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on 21-Aug-2021 (Sat)

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Flashcard 6657755188492

Question
What is fever?
Answer
an a.m. temperature of >37.2°C (>98.9°F) or a p.m. temperature of >37.7°C (>99.9°F) would define a fever.

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Flashcard 6657757285644

Question
What is hyperpyrexia?
Answer
A fever of >41.5°C (>106.7°F) is called hyperpyrexia.

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Flashcard 6671106182412

Tags
#hernia
Question
what is an internal hernia?
Answer
An internal hernia is a term used when adhesions form within the peritoneal cavity. leading to abnormal pockets into which bowel can enter and become trapped. As there is no defect within the abdominal wall, the term ‘hernia’ is confusing

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Flashcard 6689113115916

Tags
#has-images #hernia
Question
saphena varix


Answer
A saphena varix, or a saphenous varix is a dilation of the saphenous vein at its junction with the femoral vein in the groin. It is a common surgical problem, and patients may present with groin swelling.

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Flashcard 6689116785932

Tags
#hernia
Question
important checks in examination of hernia
Answer

● Reducibility

● Cough impulse

● Tenderness

● Overlying skin colour changes

● Multiple defects/contralateral side

● Signs of previous repair

● Scrotal content for groin hernia

● Associated pathology


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Flashcard 6689121504524

Tags
#neurology
Question
what are the indications of Ct in neurology?
Answer

CT is the primary study of choice in the evaluation of an

  1. acute change in mental status,
  2. focal neurologic findings,
  3. acute trauma to the brain and spine,
  4. suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage, and
  5. conductive hearing loss
  6. suspected intracranial bleeds
  7. headaches
  8. craniovertebral anomalies
  9. vascular occlusive disorders
  10. aneurysms

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Flashcard 6689128320268

Tags
#Nephrology
Question
what is contrast nephropathy?
Answer
A rise in serum creatinine of at least 44 μmol/L (0.5 mg/dL) within 48 h of contrast administration is often used as a definition of contrast nephropathy, although there is no accepted definition and other causes of acute renal failure must be excluded.

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management algorithm of Stroke
#Neurology #has-images
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Flashcard 6690831469836

Tags
#Neurology
Question
what is a stroke?
Answer
A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is defined as an abrupt onset of a neurologic deficit that is attributable to a focal vascular cause.

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Flashcard 6690833566988

Tags
#Neurology
Question
What is TIA?
Answer
The definition of TIA requires that all neurologic signs and symptoms resolve within 24 h without evidence of brain infarction on brain imaging.

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#Neurology
Cerebral ischemia is caused by a reduction in blood flow that lasts longer than several seconds. Neurologic symptoms are manifest within seconds because neurons lack glycogen, so energy failure is rapid. If the cessation of flow lasts for more than a few minutes, infarction or death of brain tissue results. When blood flow is quickly restored, brain tissue can recover fully and the patient’s symptoms are only transient: this is called a transient ischemic attack (TIA).
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Flashcard 6690838285580

Tags
#Neurology
Question
How to differentiate between TIA and Stroke?
Answer
Stroke has occurred if the neurologic signs and symptoms last for >24 h or brain infarction is demonstrated.

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#Neurology
A gen- eralized reduction in cerebral blood flow due to systemic hypotension (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, or hemorrhagic shock) usually produces syncope
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pathophysiology of stroke
#Neurology
Focal ischemia or infarction, con- versely, is usually caused by thrombosis of the cerebral vessels themselves or by emboli from a proximal arterial source or the heart . Intracranial hemorrhage is caused by bleeding directly into or around the brain; it produces neurologic symptoms by producing a mass effect on neural structures, from the toxic effects of blood itself, or by increasing intracranial pressure
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symptoms of stroke
#Neurology
patients and their family members should be counseled to call emergency medical services immediately if they experience or witness the sudden onset of any of the following: loss of sensory and/or motor function
on one side of the body (nearly 85% of ischemic stroke patients have hemiparesis); change in vision, gait, or ability to speak or understand; or a sudden, severe headache. The acronym FAST (Facial weakness, Arm weakness, Speech abnormality, and Time) is simple and helpful to teach the lay public about the common physical symptoms of stroke and to underscore that treatments are highly time-sensitive
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Flashcard 6690847722764

Tags
#stroke
Question
what conditions mimic a stroke?
Answer

seizure,

intracranial tumor,

migraine, and

metabolic encephalopathy.


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