# on 03-Sep-2020 (Thu)

#### Annotation 5742975651084

 In 1910, a bold solution was put forth by the New Foods Society. Their plan was to import and release hippopotamus from Africa into the rivers and bayous of Louisiana. The hippopotamus would then eat the water hyacinth and also produce meat to solve another serious problem at the time, the American meat crisis.[32] Known as the American Hippo bill, H.R. 23621 was introduced by Louisiana Congressman Robert Broussard and debated by the Agricultural Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. The chief collaborators in the New Foods Society and proponents of Broussard's bill were Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated American Scout, and Captain Fritz Duquesne, a South African Scout who later became a notorious spy for Germany. Presenting before the Agricultural Committee, Burnham made the point that none of the animals that Americans ate, chickens, pigs, cows, sheep, lambs, were native to the U.S.; all had been imported by European settlers centuries before, so why should Americans hesitate to introduce hippopotamus and other large animals into the American diet? Duquesne, who was born and raised in South Africa, further noted that European settlers on that continent commonly included hippopotamus, ostrich, antelope, and other African wildlife in their diets and suffered no ill effects. The American Hippo bill nearly passed, but fell one vote short.[32]

Eichhornia crassipes - Wikipedia
ter hyacinth, due to the vastness of escaped colonies and the inaccessibility of some of the infested areas, and the engineer suggested that some biological means of control may be needed. [55] <span>In 1910, a bold solution was put forth by the New Foods Society. Their plan was to import and release hippopotamus from Africa into the rivers and bayous of Louisiana. The hippopotamus would then eat the water hyacinth and also produce meat to solve another serious problem at the time, the American meat crisis.[32] Known as the American Hippo bill, H.R. 23621 was introduced by Louisiana Congressman Robert Broussard and debated by the Agricultural Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. The chief collaborators in the New Foods Society and proponents of Broussard's bill were Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated American Scout, and Captain Fritz Duquesne, a South African Scout who later became a notorious spy for Germany. Presenting before the Agricultural Committee, Burnham made the point that none of the animals that Americans ate, chickens, pigs, cows, sheep, lambs, were native to the U.S.; all had been imported by European settlers centuries before, so why should Americans hesitate to introduce hippopotamus and other large animals into the American diet? Duquesne, who was born and raised in South Africa, further noted that European settlers on that continent commonly included hippopotamus, ostrich, antelope, and other African wildlife in their diets and suffered no ill effects. The American Hippo bill nearly passed, but fell one vote short.[32] Ironically, water hyacinths have also been introduced into waters inhabited by manatees in Florida, for the purpose of bioremediation (cf. §Photomremediation below) of the waters that h

#### Annotation 5742977748236

 As the hyanciths multiply into mats, they eliminate the presence of fish, and choke waterways for boating and shipping.[47] This effect was well taking hold in the state of Louisiana by the turn of the 20th century.[32] The plant invaded Florida in 1890,[48] and an estimated 50 kg/m2 of the plant mass choked Florida's waterways

Eichhornia crassipes - Wikipedia
rom New Orleans collected and brought home water hyacinths he collected from Colombia, c. 1892, and the plant proliferated in a matter of 2 years.[46] Infestation and control in the South <span>As the hyanciths multiply into mats, they eliminate the presence of fish, and choke waterways for boating and shipping.[47] This effect was well taking hold in the state of Louisiana by the turn of the 20th century.[32] The plant invaded Florida in 1890,[48] and an estimated 50 kg/m2 of the plant mass choked Florida's waterways.[49] The clogging of the St. Johns River was posing a serious threat, and in 1897 the U. S. government dispatched a task force of military engineers (U. S. Army Corps of Engineers) to s

#### Annotation 5742979845388

 Thus in the early 20th century, the U.S. War Department (i.e., the Army Corps of Engineers) tested various means of eradicating the plants, including the jet-streaming of steam and hot water, application of various strong acids, and application of petroleum followed by incineration.[f] Spraying with saturated salt solution (but not dilute solutions) effectively killed the plants; unfortunately this was considered prohibitively expensive, and the engineers selected Harvesta brand herbicide, whose active ingredient was arsenic acid, as the optimal cost-effective tool for eradication.[52][53] This herbicide was used until 1905, when it was substituted with a different, white arsenic based compound.[53] An engineer charged with the spraying did not think the poison to be a matter of concern, stating that the crew of the spraying boat would routinely catch fish from their working areas and consume them.[54] However, spraying had little hope of completely eradicating the water hyacinth, due to the vastness of escaped colonies and the inaccessibility of some of the infested areas, and the engineer suggested that some biological means of control may be needed. [55]

Eichhornia crassipes - Wikipedia
. government dispatched a task force of military engineers (U. S. Army Corps of Engineers) to solve the water hyacinth problem plaguing the Gulf states such as Florida and Louisiana.[e][51][50] <span>Thus in the early 20th century, the U.S. War Department (i.e., the Army Corps of Engineers) tested various means of eradicating the plants, including the jet-streaming of steam and hot water, application of various strong acids, and application of petroleum followed by incineration.[f] Spraying with saturated salt solution (but not dilute solutions) effectively killed the plants; unfortunately this was considered prohibitively expensive, and the engineers selected Harvesta brand herbicide, whose active ingredient was arsenic acid, as the optimal cost-effective tool for eradication.[52][53] This herbicide was used until 1905, when it was substituted with a different, white arsenic based compound.[53] An engineer charged with the spraying did not think the poison to be a matter of concern, stating that the crew of the spraying boat would routinely catch fish from their working areas and consume them.[54] However, spraying had little hope of completely eradicating the water hyacinth, due to the vastness of escaped colonies and the inaccessibility of some of the infested areas, and the engineer suggested that some biological means of control may be needed. [55] In 1910, a bold solution was put forth by the New Foods Society. Their plan was to import and release hippopotamus from Africa into the rivers and bayous of Louisiana. The hippopotamus

#### Annotation 5742983515404

 Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process, where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater

Groundwater recharge - Wikipedia
be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Groundwater recharge" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Water balance <span>Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process, where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater. Recharge is the primary method through which water enters an aquifer. This process usually occurs in the vadose zone below plant roots and, is often expressed as a flux to the water ta

#### Annotation 5742986923276

 Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table

Groundwater - Wikipedia
p to search Water located beneath the ground surface The entire surface water flow of the Alapaha River near Jennings, Florida, going into a sinkhole leading to the Floridan Aquifer groundwater <span>Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from the surface; it may discharge from the surface naturally at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agr

#### Annotation 5742990331148

 #has-images A seep puddle in a forest clearing

Seep (hydrology) - Wikipedia

#### Annotation 5742995311884

 A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole,[1][2] swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably[3]), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Most are caused by karst processes – the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks[4] or suffosion processes

Sinkhole - Wikipedia
redirects here. For other meanings, see Doline (disambiguation). Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space The Red Lake sinkhole in Croatia <span>A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole,[1][2] swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably[3]), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Most are caused by karst processes – the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks[4] or suffosion processes.[5] Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 m (3.3 to 2,000 ft) both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may form gradually or

#### Flashcard 5743002389772

Question
for which domains are uniform & pointwise convergence equal?
closed domains

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ined by $$f_{n}(x)=x^{n}$$, then $${\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=0}$$ pointwise on the interval [0,1), but not uniformly. ... i've missed some intuition first time around: <span>in closed domain, pointwise = uniform convergence (because sup = max, and this max x needs to converge by pointwise criteria as well). For pointwise, every "point" x, the function family f_n approaches f. Can imagine this as one functi

#### Original toplevel document

Pointwise convergence - Wikipedia
\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)} for every x in the domain. The function f {\displaystyle f} is said to be the pointwise limit function of f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . Properties <span>This concept is often contrasted with uniform convergence. To say that lim n → ∞ f n = f uniformly {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}=f\ {\mbox{uniformly}}} means that lim n → ∞ sup { | f n ( x ) − f ( x ) | : x ∈ A } = 0 , {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\,\sup\{\,\left|f_{n}(x)-f(x)\right|:x\in A\,\}=0,} where A {\displaystyle A} is the common domain of f {\displaystyle f} and f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . That is a stronger statement than the assertion of pointwise convergence: every uniformly convergent sequence is pointwise convergent, to the same limiting function, but some pointwise convergent sequences are not uniformly convergent. For example, if f n : [ 0 , 1 ) → [ 0 , 1 ) {\displaystyle f_{n}:[0,1)\rightarrow [0,1)} is a sequence of functions defined by f n ( x ) = x n {\displaystyle f_{n}(x)=x^{n}} , then lim n → ∞ f n ( x ) = 0 {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=0} pointwise on the interval [0,1), but not uniformly. The pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions may be a discontinuous function, but only if the convergence is not uniform. For example, f ( x ) = lim n → ∞ cos ⁡ ( π x ) 2 n

#### Flashcard 5743006321932

Question
imagine pointwise convergence
the function family f_n creeps towards f at every point. Different sections might approach at different "speeds"

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
iformly. ... i've missed some intuition first time around: in closed domain, pointwise = uniform convergence (because sup = max, and this max x needs to converge by pointwise criteria as well). <span>For pointwise, every "point" x, the function family f_n approaches f. Can imagine this as one function slowly creeping towards the other one. The speed of convergence doesn't matter. For uniform it's somewhat different: For open intervals, there might be a supremum that doesn't converge, while all xs converge (i.e. we have p

#### Original toplevel document

Pointwise convergence - Wikipedia
\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)} for every x in the domain. The function f {\displaystyle f} is said to be the pointwise limit function of f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . Properties <span>This concept is often contrasted with uniform convergence. To say that lim n → ∞ f n = f uniformly {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}=f\ {\mbox{uniformly}}} means that lim n → ∞ sup { | f n ( x ) − f ( x ) | : x ∈ A } = 0 , {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\,\sup\{\,\left|f_{n}(x)-f(x)\right|:x\in A\,\}=0,} where A {\displaystyle A} is the common domain of f {\displaystyle f} and f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . That is a stronger statement than the assertion of pointwise convergence: every uniformly convergent sequence is pointwise convergent, to the same limiting function, but some pointwise convergent sequences are not uniformly convergent. For example, if f n : [ 0 , 1 ) → [ 0 , 1 ) {\displaystyle f_{n}:[0,1)\rightarrow [0,1)} is a sequence of functions defined by f n ( x ) = x n {\displaystyle f_{n}(x)=x^{n}} , then lim n → ∞ f n ( x ) = 0 {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=0} pointwise on the interval [0,1), but not uniformly. The pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions may be a discontinuous function, but only if the convergence is not uniform. For example, f ( x ) = lim n → ∞ cos ⁡ ( π x ) 2 n

#### Flashcard 5743008681228

Question
imagine uniform convergence
f_n family approaches f "nicely", i.e. no x gets left behind

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
't matter. For uniform it's somewhat different: For open intervals, there might be a supremum that doesn't converge, while all xs converge (i.e. we have pointwise, but not uniform convergence). <span>This means for some given n, the functions have nearly approached each other, but towards boundary of domain, we can always find an x that still hasn't approached f. It refuses to approach, so to speak. It's probably called "uniform convergence" because if it holds, then all x's (even the ones at boundary) converge uniformly - as opposed to example before, where we could find f_n(x)'s

#### Original toplevel document

Pointwise convergence - Wikipedia
\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)} for every x in the domain. The function f {\displaystyle f} is said to be the pointwise limit function of f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . Properties <span>This concept is often contrasted with uniform convergence. To say that lim n → ∞ f n = f uniformly {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}=f\ {\mbox{uniformly}}} means that lim n → ∞ sup { | f n ( x ) − f ( x ) | : x ∈ A } = 0 , {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\,\sup\{\,\left|f_{n}(x)-f(x)\right|:x\in A\,\}=0,} where A {\displaystyle A} is the common domain of f {\displaystyle f} and f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . That is a stronger statement than the assertion of pointwise convergence: every uniformly convergent sequence is pointwise convergent, to the same limiting function, but some pointwise convergent sequences are not uniformly convergent. For example, if f n : [ 0 , 1 ) → [ 0 , 1 ) {\displaystyle f_{n}:[0,1)\rightarrow [0,1)} is a sequence of functions defined by f n ( x ) = x n {\displaystyle f_{n}(x)=x^{n}} , then lim n → ∞ f n ( x ) = 0 {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=0} pointwise on the interval [0,1), but not uniformly. The pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions may be a discontinuous function, but only if the convergence is not uniform. For example, f ( x ) = lim n → ∞ cos ⁡ ( π x ) 2 n

#### Flashcard 5743011040524

Question
Imagine non-uniform convergence

the f_n function family approaches f, but toward domain boundary there are some f_n(x)'s that are "slow" to converge.

When we zoom onto that boundary we'll see points that refuse to converge, no matter how large n gets.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
't matter. For uniform it's somewhat different: For open intervals, there might be a supremum that doesn't converge, while all xs converge (i.e. we have pointwise, but not uniform convergence). <span>This means for some given n, the functions have nearly approached each other, but towards boundary of domain, we can always find an x that still hasn't approached f. It refuses to approach, so to speak. It's probably called "uniform convergence" because if it holds, then all x's (even the ones at boundary) converge uniformly - as opposed to example before, where we could find f_n(x)'s

#### Original toplevel document

Pointwise convergence - Wikipedia
\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)} for every x in the domain. The function f {\displaystyle f} is said to be the pointwise limit function of f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . Properties <span>This concept is often contrasted with uniform convergence. To say that lim n → ∞ f n = f uniformly {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}=f\ {\mbox{uniformly}}} means that lim n → ∞ sup { | f n ( x ) − f ( x ) | : x ∈ A } = 0 , {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\,\sup\{\,\left|f_{n}(x)-f(x)\right|:x\in A\,\}=0,} where A {\displaystyle A} is the common domain of f {\displaystyle f} and f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . That is a stronger statement than the assertion of pointwise convergence: every uniformly convergent sequence is pointwise convergent, to the same limiting function, but some pointwise convergent sequences are not uniformly convergent. For example, if f n : [ 0 , 1 ) → [ 0 , 1 ) {\displaystyle f_{n}:[0,1)\rightarrow [0,1)} is a sequence of functions defined by f n ( x ) = x n {\displaystyle f_{n}(x)=x^{n}} , then lim n → ∞ f n ( x ) = 0 {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=0} pointwise on the interval [0,1), but not uniformly. The pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions may be a discontinuous function, but only if the convergence is not uniform. For example, f ( x ) = lim n → ∞ cos ⁡ ( π x ) 2 n

#### Flashcard 5743014186252

Question

What type of functions are f_n?

$${\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\,\sup\{\,\left|f_{n}(x)-f(x)\right|:x\in A\,\}=0}$$

uniformly converging functions

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
This concept is often contrasted with uniform convergence . To say that $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}f_n=f\ \mbox{uniformly}$$ means that $${\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\,\sup\{\,\left|f_{n}(x)-f(x)\right|:x\in A\,\}=0,}$$ where $$A$$ is the common domain of $$f$$ and $$f_{n}$$. That is a stronger statement than the assertion of pointwise convergence: every uniformly convergent sequence is pointwise conve

#### Original toplevel document

Pointwise convergence - Wikipedia
\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)} for every x in the domain. The function f {\displaystyle f} is said to be the pointwise limit function of f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . Properties <span>This concept is often contrasted with uniform convergence. To say that lim n → ∞ f n = f uniformly {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}=f\ {\mbox{uniformly}}} means that lim n → ∞ sup { | f n ( x ) − f ( x ) | : x ∈ A } = 0 , {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\,\sup\{\,\left|f_{n}(x)-f(x)\right|:x\in A\,\}=0,} where A {\displaystyle A} is the common domain of f {\displaystyle f} and f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . That is a stronger statement than the assertion of pointwise convergence: every uniformly convergent sequence is pointwise convergent, to the same limiting function, but some pointwise convergent sequences are not uniformly convergent. For example, if f n : [ 0 , 1 ) → [ 0 , 1 ) {\displaystyle f_{n}:[0,1)\rightarrow [0,1)} is a sequence of functions defined by f n ( x ) = x n {\displaystyle f_{n}(x)=x^{n}} , then lim n → ∞ f n ( x ) = 0 {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=0} pointwise on the interval [0,1), but not uniformly. The pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions may be a discontinuous function, but only if the convergence is not uniform. For example, f ( x ) = lim n → ∞ cos ⁡ ( π x ) 2 n

#### Flashcard 5743018380556

Question

what type of convergence

$${\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)}$$

pointwise

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The sequence $$(f_{n})$$ converges pointwise to the function $$f$$, often written as $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}f_n=f\ \mbox{pointwise},$$ if and only if $${\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)}$$ for every x in the domain. The function $$f$$ is said to be the pointwise limit function of $$f_{n}$$.

#### Original toplevel document

Pointwise convergence - Wikipedia
n Suppose ( f n ) {\displaystyle (f_{n})} is a sequence of functions sharing the same domain and codomain. The codomain is most commonly the reals, but in general can be any metric space. <span>The sequence ( f n ) {\displaystyle (f_{n})} converges pointwise to the function f {\displaystyle f} , often written as lim n → ∞ f n = f pointwise , {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}=f\ {\mbox{pointwise}},} if and only if lim n → ∞ f n ( x ) = f ( x ) {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}(x)=f(x)} for every x in the domain. The function f {\displaystyle f} is said to be the pointwise limit function of f n {\displaystyle f_{n}} . Properties This concept is often contrasted with uniform convergence. To say that lim n → ∞ f n = f uniformly {\displaystyle \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }f_{n}=f\ {\mbox{uniformly}

#### Annotation 5743022050572

 An algal bloom or algae bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is often recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.[2] The term algae encompasses many types of aquatic photosynthetic organisms, both macroscopic, multicellular organisms like seaweed and microscopic, unicellular organisms like cyanobacteria.[3] Algal bloom commonly refers to rapid growth of microscopic, unicellular algae, not macroscopic algae

Algal bloom - Wikipedia
rst algae bloom that Lake Erie has experienced in decades. Record torrential spring rains washed fertilizer into the lake, promoting the growth of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria blooms.[1] <span>An algal bloom or algae bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is often recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.[2] The term algae encompasses many types of aquatic photosynthetic organisms, both macroscopic, multicellular organisms like seaweed and microscopic, unicellular organisms like cyanobacteria.[3] Algal bloom commonly refers to rapid growth of microscopic, unicellular algae, not macroscopic algae. An example of a macroscopic algal bloom is a kelp forest.[3] Algal blooms are the result of a nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphorus from fertilizer runoff, entering the aquatic system

#### Annotation 5743025458444

 The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food web. A food chain is a succession of organisms that eat other organisms and may, in turn, be eaten themselves. The trophic level of an organism is the number of steps it is from the start of the chain. A food web starts at trophic level 1 with primary producers such as plants, can move to herbivores at level 2, carnivores at level 3 or higher, and typically finish with apex predators at level 4 or 5

Trophic level - Wikipedia
and the algae and phytoplankton in the lake, are primary producers. They take nutrients from the soil or the water, and manufacture their own food by photosynthesis, using energy from the sun. <span>The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food web. A food chain is a succession of organisms that eat other organisms and may, in turn, be eaten themselves. The trophic level of an organism is the number of steps it is from the start of the chain. A food web starts at trophic level 1 with primary producers such as plants, can move to herbivores at level 2, carnivores at level 3 or higher, and typically finish with apex predators at level 4 or 5. The path along the chain can form either a one-way flow or a food "web". Ecological communities with higher biodiversity form more complex trophic paths. The word trophic derives from

#### Annotation 5743028866316

 An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, without natural predators

Apex predator - Wikipedia
nant predator throughout its range.[3] The great white shark (bottom) was originally considered the apex predator of the ocean; however, the orca (top) has proved to be a predator of the shark. <span>An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, without natural predators.[a][5][6] Apex predators are usually defined in terms of trophic dynamics, meaning that they occupy the highest trophic levels. Food chains are often far shorter on land, usually limite

#### Annotation 5743030963468

 Algal blooms are the result of a nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphorus from fertilizer runoff, entering the aquatic system and causing excessive growth of algae. An algal bloom affects the whole ecosystem. Consequences range from the benign feeding of higher trophic levels, to more harmful effects like blocking sunlight from reaching other organisms, causing a depletion of oxygen levels in the water, and, depending on the organism, secreting toxins into the water. The process of the oversupply of nutrients leading to algae growth and oxygen depletion is called eutrophication.

Algal bloom - Wikipedia
ganisms like cyanobacteria.[3] Algal bloom commonly refers to rapid growth of microscopic, unicellular algae, not macroscopic algae. An example of a macroscopic algal bloom is a kelp forest.[3] <span>Algal blooms are the result of a nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphorus from fertilizer runoff, entering the aquatic system and causing excessive growth of algae. An algal bloom affects the whole ecosystem. Consequences range from the benign feeding of higher trophic levels, to more harmful effects like blocking sunlight from reaching other organisms, causing a depletion of oxygen levels in the water, and, depending on the organism, secreting toxins into the water. The process of the oversupply of nutrients leading to algae growth and oxygen depletion is called eutrophication. Blooms that can injure animals or the ecology are called "harmful algal blooms" (HAB), and can lead to fish die-offs, cities cutting off water to residents, or states having to close fi

#### Annotation 5743032536332

 definitions of blooms have included when the concentration of chlorophyll exceeds 100 mg/L,[5] when the concentration of chlorophyll exceeds 5 ug/L,[6] when the species considered to be blooming exceeds concentrations of 1000 cells/mL,[7] and when the algae species concentration simply deviates from its normal growth

Algal bloom - Wikipedia
, concentration of photosynthetic pigment, quantification of the bloom's negative effect, or relative concentration of the algae compared to the rest of the microbial community.[4] For example, <span>definitions of blooms have included when the concentration of chlorophyll exceeds 100 mg/L,[5] when the concentration of chlorophyll exceeds 5 ug/L,[6] when the species considered to be blooming exceeds concentrations of 1000 cells/mL,[7] and when the algae species concentration simply deviates from its normal growth.[8][9] Blooms are the result of a nutrient that the particular algae need being introduced to the local aquatic system. This growth-limiting nutrient is typically nitrogen or phosphorus

#### Annotation 5743034109196

 Blooms are the result of a nutrient that the particular algae need being introduced to the local aquatic system. This growth-limiting nutrient is typically nitrogen or phosphorus, but can also be iron, vitamins, or amino acids.[3] There are several mechanisms for the addition of these nutrients in water. In the open ocean and along coastlines, upwelling from both winds and topographical ocean floor features can draw nutrients to the photic, or sunlit zone of the ocean.[10] Along coastal regions and in freshwater systems, agricultural, city, and sewage runoff can cause algal blooms

Algal bloom - Wikipedia
exceeds 5 ug/L,[6] when the species considered to be blooming exceeds concentrations of 1000 cells/mL,[7] and when the algae species concentration simply deviates from its normal growth.[8][9] <span>Blooms are the result of a nutrient that the particular algae need being introduced to the local aquatic system. This growth-limiting nutrient is typically nitrogen or phosphorus, but can also be iron, vitamins, or amino acids.[3] There are several mechanisms for the addition of these nutrients in water. In the open ocean and along coastlines, upwelling from both winds and topographical ocean floor features can draw nutrients to the photic, or sunlit zone of the ocean.[10] Along coastal regions and in freshwater systems, agricultural, city, and sewage runoff can cause algal blooms.[11] Two examples of anthropogenic algal blooms in the United States are in Lake Erie and the Gulf of Mexico.[12] Algal blooms, especially large algal bloom events, can reduce the trans

#### Annotation 5743036992780

 Diatoms (diá-tom-os 'cut in half', from diá, 'through' or 'apart'; and the root of tém-n-ō, 'I cut'.)[10] are a major group of algae,[11] specifically microalgae, found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world. Living diatoms make up a significant portion of the Earth's biomass: they generate about 20 to 50 percent of the oxygen produced on the planet each year,[12][13] take in over 6.7 billion metric tons of silicon each year from the waters in which they live,[14] and constitute nearly half of the organic material found in the oceans. The shells of dead diatoms can reach as much as a half-mile (800 m) deep on the ocean floor, and the entire Amazon basin is fertilized annually by 27 million tons of diatom shell dust transported by transatlantic winds from the African Sahara, much of it from the Bodélé Depression, which was once made up of a system of fresh-water lakes.[15][16]

Diatom - Wikipedia
ophyta Class: Bacillariophyceae Dangeard, 1933[5] Synonyms Diatomea Dumortier, 1821[6] Diatomophyceae Rabenhorst, 1864[7] Bacillariae Haeckel, 1878[8] Bacillariophyta Engler & Gilg, 1919[9] <span>Diatoms (diá-tom-os 'cut in half', from diá, 'through' or 'apart'; and the root of tém-n-ō, 'I cut'.)[10] are a major group of algae,[11] specifically microalgae, found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world. Living diatoms make up a significant portion of the Earth's biomass: they generate about 20 to 50 percent of the oxygen produced on the planet each year,[12][13] take in over 6.7 billion metric tons of silicon each year from the waters in which they live,[14] and constitute nearly half of the organic material found in the oceans. The shells of dead diatoms can reach as much as a half-mile (800 m) deep on the ocean floor, and the entire Amazon basin is fertilized annually by 27 million tons of diatom shell dust transported by transatlantic winds from the African Sahara, much of it from the Bodélé Depression, which was once made up of a system of fresh-water lakes.[15][16] Diatoms are unicellular: they occur either as solitary cells or in colonies, which can take the shape of ribbons, fans, zigzags, or stars. Individual cells range in size from 2 to 200 m

#### Annotation 5743039089932

 Diatoms are unicellular: they occur either as solitary cells or in colonies, which can take the shape of ribbons, fans, zigzags, or stars. Individual cells range in size from 2 to 200 micrometers

Diatom - Wikipedia
ion tons of diatom shell dust transported by transatlantic winds from the African Sahara, much of it from the Bodélé Depression, which was once made up of a system of fresh-water lakes.[15][16] <span>Diatoms are unicellular: they occur either as solitary cells or in colonies, which can take the shape of ribbons, fans, zigzags, or stars. Individual cells range in size from 2 to 200 micrometers.[17] In the presence of adequate nutrients and sunlight, an assemblage of living diatoms doubles approximately every 24 hours by asexual multiple fission; the maximum life span of indiv

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 In the presence of adequate nutrients and sunlight, an assemblage of living diatoms doubles approximately every 24 hours by asexual multiple fission; the maximum life span of individual cells is about six days.[18] Diatoms have two distinct shapes: a few (centric diatoms) are radially symmetric, while most (pennate diatoms) are broadly bilaterally symmetric. A unique feature of diatom anatomy is that they are surrounded by a cell wall made of silica (hydrated silicon dioxide), called a frustule.[19] These frustules have structural coloration due to their photonic nanostructure, prompting them to be described as "jewels of the sea" and "living opals

Diatom - Wikipedia
are unicellular: they occur either as solitary cells or in colonies, which can take the shape of ribbons, fans, zigzags, or stars. Individual cells range in size from 2 to 200 micrometers.[17] <span>In the presence of adequate nutrients and sunlight, an assemblage of living diatoms doubles approximately every 24 hours by asexual multiple fission; the maximum life span of individual cells is about six days.[18] Diatoms have two distinct shapes: a few (centric diatoms) are radially symmetric, while most (pennate diatoms) are broadly bilaterally symmetric. A unique feature of diatom anatomy is that they are surrounded by a cell wall made of silica (hydrated silicon dioxide), called a frustule.[19] These frustules have structural coloration due to their photonic nanostructure, prompting them to be described as "jewels of the sea" and "living opals". Movement in diatoms primarily occurs passively as a result of both water currents and wind-induced water turbulence; however, male gametes of centric diatoms have flagella, permitting

#### Annotation 5743043546380

 Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms

Silicon dioxide - Wikipedia
f formation (ΔfH⦵298) −911 kJ·mol−1[4] Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). N verify (what is YN ?) Infobox references <span>Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.[5][6] In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand. Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing as a compound of several

#has-images

#### Eyes [ edit ]

Macro photo of a scallop showing some of its bright blue eyes

Scallops have a large number (up to 200) of small (about 1 mm) eyes arranged along the edge of their mantles. These eyes represent a particular innovation among molluscs, relying on a concave, parabolic mirror of guanine crystals to focus and retro-reflect light instead of a lens as found in many other eye types.[9] Additionally, their eyes possess a double-layered retina, the outer retina responding most strongly to light and the inner to abrupt darkness.[10] While these eyes are unable to resolve shapes with high fidelity, the combined sensitivity of both retinas to light entering the eye and light retro-reflected from the mirror grants scallops exceptional contrast definition, as well as the ability to detect changing patterns of light and motion.[11][12] Scallops primarily rely on their eyes as an 'early-warning' threat detection system, scanning around them for movement and shadows which could potentially indicate predators. Additionally, some scallops alter their swimming or feeding behavior based on the turbidity or clarity of the water, by detecting the movement of particulate matter in the water column

Scallop - Wikipedia
me species of scallops are known to move en masse from one area to another. In scallops, the shell shape tends to be highly regular, and is commonly used as an archetypal form of a seashell.[6] <span>Eyes Macro photo of a scallop showing some of its bright blue eyes Scallops have a large number (up to 200) of small (about 1 mm) eyes arranged along the edge of their mantles. These eyes represent a particular innovation among molluscs, relying on a concave, parabolic mirror of guanine crystals to focus and retro-reflect light instead of a lens as found in many other eye types.[9] Additionally, their eyes possess a double-layered retina, the outer retina responding most strongly to light and the inner to abrupt darkness.[10] While these eyes are unable to resolve shapes with high fidelity, the combined sensitivity of both retinas to light entering the eye and light retro-reflected from the mirror grants scallops exceptional contrast definition, as well as the ability to detect changing patterns of light and motion.[11][12] Scallops primarily rely on their eyes as an 'early-warning' threat detection system, scanning around them for movement and shadows which could potentially indicate predators. Additionally, some scallops alter their swimming or feeding behavior based on the turbidity or clarity of the water, by detecting the movement of particulate matter in the water column.[13] Digestive system Scallops are filter feeders, and eat plankton. Unlike many other bivalves, they lack siphons. Water moves over a filtering structure, where food particles be

#### Annotation 5743051934988

 A pearl is a hard, glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as fossil conulariids. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate (mainly aragonite or a mixture of aragonite and calcite)[3] in minute crystalline form, which has deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes, known as baroque pearls, can occur

Pearl - Wikipedia
scence White pearls: light blue to light yellow; Yellow and golden pearls: yellow-green, greenish brown to dark brown; Black pearls: commonly pink to orange-red[2] Georgian seed pearl gold ring <span>A pearl is a hard, glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as fossil conulariids. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate (mainly aragonite or a mixture of aragonite and calcite)[3] in minute crystalline form, which has deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes, known as baroque pearls, can occur. The finest quality of natural pearls have been highly valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries. Because of this, pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, fin

#### Annotation 5743054032140

 A harmful algal bloom (HAB) is an algal bloom that causes negative impacts to other organisms via production of natural toxins, mechanical damage to other organisms, or by other means. The diversity of these HABs make them even harder to manage, and present many issues, especially to threatened coastal areas.[27] HABs are often associated with large-scale marine mortality events and have been associated with various types of shellfish poisonings

Algal bloom - Wikipedia
blooms An algae bloom off the southern coast of Devon and Cornwall in England, in 1999 Satellite image of phytoplankton swirling around the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, in 2005 <span>A harmful algal bloom (HAB) is an algal bloom that causes negative impacts to other organisms via production of natural toxins, mechanical damage to other organisms, or by other means. The diversity of these HABs make them even harder to manage, and present many issues, especially to threatened coastal areas.[27] HABs are often associated with large-scale marine mortality events and have been associated with various types of shellfish poisonings.[28] In studies at the population level bloom coverage has been significantly related to the risk of non-alcoholic liver disease death.[29] Background In the marine environment, s

#### Annotation 5743061110028

 Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NO −3 . Salts containing this anion are called nitrates. Nitrates are common components of fertilizers and explosives.[1] Almost all nitrates are soluble in water. A common example of an inorganic nitrate salt is potassium nitrate (saltpeter). Removal of one electron yields the nitrate radical, also called nitrogen trioxide NO 3 .

Nitrate - Wikipedia
ula NO− 3 Molar mass 62.004 g·mol−1 Conjugate acid Nitric acid Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). Infobox references <span>Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NO− 3. Salts containing this anion are called nitrates. Nitrates are common components of fertilizers and explosives.[1] Almost all nitrates are soluble in water. A common example of an inorganic nitrate salt is potassium nitrate (saltpeter). Removal of one electron yields the nitrate radical, also called nitrogen trioxide NO 3. Contents 1 Structure 2 Dietary nitrates 2.1 Cured meats 3 Occurrence and production 4 Uses 5 Detection 6 Safety 6.1 Methemoglobinemia 6.2 Drinking water standards 6.3 Aquatic toxicity 7

#### Annotation 5743065304332

 Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO 3 . It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate. It occurs in nature as a mineral, niter. It is a source of nitrogen, and nitrogen was named after niter.

Potassium nitrate - Wikipedia
quid–gas Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). N verify (what is YN ?) Infobox references <span>Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO 3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate. It occurs in nature as a mineral, niter. It is a source of nitrogen, and nitrogen was named after niter. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre. Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump remo

#### Annotation 5743067401484

 Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks. It is one of the major constituents of gunpowder (black powder).[6] In processed meats, potassium nitrate reacts with hemoglobin and generates a pink color.[7]

Potassium nitrate - Wikipedia
ral, niter. It is a source of nitrogen, and nitrogen was named after niter. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre. <span>Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks. It is one of the major constituents of gunpowder (black powder).[6] In processed meats, potassium nitrate reacts with hemoglobin and generates a pink color.[7] Contents 1 Etymology 2 Properties 2.1 Thermal decomposition 3 History of production 3.1 From mineral sources 3.2 From caves 3.3 LeConte 3.3.1 French method 3.3.2 Swiss method 3.4 From n

#### Annotation 5743068974348

 Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre.

Potassium nitrate - Wikipedia
lt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate. It occurs in nature as a mineral, niter. It is a source of nitrogen, and nitrogen was named after niter. <span>Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre. Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks. It is one of the major constituents of gunpowder (black powder).[6] In processe

#### Annotation 5743070547212

 #chemistry A rich source of inorganic nitrate in the human diets come from leafy green foods, such as spinach and arugula. NO −3 (inorganic nitrate) is the viable active component within beetroot juice and other vegetables. Drinking water is also a dietary source.[2] Dietary nitrate supplementation delivers positive results when testing endurance exercise performance.[3]

Nitrate - Wikipedia
trate ion. This arrangement is commonly used as an example of resonance. Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the nitrate ion can be represented by resonance structures: Dietary nitrates <span>A rich source of inorganic nitrate in the human diets come from leafy green foods, such as spinach and arugula. NO− 3 (inorganic nitrate) is the viable active component within beetroot juice and other vegetables. Drinking water is also a dietary source.[2] Dietary nitrate supplementation delivers positive results when testing endurance exercise performance.[3] Ingestion of large doses of nitrate either in the form of pure sodium nitrate or beetroot juice in young healthy individuals rapidly increases plasma nitrate concentration about 2-3 fol

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 Phytoplankton ( / ˌ f aɪ t oʊ ˈ p l æ ŋ k t ə n / ) are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems. The name comes from the Greek words φυτόν (phyton), meaning "plant", and πλαγκτός (planktos), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter".[1] Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye. However, when present in high enough numbers, some varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on the water surface due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells and accessory pigments (such as phycobiliproteins or xanthophylls) in some species. About 1% of the global biomass is due to phytoplankton.[2]

Phytoplankton - Wikipedia

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 Phytoplankton are photosynthesizing microscopic biotic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. They are agents for primary production, the creation of organic compounds from carbon dioxide dissolved in the water, a process that sustains the aquatic food web

Phytoplankton - Wikipedia
looms 6 Is global phytoplankton on the decline? 7 Aquaculture 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Types Diatoms are one of the most common types of phytoplankton. <span>Phytoplankton are photosynthesizing microscopic biotic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. They are agents for primary production, the creation of organic compounds from carbon dioxide dissolved in the water, a process that sustains the aquatic food web.[3] Phytoplankton are extremely diverse, varying from photosynthesising bacteria (cyanobacteria), to plant-like diatoms, to armour-plated coccolithophores.[4] cyanobacteria diatom dinof

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 #has-images Phytoplankton are extremely diverse, varying from photosynthesising bacteria (cyanobacteria), to plant-like diatoms, to armour-plated coccolithophores.[4] cyanobacteria diatom dinoflagellate green algae coccolithophore Some phytoplankton types (not to scale)