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What means „Interactive“ ? • Camera control • Object / player control • Object modeling • Virtual reality / simulation

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Question

What means „Interactive“ ?

[1] control

[2] control

• Object [3]

[4] / [5]

Answer

[1] Camera

[2] Object / player

[3] modeling

[4] Virtual reality [5] simulation


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What means „Interactive“ ? • Camera control • Object / player control • Object modeling • Virtual reality / simulation

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• What means "interactive computer graphics"? • Generation of animated images of 3D virtual worlds fast enough to allow for interaction • Interactive: ~10+ fps (frames per second) • Real-time: 60+ fps, VR: 2x90 fps → as fast as the display allows

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Question

• What means "interactive computer graphics"?

[1] of animated images of 3D virtual worlds fast enough to [2]

• Interactive: [3] fps (frames per second)

• Real-time: [4] fps, VR: [5] fps → as fast as [6]

Answer

[1] Generation [2] allow for interaction

[3] ~10+

4] 60+ [5] 2x90 [6] the display allows


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• What means "interactive computer graphics"? • Generation of animated images of 3D virtual worlds fast enough to allow for interaction • Interactive: ~10+ fps (frames per second) • Real-time: 60+ fps, VR: 2x90 fps → as fast as the display allo

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• Full-HD resolution: 2 mio pixels

• 60 fps → 120 mio pixels/second

• RGBA+depth = 8 byte/pixel → 1 GB/second of data

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Question

• Full-HD resolution: [1] pixels

• 60 fps → [2] pixels/second

• RGBA+depth = 8 byte/pixel[3] of data

Answer
[1] 2 mio [2] 120 mio [3] 1 GB/second


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• Full-HD resolution: 2 mio pixels • 60 fps → 120 mio pixels/second • RGBA+depth = 8 byte/pixel → 1 GB/second of data

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• Requires dedicated hardware • but can be parallelized well

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Question

• Requires [1]

• but can [2]

Answer

[1] dedicated hardware

[2] be parallelized well


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• Requires dedicated hardware • but can be parallelized well

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• Graphics development always went hand in hand with computing hardware development

• But has also impact to other disciplines: Todays advances in machine learning only become possible with GPUs

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Question

• Graphics development always went hand in hand with [1]

• But has also impact to other disciplines: Todays advances in [2] only become possible with GPUs

Answer

[1] computing hardware development

[2] machine learning


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• Graphics development always went hand in hand with computing hardware development • But has also impact to other disciplines: Todays advances in machine learning only become possible with GPUs

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Pipeline of Commodore 64


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• Commodore 64 (1982): CPU writes frame buffer, graphics chip generates video signal

• 1 MHz, 8 bit processor

• Games possible due to Sprites

→ small binary images with 24x21 pixels

→ can be positioned freely on screen

→ handled by graphics chip

→ also generates collision events

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Question

• Commodore 64 (1982): CPU [1], graphics chip [2]

• 1 MHz, 8 bit processor

• Games possible due to [3]

→ small [4] with 24x21 pixels

→ can be positioned [5]

→ handled by [6]

→ also generates [7]

Answer

[1] writes frame buffer [2] generates video signal

[3] Sprites

[4] binary images

[5] freely on screen

[6] graphics chip

[7] collision events


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• Commodore 64 (1982): CPU writes frame buffer, graphics chip generates video signal • 1 MHz, 8 bit processor • Games possible due to Sprites → small binary images with 24x21 pixels → can be positioned freely on screen → handled by

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Answer
Atari ST (1985)


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Pipeline of Atari ST


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Atari ST (1985): GPU supports simple 2D graphics operations (bit block transfer), as needed for windows, menues etc.

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Question
Atari ST (1985): GPU supports simple [1], as needed for [2]
Answer
[1] 2D graphics operations (bit block transfer) [2] windows, menues etc.


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Atari ST (1985): GPU supports simple 2D graphics operations (bit block transfer), as needed for windows, menues etc.

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Answer
SGI Indy (1993)


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• Atari Pong 1972

• Discrete logic (no CPU)

• 66 Chips

• 455x262 pixels

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Question

• Atari Pong 1972

[...] logic (no CPU)

• 66 Chips

• 455x262 pixels

Answer
Discrete


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• Atari Pong 1972 • Discrete logic (no CPU) • 66 Chips • 455x262 pixels

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Pipeline of SGI Indy


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• SGI O2 (1996):

video hardware for rasterization and transformations

→ GPU (graphics processing unit)

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Question

• SGI O2 (1996):

video hardware for [1]

[2]

Answer

[1] rasterization and transformations

[2] GPU (graphics processing unit)


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• SGI O2 (1996): video hardware for rasterization and transformations → GPU (graphics processing unit)

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Answer
SGI O2 (1996)


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Pipeline of SGI O2


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Commodore 64 (1982)


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SGI Indy (1993): special chip for rasterization of triangles (Gouraud shading, no textures)

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Question
SGI Indy (1993): special chip for [1] (Gouraud shading, no textures)
Answer
[1] rasterization of triangles


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SGI Indy (1993): special chip for rasterization of triangles (Gouraud shading, no textures)

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• SGI Onyx, nVidia GeForce2...

GPU does entire pipeline including texturing

• fixed function pipeline: each stage has fixed functionality, but can be configured

e.g.: only Phong-Lighting, but colors and light positions can be set

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Flashcard 5871243496716

Question

• SGI Onyx, nVidia GeForce2...

GPU does [1] including [2]

• fixed function pipeline: each stage has [3], but can [4]

e.g.: only Phong-Lighting, but [5] can be set

Answer

[1] entire pipeline [2] texturing

[3] fixed functionality [4] be configured

[5] colors and light positions


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• SGI Onyx, nVidia GeForce2... GPU does entire pipeline including texturing • fixed function pipeline: each stage has fixed functionality, but can be configured e.g.: only Phong-Lighting, but colors and light positions can be set </sp

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Until 200x: Fixed Function Pipeline

• Configuration

• By matrix

• By Lighting parameter (Blinn-Phong model)

• By texturing parameters

• Configurable, but no real programming of the GPU

• Most new features by OpenGL extensions

• Portable programming very difficult

• Very short innovation cycles

• High costs for industry

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Question

Until 200x: Fixed Function Pipeline

• Configuration

• By [1]

• By [2] (Blinn-Phong model)

• By [3]

[5], but [6] of the GPU

• Most new features by [7]

[8] very difficult

• Very short [9]

• High [10] for industry

Answer

[1] matrix

[2] Lighting parameter

[3] texturing parameters

[5] Configurable [6] no real programming

[7] OpenGL extensions

[8] Portable programming

[9] innovation cycles

[10] costs


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Until 200x: Fixed Function Pipeline • Configuration • By matrix • By Lighting parameter (Blinn-Phong model) • By texturing parameters • Configurable, but no real programming of the GPU • Most new features by OpenGL extensions • Portable programming

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Until 200x: Fixed Function Pipeline

• Trend to unification: make pipeline programmable

• Upload code to GPU

• C-like languages

• Vendor independent

• Libraries of effects

• Cg (C for graphics)

• GLSL (OpenGL Shading Language)

• HLSL (high level shading language)

• …

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Question

Until 200x: Fixed Function Pipeline

• Trend to unification: make pipeline [1]

[2] code to GPU

[3] languages

[4] independent

• Libraries of [5]

• Cg ([6])

• GLSL ([7])

• HLSL ([8])

• …

Answer

[1] programmable

[2] Upload

[3] C-like

[4] Vendor

[5] effects

[6] C for graphics

[7] OpenGL Shading Language

[8] high level shading language


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Until 200x: Fixed Function Pipeline • Trend to unification: make pipeline programmable • Upload code to GPU • C-like languages • Vendor independent • Libraries of effects • Cg (C for graphics) • GLSL (OpenGL Shading Language) • HLSL (high level shading language) • … </spa

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
Hofstadter's Law: It always takes longer than you expect, even when you take into account Hofstadter's Law

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
recursively enumerable set. For a set to be r.e. means that it can be generated from a set of starting points (axioms), by the repeated applica tion of rules of inference.

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