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Flashcard 6206863052044

Question
that outlines things
Answer
в общих чертах

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Flashcard 6209368100108

Question
slightly
Answer
слегка

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Flashcard 6209369935116

Question
broad principles
Answer
общие принципы

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Flashcard 6209372818700

Question
wandering
Answer
блуждающий

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Flashcard 6209375964428

Question
generalizations
Answer
обобщения

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Flashcard 6209377799436

Question
regretted
Answer
сожалеть

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Flashcard 6209379634444

Question
Although
Answer
Хотя

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Flashcard 6209381469452

Question
broad
Answer
широкий

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Flashcard 6209383304460

Question
issues
Answer
вопросы (проблемы)

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Flashcard 6209385139468

Question
considerably
Answer
значительно

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Flashcard 6209386974476

Question
familiar
Answer
знакомы

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Public procurement refers to the purchase of goods and services by the public sector or the government, accounting for an average 15% of GDP globally. In India, government procurement is estimated to constitute about 30% of GDP with the central government accounting for a major chunk.
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stry has drafted a model tender document for public procurement by all central government departments, in a bid to standardise the language and clauses included, and avoid contractual disputes. <span>Public procurement refers to the purchase of goods and services by the public sector or the government, accounting for an average 15% of GDP globally. In India, government procurement is estimated to constitute about 30% of GDP with the central government accounting for a major chunk. The Expenditure Department, which has developed a standard bidding document to be used for procurement, has sought comments on the draft from ministries, central public sector undertaki




There is no standardised nomenclature in public procurement in India and a mix of American, European and Indian nomenclature has become common,” the department pointed out in an introduction to the 130-odd page document for inviting bids for official supplies.
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he document was “in continuation with initiatives to increase effectiveness, good governance, competition and value-for-money in public procurement,” the department said. ‘Mix of nomenclature’ “<span>There is no standardised nomenclature in public procurement in India and a mix of American, European and Indian nomenclature has become common,” the department pointed out in an introduction to the 130-odd page document for inviting bids for official supplies. As an instance, it pointed that a ‘Tender’ is taken to mean ‘Tender document’ or ‘Tender Process’ as well as the ‘Bid’ submitted by the prospective suppliers. “Similarly, participants i




As an instance, it pointed that a ‘Tender’ is taken to mean ‘Tender document’ or ‘Tender Process’ as well as the ‘Bid’ submitted by the prospective suppliers.

“Similarly, participants in the Tender are called tenderers and bidders. This duality is reflected in ‘Notices inviting Tenders’ and ‘Instructions to Bidders, and so on,” the note reviewed by The Hindu points out.

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a and a mix of American, European and Indian nomenclature has become common,” the department pointed out in an introduction to the 130-odd page document for inviting bids for official supplies. <span>As an instance, it pointed that a ‘Tender’ is taken to mean ‘Tender document’ or ‘Tender Process’ as well as the ‘Bid’ submitted by the prospective suppliers. “Similarly, participants in the Tender are called tenderers and bidders. This duality is reflected in ‘Notices inviting Tenders’ and ‘Instructions to Bidders, and so on,” the note reviewed by The Hindu points out. The standard bidding document developed now, seeks to ease out this duality by mooting that the ‘Tender’ should refer to the tender document and process, while the term ‘Bid’ shall refe




he standard bidding document developed now, seeks to ease out this duality by mooting that the ‘Tender’ should refer to the tender document and process, while the term ‘Bid’ shall refer to the bidders’ pitches. ‘Bidder’ is to be used instead of ‘Tenderer’ to refer to potential suppliers and the usage ‘Bid document’ be done away with, as per the proposed model.
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nts in the Tender are called tenderers and bidders. This duality is reflected in ‘Notices inviting Tenders’ and ‘Instructions to Bidders, and so on,” the note reviewed by The Hindu points out. T<span>he standard bidding document developed now, seeks to ease out this duality by mooting that the ‘Tender’ should refer to the tender document and process, while the term ‘Bid’ shall refer to the bidders’ pitches. ‘Bidder’ is to be used instead of ‘Tenderer’ to refer to potential suppliers and the usage ‘Bid document’ be done away with, as per the proposed model. While the generic bidding document has been made for domestic open tenders for procurement of general goods, the department has said it can be tweaked by adding suitable clauses to call




January 9 was chosen as the PBD as it was on this day in 1915, Mahatma Gandhi, the “greatest pravasi”, returned to India from South Africa and led the country’s freedom struggle.
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our to enhance its capacities. The Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD) is celebrated to recognise the contributions of the overseas Indian community towards the growth and development of the country. <span>January 9 was chosen as the PBD as it was on this day in 1915, Mahatma Gandhi, the “greatest pravasi”, returned to India from South Africa and led the country’s freedom struggle. Also Read India ready to save humanity with two vaccines, says Modi “COVID-19 has taught us many lessons, prominent among them the need to be more self-reliant. Its uncertainty has crea




The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has floated a discussion paper on review of ownership and governance norms to facilitate new entrants to set up stock exchanges and depositories, otherwise called as market infrastructure institutions (MIIs).
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of ownership and governance norms to facilitate new entrants to set up stock exchanges and depositories, otherwise called as market infrastructure institutions. Floats discussion paper on MIIs <span>The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has floated a discussion paper on review of ownership and governance norms to facilitate new entrants to set up stock exchanges and depositories, otherwise called as market infrastructure institutions (MIIs). As per the key proposals, a resident promoter setting up an MII may hold up to 100% shareholding, which will be brought down to not more than (either 51% or 26%) in 10 years. A foreign




At least 50% of ownership of the MII may be represented by individuals or entities with experience of five years or more in the areas of capital markets or technology related to financial services.

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The NIP has been expanded from 6,385 projects at the time of its introduction a year ago, to more than 7,300 projects, and is making progress despite the pandemic, the government said in a statement.
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nister Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Wednesday reviewed the progress of the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) as the government seeks to accelerate infrastructure spending in the economy. <span>The NIP has been expanded from 6,385 projects at the time of its introduction a year ago, to more than 7,300 projects, and is making progress despite the pandemic, the government said in a statement. “The NIP is a part of the Government of India’s initiative to provide world-class infrastructure to its citizens and enhance the ease of living,” Ms. Sitharaman said, urging Ministries




The ratio of Gross Non-Performing Assets (GNPA: loan accounts overdue for 90 days or more) in Indian banks decreased in FY20 and FY21 (upto September) despite the impact of COVID-19 and the economic downturn that preceded it.

This was mostly due to three factors: 1) Banks wroteoff relatively more NPAs in FY20 to clean their balance sheets; 2) Some large NPA accounts got resolved through debt-recovery channels; and 3) It is not known what share of loan accounts, which were under COVID-19-related moratorium, will turn into NPAs in the immediate future.

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o worsen Share Article 0 PRINT A A A The Reserve Bank of India headquarters in Mumbai. File | Photo Credit: Reuters Three key factors could explain why the bad loans problem is likely to worsen <span>The ratio of Gross Non-Performing Assets (GNPA: loan accounts overdue for 90 days or more) in Indian banks decreased in FY20 and FY21 (upto September) despite the impact of COVID-19 and the economic downturn that preceded it. This was mostly due to three factors: 1) Banks wroteoff relatively more NPAs in FY20 to clean their balance sheets; 2) Some large NPA accounts got resolved through debt-recovery channels; and 3) It is not known what share of loan accounts, which were under COVID-19-related moratorium, will turn into NPAs in the immediate future. Fall and rise After peaking in FY18 (11.2%), the GNPA ratio of all commercial banks fell in FY19 (9.1%) and FY20 (8.2%). It continued to decline in FY21 (7.5% as of Sept. 2020). The GNP




The fall in NPAs in FY20 can be largely attributed to loan write-offs
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svg+xml Chart appears incomplete? Click to remove AMP mode Also read: The Hindu Explains | Why is the RBI worried when volume of bad loans declined in the September quarter? Write-offs increase <span>The fall in NPAs in FY20 can be largely attributed to loan write-offs. Banks have to set aside (or provision) a part of their profit as a buffer for potential losses that may arise from NPAs. Thus, NPAs reduce a bank’s available capital to lend fresh loan




Thus, NPAs reduce a bank’s available capital to lend fresh loans. So, banks voluntarily choose to write-off NPAs to maintain healthy balance sheets. In FY20, GNPAs written off by PSBs reached a six-year high.
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e The fall in NPAs in FY20 can be largely attributed to loan write-offs. Banks have to set aside (or provision) a part of their profit as a buffer for potential losses that may arise from NPAs. <span>Thus, NPAs reduce a bank’s available capital to lend fresh loans. So, banks voluntarily choose to write-off NPAs to maintain healthy balance sheets. In FY20, GNPAs written off by PSBs reached a six-year high. image/svg+xml Recoveries peak Through various debt recovery channels, ₹1,72,565 crore worth of NPAs was recovered in FY20, the highest in many years. Resolution of some large NPA accoun




Through various debt recovery channels, ₹1,72,565 crore worth of NPAs was recovered in FY20, the highest in many years.
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to lend fresh loans. So, banks voluntarily choose to write-off NPAs to maintain healthy balance sheets. In FY20, GNPAs written off by PSBs reached a six-year high. image/svg+xml Recoveries peak <span>Through various debt recovery channels, ₹1,72,565 crore worth of NPAs was recovered in FY20, the highest in many years. Resolution of some large NPA accounts helped reduce the GNPA ratio in FY20. The graph plots the NPAs of all banks recovered through various channels. In FY20, the recovery reached a pea




“In the faceless regime, the main objective is to remove physical interaction as much as possible, and hence, the taxpayers may not have the opportunity to explain (in person) business-related complexities and explain various positions they have taken while filing their income-tax returns. These facilities are available in the existing system,” PwC India had noted last month in a report titled ‘Faceless Interface — a paradigm shift in administration of the income tax law’.
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ing is given. The very fact that more than 24,000 final orders have been passed through the faceless system demonstrates that the system has stabilised,” Mr. Pandey asserted. ‘May miss nuances’ <span>“In the faceless regime, the main objective is to remove physical interaction as much as possible, and hence, the taxpayers may not have the opportunity to explain (in person) business-related complexities and explain various positions they have taken while filing their income-tax returns. These facilities are available in the existing system,” PwC India had noted last month in a report titled ‘Faceless Interface — a paradigm shift in administration of the income tax law’. “A limited facility of video conferencing and telephony is being made available after extensive written submissions are filed with the Income-tax department,” it added, advising taxpaye




• Endemic: the usual, expected rate of disease over time; the disease is maintained without much variation within a region

• Epidemic: occurrence of disease in excess of the expected rate; usually presents in a larger geographic span than endemics (epidemiology is the study of epidemics)

• Pandemic: worldwide epidemic

• Epidemic curve: visual description (commonly histogram) of an epidemic curve is disease cases plotted against time; classic signature of an epidemic is a “spike” in time

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Flashcard 6209844415756

Question
[...]: the usual, expected rate of disease over time; the disease is maintained without much variation within a region
Answer
Endemic

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Endemic: the usual, expected rate of disease over time; the disease is maintained without much variation within a region • Epidemic: occurrence of disease in excess of the expected rate; usuall

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Flashcard 6209846775052

Question
[...]: occurrence of disease in excess of the expected rate; usually presents in a larger geographic span than endemics (epidemiology is the study of epidemics)
Answer
Epidemic

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• Endemic: the usual, expected rate of disease over time; the disease is maintained without much variation within a region • Epidemic: occurrence of disease in excess of the expected rate; usually presents in a larger geographic span than endemics (epidemiology is the study of epidemics) • Pandemic: worldwide epidemic

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Flashcard 6209849920780

Question
[...]: worldwide epidemic
Answer
Pandemic

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variation within a region • Epidemic: occurrence of disease in excess of the expected rate; usually presents in a larger geographic span than endemics (epidemiology is the study of epidemics) • <span>Pandemic: worldwide epidemic • Epidemic curve: visual description (commonly histogram) of an epidemic curve is disease cases plotted against time; classic signature of an epidemic is a “spike” i

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Flashcard 6209852280076

Tags
#has-images
Question
[...]: visual description (commonly histogram) of an epidemic curve is disease cases plotted against time; classic signature of an epidemic is a “spike” in time


Answer
Epidemic curve

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demic: occurrence of disease in excess of the expected rate; usually presents in a larger geographic span than endemics (epidemiology is the study of epidemics) • Pandemic: worldwide epidemic • <span>Epidemic curve: visual description (commonly histogram) of an epidemic curve is disease cases plotted against time; classic signature of an epidemic is a “spike” in time <span>

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Flashcard 6209856736524

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#has-images
Question
How is the rate calculated in epidemiology?



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A disease may occur in a country at a regular annual rate, which makes it endemic.

If there is a sudden rise in the number of cases in a specific month, we say that there is an epidemic.

As the disease continues to rise and spread to other countries, it becomes a pandemic.

Thus the terminology is related to both the number of cases and its geographical distribution.

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Flashcard 6209865649420

Tags
#has-images
Question
How is Incidence Rate (IR) calculated?



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think-tank NCAER said.
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in fourth-quarter Having witnessed a contraction in the first half of the current financial year, India’s GDP growth is likely to turn positive at 0.1% in the October-December quarter, economic <span>think-tank NCAER said. The NCAER, in its mid-year review of the Indian economy, also forecast 2% growth in the fourth-quarter (January-March 2021). The overall contraction in the current fiscal is likely to b




“The sharp recovery of GDP in Q2, the bowstring effect, was a welcome surprise.
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3%. India’s economy contracted by 23.9% in the first quarter of the current fiscal on the account of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The contraction narrowed to 7.5% in the second quarter. <span>“The sharp recovery of GDP in Q2, the bowstring effect, was a welcome surprise. We have accordingly revised our forecast of annual contraction to (-) 7.3%. The revised growth forecasts for Q3 and Q4 are 0.1% and 2% respectively,” the NCAER said in its mid-year econ