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India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern part of the Indo-Australian Plate,
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Geography of India - Wikipedia
t Kuttanad −2.2 m (−7.2 ft) Longest river Ganga (or Ganges) 2,525 km (8,284,121 ft) Largest lake Wular Lake 30 to 260 km2 (12 to 100 sq mi) Exclusive economic zone 2,305,143 km2 (890,021 sq mi) <span>India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern part of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. The country is situated north of the equator between 8°4' north to 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' east to 97°25' east longitude.[2




country is situated north of the equator between 8°4' north to 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' east to 97°25' east longitude.
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Exclusive economic zone 2,305,143 km2 (890,021 sq mi) India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern part of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. The <span>country is situated north of the equator between 8°4' north to 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' east to 97°25' east longitude.[2] It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[3][4][5] India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south an




It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).
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Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. The country is situated north of the equator between 8°4' north to 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' east to 97°25' east longitude.[2] <span>It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[3][4][5] India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (




2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west.
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itude.[2] It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[3][4][5] India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and <span>2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).[1] On the south, India projects into and is bounded by the Indian Ocean—in particular, by the Ar




3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south
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latitude and 68°7' east to 97°25' east longitude.[2] It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[3][4][5] India measures <span>3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).[1] On the south, India projects into and is bounded b




coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi). [1]
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are kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[3][4][5] India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a <span>coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).[1] On the south, India projects into and is bounded by the Indian Ocean—in particular, by the Arabian Sea on the west, the Lakshadweep Sea to the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the east,




southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island.
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750 mi) southeast of the mainland, share maritime borders with Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia. Kanyakumari at 8°4′41″N and 77°55′230″E is the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland, while the <span>southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island. The northernmost point which is under Indian administration is Indira Col, Siachen Glacier.[6] India's territorial waters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (13.8 mi




In the far northeast, the Chin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous regions, separate India from Burma.
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ntain range, where the country borders China, Bhutan, and Nepal. Its western border with Pakistan lies in the Karakoram range, Punjab Plains, the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch salt marshes. <span>In the far northeast, the Chin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous regions, separate India from Burma. On the east, its border with Bangladesh is largely defined by the Khasi Hills and Mizo Hills, and the watershed region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[clarification needed] The Ganga is the




Khasi Hills and Mizo Hills, and the watershed region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
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marshes. In the far northeast, the Chin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous regions, separate India from Burma. On the east, its border with Bangladesh is largely defined by the <span>Khasi Hills and Mizo Hills, and the watershed region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[clarification needed] The Ganga is the longest river originating in India. The Ganga–Brahmaputra system occupies most of northern, central, and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau o




Indian Plate was able to move so quickly because it is only half as thick as the other plates which formerly constituted Gondwanaland.
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, the plate collided with Asia after covering a distance of 2,000 to 3,000 km (1,243 to 1,864 mi), having moved faster than any other known plate. In 2007, German geologists determined that the <span>Indian Plate was able to move so quickly because it is only half as thick as the other plates which formerly constituted Gondwanaland.[9] The collision with the Eurasian Plate along the modern border between India and Nepal formed the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. As of 2009[update],




Indian Plate is moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2 in/yr), while the Eurasian Plate is moving north at only 2 cm/yr (0.8 in/yr). India is thus referred to as the "fastest continent".
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nd.[9] The collision with the Eurasian Plate along the modern border between India and Nepal formed the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. As of 2009[update], the <span>Indian Plate is moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2 in/yr), while the Eurasian Plate is moving north at only 2 cm/yr (0.8 in/yr). India is thus referred to as the "fastest continent".[9] This is causing the Eurasian Plate to deform, and the Indian Plate to compress at a rate of 4 cm/yr (1.6 in/yr). Political geography Main article: States and territories of India Ind




Cratons are a specific kind of continental crust made up of a top layer called platform and an older layer called basement. A shield is the part of a craton where basement rock crops out of the ground, and it is relatively the older and more stable section, unaffected by plate tectonics.[20][21]
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the northeastern states. Physiographic regions Cratons Topography of India Malani Igneous Suite, largest in India and third largest igneous suite in the world, at Jodhpur near Mehrangarh Fort. <span>Cratons are a specific kind of continental crust made up of a top layer called platform and an older layer called basement. A shield is the part of a craton where basement rock crops out of the ground, and it is relatively the older and more stable section, unaffected by plate tectonics.[20][21] The Indian Craton can be divided into five major cratons as such: Aravalli Craton (Marwar-Mewar Craton or Western Indian Craton): Covers Rajasthan as well as western and southern Haryan




Cratons are a specific kind of continental crust made up of a top layer called platform and an older layer called basement. A shield is the part of a craton where basement rock crops out of the ground, and it is relatively the older and more stable section, unaffected by plate tectonics.[20][21]
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Geography of India - Wikipedia
the northeastern states. Physiographic regions Cratons Topography of India Malani Igneous Suite, largest in India and third largest igneous suite in the world, at Jodhpur near Mehrangarh Fort. <span>Cratons are a specific kind of continental crust made up of a top layer called platform and an older layer called basement. A shield is the part of a craton where basement rock crops out of the ground, and it is relatively the older and more stable section, unaffected by plate tectonics.[20][21] The Indian Craton can be divided into five major cratons as such: Aravalli Craton (Marwar-Mewar Craton or Western Indian Craton): Covers Rajasthan as well as western and southern Haryan




Aravalli Craton (Marwar-Mewar Craton or Western Indian Craton): Covers Rajasthan as well as western and southern Haryana.
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nt rock crops out of the ground, and it is relatively the older and more stable section, unaffected by plate tectonics.[20][21] The Indian Craton can be divided into five major cratons as such: <span>Aravalli Craton (Marwar-Mewar Craton or Western Indian Craton): Covers Rajasthan as well as western and southern Haryana. It comprises Mewar Craton in the east and Marwar Craton in the west. It is limited by the Great Boundary Fault in the east, sandy Thar Desert in the Thar desert in the west, Indo-ganeti




Bundelkand Craton, covers 26,00 sqkm in the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and forms the basis of the Malwa Plateau.
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mainly has quartzite, marble, pelite, greywacke and extinct volcanos exposed in Aravalli-Delhi Orogen. Malani Igneous Suite is the largest in India and third largest igneous suite in the world. <span>Bundelkand Craton, covers 26,00 sqkm in the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and forms the basis of the Malwa Plateau. It is limited by the Aravalli in the west, Narmada river and Satpura range in the south, and Indo-Gantetic alluvium in the north. It is similar to the Aravali Craton, which used to be a




They are one of the world's youngest mountain ranges and extend almost uninterrupted for 2,500 km (1,600 mi), covering an area of 500,000 km2 (190,000 sq mi).
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ighest mountain range, with its tallest peak Mount Everest (8,848 metres [29,029 ft]) on the Nepal–China border.[22] They form India's northeastern border, separating it from northeastern Asia. <span>They are one of the world's youngest mountain ranges and extend almost uninterrupted for 2,500 km (1,600 mi), covering an area of 500,000 km2 (190,000 sq mi).[22] The Himalayas extend from Jammu and Kashmir in the north to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. These states along with Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim lie mostly in the Himala




The Garo–Khasi range lies in Meghalaya.
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deep valleys. The Patkai ranges are not as rugged or tall as the Himalayas. There are three hill ranges that come under the Patkai: the Patkai–Bum, the Garo–Khasi–Jaintia and the Lushai hills. <span>The Garo–Khasi range lies in Meghalaya. Mawsynram, a village near Cherrapunji lying on the windward side of these hills, has the distinction of being the wettest place in the world, receiving the highest annual rainfall.[24]




The Aravali Range is the eroded stub of an ancient fold mountain system
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olated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana, ending near Delhi. The highest peak in this range is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu, rising to 1,722 m (5,650 ft), lying near the border with Gujarat.[26] <span>The Aravali Range is the eroded stub of an ancient fold mountain system.[27] The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravali–Delhi orogen. The range joins two of the ancient segments that make up the Indian craton, the Marwar segment to the northwe




Aravali Range is the oldest mountain range in India, running across Rajasthan from northeast to southwest direction, extending approximately 800 km (500 mi).[25]
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e in the world, receiving the highest annual rainfall.[24] The Vindhyas in central India The Peninsular Plateau The main features of Indian Craton are: Mountain ranges (clockwise from top-left) <span>Aravali Range is the oldest mountain range in India, running across Rajasthan from northeast to southwest direction, extending approximately 800 km (500 mi).[25] The northern end of the range continues as isolated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana, ending near Delhi. The highest peak in this range is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu, rising to 1,722




The highest peak in this range is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu, rising to 1,722 m (5,650 ft), lying near the border with Gujarat.[
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n from northeast to southwest direction, extending approximately 800 km (500 mi).[25] The northern end of the range continues as isolated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana, ending near Delhi. <span>The highest peak in this range is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu, rising to 1,722 m (5,650 ft), lying near the border with Gujarat.[26] The Aravali Range is the eroded stub of an ancient fold mountain system.[27] The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravali–Delhi orogen. The range joins two of the ancient




Malwa Plateau is spread across Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
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Vindhya Range, which lies to the north, and these two east-west ranges divide the Indo–Gangetic plain from the Deccan Plateau located north of River Narmada. Plateaus (clockwise from top-left) <span>Malwa Plateau is spread across Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The average elevation of the Malwa plateau is 500 metres, and the landscape generally slopes towards the north. Most of the region is drained by the Chambal River and its tributaries; t




of Jharkhand and adjacent parts of Odisha, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
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region is drained by the Chambal River and its tributaries; the western part is drained by the upper reaches of the Mahi River. Chhota Nagpur Plateau is situated in eastern India, covering much <span>of Jharkhand and adjacent parts of Odisha, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. Its total area is approximately 65,000 km2 (25,000 sq mi) and is made up of three smaller plateaus—the Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchi plateau is the largest, with




Vast reserves of metal ores and coal have been found in the Chota Nagpur plateau.
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agh, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchi plateau is the largest, with an average elevation of 700 m (2,300 ft). Much of the plateau is forested, covered by the Chhota Nagpur dry deciduous forests. <span>Vast reserves of metal ores and coal have been found in the Chota Nagpur plateau. The Kathiawar peninsula in western Gujarat is bounded by the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Khambat. The natural vegetation in most of the peninsula is xeric scrub, part of the Northwest




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ade up of three smaller plateaus—the Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchi plateau is the largest, with an average elevation of 700 m (2,300 ft). Much of the plateau is forested, <span>covered by the Chhota Nagpur dry deciduous forests. Vast reserves of metal ores and coal have been found in the Chota Nagpur plateau. The Kathiawar peninsula in western Gujarat is bounded by the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Khambat. The




Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Kodarma plateaus.
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rn India, covering much of Jharkhand and adjacent parts of Odisha, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. Its total area is approximately 65,000 km2 (25,000 sq mi) and is made up of three smaller plateaus—the <span>Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchi plateau is the largest, with an average elevation of 700 m (2,300 ft). Much of the plateau is forested, covered by the Chhota Nagpur dry deciduous forests. Vast reserves of m




It slopes gently from west to east and gives rise to several peninsular rivers such as the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi which drain into the Bay of Bengal.
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00 m (980 to 1,970 ft). The average elevation of the plateau is 2,000 feet (610 m) above sea level. The surface slopes from 3,000 feet (910 m) in the west to 1,500 feet (460 m) in the east.[30] <span>It slopes gently from west to east and gives rise to several peninsular rivers such as the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi which drain into the Bay of Bengal. This region is mostly semi-arid as it lies on the leeward side of both Ghats. Much of the Deccan is covered by thorn scrub forest scattered with small regions of deciduous broadleaf for




Continental Shelf of all oceans together cover 7.5% of the total area of the oceans.
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Major and Minor Ocean Relief Features | PMF IAS
ps. Continental Shelf Continental Shelf is the gently sloping seaward extension of continental plate. These extended margins of each continent are occupied by relatively shallow seas and gulfs. <span>Continental Shelf of all oceans together cover 7.5% of the total area of the oceans. Gradient of continental is of 1° or even less. The shelf typically ends at a very steep slope, called the shelf break. The continental shelves are covered with variable thicknesses of s




Gradient of continental is of 1° or even less.
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Major and Minor Ocean Relief Features | PMF IAS
ntinental plate. These extended margins of each continent are occupied by relatively shallow seas and gulfs. Continental Shelf of all oceans together cover 7.5% of the total area of the oceans. <span>Gradient of continental is of 1° or even less. The shelf typically ends at a very steep slope, called the shelf break. The continental shelves are covered with variable thicknesses of sediments brought down by rivers, glaciers etc..




  • The shelf typically ends at a very steep slope, called the shelf break.
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    Major and Minor Ocean Relief Features | PMF IAS
    continent are occupied by relatively shallow seas and gulfs. Continental Shelf of all oceans together cover 7.5% of the total area of the oceans. Gradient of continental is of 1° or even less. <span>The shelf typically ends at a very steep slope, called the shelf break. The continental shelves are covered with variable thicknesses of sediments brought down by rivers, glaciers etc.. Massive sedimentary deposits received over a long time by the continent