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Flashcard 6991694662924

Tags
#CNS #medicine #medulla #palsy
Question

what is bulbar palsy?

what is the difference between bulbar abd pseudo bulbar palsy?


Mnemonic: pseUdo has a U for UMN lesion.

Answer

Bulbar palsy is the paralysis of the muscles supplied by the cranial nerves coming out from the bulb also known as the medulla (Cranial nerves 9, 10, 12) and it is lower motor neuron palsy.

Pseudobulbar palsy is paralysis of the same cranial nerves but the upper motor neuron type. Mostly due to lesions in the brain.

Emotional disturbance in the form of inappropriate crying,laughter is an inportant feature of pseudobulbar palsy whereas it is absent in bulbar palsy.


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Flashcard 6991700167948

Tags
#CNS #medicine #neurology #stroke
Question
three syndromes in the Midbrain occuring majorly due to a vascular event.
Answer

Webers' S

Claudes' S

Benedikts' S


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Flashcard 6991702265100

Tags
#CNS #has-images #medicine #midbrain #neurology #stroke


Question

Weber's Syndrome:
Lesion Location: [...]

Structures involved : [...]

Features: [...]

Answer

Weber's Syndrome:
Lesion Location: Midbrain base

Structures involved :CN III fibers; cerebral peduncle

Features: Ipsilateral CN III palsy; contralateral hemiparesis

(The image showing the involved 3 nerve and the crus! The lesion is anterior—in the cerebral peduncle—in Weber’s syndrome, causing hemiparesis.)


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Flashcard 6991710653708

Tags
#CNS #has-images #medicine #midbrain #neurology #stroke
Question

Claude's Syndrome:
Lesion location : [...]

Structures involved: [...]

Clinical features: [...]

(The sky blue line depicts the [...] Lesion is more [...] —in Claude’s syndrome, causing [...] .)

Answer

Claude's Syndrome:
Lesion location :Midbrain tegmentum

Structures involved: CN III fibers; red nucleus; SCP

Clinical features: Ipsilateral CN III palsy; contralateral ataxia and tremor (“rubral tremor”)

(The sky blue line depicts the sup. Cerebellar peduncle! Lesion is more posterior—in the tegmentum—in Claude’s syndrome, causing hemiataxia.)


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Flashcard 6991711702284

Tags
#CNS #has-images #medicine #midbrain #neurology #stroke
Question

Benedikt's Syndrome:
Lesion location: [...]

Structures involved: [...]

Clinical features:
[...]


(The blue fibers being the [...] . In Benedikt’s syndrome, the lesion is more extensive, involving both the [...] causing [...] with [...] and [...] of the involved limbs)

Answer

Benedikt's Syndrome:
Lesion location: Midbrain tegmentum

Structures involved: CN III fibers; red nucleus; CST (corticospinal tract)SCP(superior cerebellar peduncle)

Clinical features:
•Ipsilateral CN III palsy; contralateral hemiparesis with ataxia, hyperkinesia and tremor “rubral tremor


(The blue fibers being the sup. Cerebellar peduncle. In Benedikt’s syndrome, the lesion is more extensive, involving both the tegmentum and the peduncle, causing hemiparesis with tremor and ataxia of the involved limbs)


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midbrain syndromes
#CNS #medicine #midbrain #neurology #stroke

These three midbrain syndromes are variations on a theme.

Benedikt’s is essentially Weber’s + Claude’s.


Because the fascicles of cranial nerve (CN) III are scattered in their course through the midbrain, the third nerve palsy in any of these syndromes may be partial.

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Flashcard 6991725071628

Tags
#CNS #medicine #midbrain #neurology #stroke
Question
Nothnagel's Syndrome mainly due to [...] ...affecting the [...] involving [...] or [...] causes [...]
Answer
Nothnagel's Syndrome mainly due to neoplasms ...affecting the Midbrain tectum involving Ipsilateral or bilateral CN 3 causes Oculomotor palsies; ataxia.

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Welcome to the online campus of University of the People.
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University of the People: Log in to the site
ة متميزة عالمية Academic leadership from Harvard, UC Berkeley and more Making the Impossible Possible لنجعل المستحيل ممكناً Study online, anytime, anywhere Previous Next Home: Dashboard Message <span>Welcome to the online campus of University of the People. Here you can access all your courses and find helpful information and resources. Skip Course overview Course overview In progress All (except removed from view) In progress Future Past




Welcome to the online campus of University of the People.
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University of the People: Log in to the site
ة متميزة عالمية Academic leadership from Harvard, UC Berkeley and more Making the Impossible Possible لنجعل المستحيل ممكناً Study online, anytime, anywhere Previous Next Home: Dashboard Message <span>Welcome to the online campus of University of the People. Here you can access all your courses and find helpful information and resources. Skip Course overview Course overview In progress All (except removed from view) In progress Future Past




Imsdunick. (2014, January 29). Topic sentences vs. thesis statements [Video]. Youtube.
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s.net/ESL.English.Listening.Short.Stories/Monsieur.Rose/01/default.html There is an optional handout on medium-level verb conjugations here: Learning English Online. (n.d.). PDF Video Resources <span>Imsdunick. (2014, January 29). Topic sentences vs. thesis statements [Video]. Youtube. Deerwalk Institute of Technology. (2016, August 11). How to write a five paragraph essay [Video]. YouTube. Skip Table of contents Table of contents Overview Introduction Reading Assignm




#fracture #fracturecomplications #orthopedics

some of the symptoms point towards nom union

• Persistent pain

• Pain on stressing the fracture

• Mobility (in non-union)

• Increasing deformity at the fracture site (in non- union)

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Flashcard 6991741586700

Tags
#endocrinology #medicine #thyroid
Question

Grave's ophthalmopathy features apart from lid lag and lid retraction

Answer
E- Exophthalmos
P- Periorbital Edema
I- Involvement of ocular muscles (diplopia)
C- Conjunctival irritation and chemosis

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radiologucal features of fracture complications
#fracture #fracturecomplications #orthopedics

The following are some of the radiological features suggestive of these complications:

Delayed union: The fracture line is visible. There may be inadequate callus bridging the fracture site.

Non-union: The fracture line is visible. There is little bridging callus. The fracture ends may be rounded, smooth and sclerotic. The medullary cavity may be obliterated.

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Flashcard 6991753383180

Tags
#fracture #fracturecomplications #orthopedics
Question
some of the symptoms point towards nom union
Answer

• Persistent pain

• Pain on stressing the fracture

• Mobility (in non-union)

• Increasing deformity at the fracture site (in non- union)



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some of the symptoms point towards nom union • Persistent pain • Pain on stressing the fracture • Mobility (in non-union) • Increasing deformity at the fracture site (in non- union)

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Flashcard 6991755218188

Tags
#fracture #orthopedics
Question
what is internal fixation?
Answer
An internal fixation is defined as an operative surgery in orthopaedics involving the surgical implementation of implants in order to repair a bone.

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#orthopedics
It is sometimes very difficult to be sure about union of a fracture where internal fixation has been used. Evaluation of serial X-rays may help detect subtle angulation, non-progress of bridging callus, resorption of callus, loosening of screws and bending of the nail or plate. Excessive rotation may be the only abnormal mobility in a case with intra- medullary rod in situ. Oblique views, done under fluoroscopy may show an unhealed fracture better than conventional AP and lateral X-rays. It may be possible to demonstrate mobility at the fracture by stress X-rays or weight bearing X-rays. 3-D CT scan is sometimes helpful in differentiating between delayed and non-union.
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t/t of delayed or non union
#fracture #fracturecomplications #orthopedics

Most fractures in delayed union unite on continuing the conservative treatment. Sometimes, this may not occur and the fracture may need surgical intervention. Bone grafting with or without internal fixation may be required. Treatment of non-union depends upon the site of non-union and the disability caused by it. The following possibilities of treatment should be considered, depending upon the individual cases.

Open reduction, internal fixation and bone grafting: This is the commonest operation performed for non-union. The grafts are taken from iliac crest. Internal fixation is required in most cases.

Excision of fragments: Sometimes, achieving union is difficult and time consuming compared to excision of one of the fragments. This can only be done where excision of the fragment will not cause any loss of functions. An excision may or may not need to be combined with replacement with an artificial mould (prosthesis). For example, the lower-end of the ulna can be excised for non-union of the fracture of the distal-end of the ulna without much loss. In non-union of fracture of the neck of femur in an elderly, the head of the femur can be replaced by a prosthesis (replacement arthroplasty)

. • No treatment: Some non-unions do not give rise to any symptoms, and hence require no treatment, e.g., some non-unions of the fracture scaphoid.

• Ilizarov’s method: Prof. Ilizarov from the former USSR designed a special external fixation apparatus for treating non-union

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Flashcard 6991764393228

Tags
#fracture #fracturecomplications #orthopedics
Question

in Open reduction, internal fixation and bone grafting graft is taken from?

Answer
The grafts are taken from iliac crest

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Treatment of non-union depends upon the site of non-union and the disability caused by it. The following possibilities of treatment should be considered, depending upon the individual cases. • <span>Open reduction, internal fixation and bone grafting: This is the commonest operation performed for non-union. The grafts are taken from iliac crest. Internal fixation is required in most cases. • Excision of fragments: Sometimes, achievi

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Flashcard 6991766228236

Tags
#fracture #fracturecomplications #orthopedics
Question
Excision of fragments is done when?
Answer
This can only be done where excision of the fragment will not cause any loss of functions.

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en reduction, internal fixation and bone grafting: This is the commonest operation performed for non-union. The grafts are taken from iliac crest. Internal fixation is required in most cases. • <span>Excision of fragments: Sometimes, achieving union is difficult and time consuming compared to excision of one of the fragments. This can only be done where excision of the fragment will not cause any loss of

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exicion of bone fragments in case of delayed or non union
#fracture #fracturecomplications #orthopedics
An excision may or may not need to be combined with replacement with an artificial mould (prosthesis). For example, the lower-end of the ulna can be excised for non-union of the fracture of the distal-end of the ulna without much loss. In non-union of fracture of the neck of femur in an elderly, the head of the femur can be replaced by a prosthesis (replacement arthroplasty)
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Open it
metimes, achieving union is difficult and time consuming compared to excision of one of the fragments. This can only be done where excision of the fragment will not cause any loss of functions. <span>An excision may or may not need to be combined with replacement with an artificial mould (prosthesis). For example, the lower-end of the ulna can be excised for non-union of the fracture of the distal-end of the ulna without much loss. In non-union of fracture of the neck of femur in an elderly, the head of the femur can be replaced by a prosthesis (replacement arthroplasty) . • No treatment: Some non-unions do not give rise to any symptoms, and hence require no treatment, e.g., some non-unions of the fracture scaphoid. • Ilizarov’s method: Prof. Ilizarov f

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malunion 1
#fracture #fracturecomplications #malunion #orthopedics
When a fracture does not unite in proper position, it is said to have malunited. A slight degree of malunion occurs in a large proportion of fractures, but in practice the term is reserved for cases where the resulting disability is of clinical significance. Causes: Improper treatment is the commonest cause. Malunion is therefore preventable in most cases by keeping a close watch on position of the fracture during treatment. Sometimes, malunion is inevitable because of unchecked muscle pull (e.g., fracture of the clavicle), or excessive comminution (e.g., Colles’ fracture). Common sites: Fractures at the ends of a bone always unite, but they often malunite e.g., supracondylar fracture of the humerus, Colles’ fracture etc.
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Flashcard 6991776189708

Tags
#fracture #fracturecomplications #malunion #orthopedics
Question
what is malunion?
Answer
When a fracture does not unite in proper position, it is said to have malunited.

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When a fracture does not unite in proper position, it is said to have malunited. A slight degree of malunion occurs in a large proportion of fractures, but in practice the term is reserved for cases where the resulting disability is of clinical significance. Causes:

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Flashcard 6991778024716

Tags
#fracture #fracturecomplications #malunion #orthopedics
Question
Causes:
Answer
Improper treatment is the commonest cause. Malunion is therefore preventable in most cases by keeping a close watch on position of the fracture during treatment. Sometimes, malunion is inevitable because of unchecked muscle pull (e.g., fracture of the clavicle), or excessive comminution (e.g., Colles’ fracture)

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united. A slight degree of malunion occurs in a large proportion of fractures, but in practice the term is reserved for cases where the resulting disability is of clinical significance. Causes: <span>Improper treatment is the commonest cause. Malunion is therefore preventable in most cases by keeping a close watch on position of the fracture during treatment. Sometimes, malunion is inevitable because of unchecked muscle pull (e.g., fracture of the clavicle), or excessive comminution (e.g., Colles’ fracture). Common sites: Fractures at the ends of a bone always unite, but they often malunite e.g., supracondylar fracture of the humerus, Colles’ fracture etc. <span>

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Flashcard 6991780121868

Tags
#fracture #fracturecomplications #malunioun #orthopedics
Question
Consequences:
Answer
Malunion results in deformity , shortening of the limb, and limi tation of movements.

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