generalizes across behaviors. Applications to self-control, moral development, and education are described

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all power laws with a particular scaling exponent are equivalent up to constant factors, since each is simply a scaled version of the others. This behavior is what produces the linear relationship when logarithms are taken of both \(f(x)\) and \(x\), and the straight-line on the log–log plot is often called the signature of a power law.

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\) where \(\propto \) denotes direct proportionality . That is, scaling by a constant \(c\) simply multiplies the original power-law relation by the constant \(c^{{-k}}\). Thus, it follows that <span>all power laws with a particular scaling exponent are equivalent up to constant factors, since each is simply a scaled version of the others. This behavior is what produces the linear relationship when logarithms are taken of both \(f(x)\) and \(x\), and the straight-line on the log–log plot is often called the signature of a power law. <span>

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Power law - Wikipedia
ds for many complex media. Allometric scaling laws for relationships between biological variables are among the best known power-law functions in nature. Properties[edit] Scale invariance[edit] <span>One attribute of power laws is their scale invariance. Given a relation f ( x ) = a x − k {\displaystyle f(x)=ax^{-k}} , scaling the argument x {\displaystyle x} by a constant factor c {\displaystyle c} causes only a proportionate scaling of the function itself. That is, f ( c x ) = a ( c x ) − k = c − k f ( x ) ∝ f ( x ) , {\displaystyle f(cx)=a(cx)^{-k}=c^{-k}f(x)\propto f(x),\!} where ∝ {\displaystyle \propto } denotes direct proportionality. That is, scaling by a constant c {\displaystyle c} simply multiplies the original power-law relation by the constant c − k {\displaystyle c^{-k}} . Thus, it follows that all power laws with a particular scaling exponent are equivalent up to constant factors, since each is simply a scaled version of the others. This behavior is what produces the linear relationship when logarithms are taken of both f ( x ) {\displaystyle f(x)} and x {\displaystyle x} , and the straight-line on the log–log plot is often called the signature of a power law. With real data, such straightness is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the data following a power-law relation. In fact, there are many ways to generate finite amounts of d