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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles and circulates through the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. The choroid plexus consists of projections of vessels and pia mater that protrude into the ventricular cavities as frond-like villi containing capillaries in loose connective stroma. A specialized layer of ependymal cells called the choroidal epithelium overlies these villi (figure 1)
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ldren is presented elsewhere. (See "Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: Clinical features and diagnosis", section on 'Interpretation'.) PHYSIOLOGY OF CSF FORMATION AND FLOW — <span>Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles and circulates through the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. The choroid plexus consists of projections of vessels and pia mater that protrude into the ventricular cavities as frond-like villi containing capillaries in loose connective stroma. A specialized layer of ependymal cells called the choroidal epithelium overlies these villi (figure 1). CSF is formed in the choroid plexus by both filtration and active transport. In normal adults, the CSF volume is 90 to 200 mL [1]; approximately 20 percent of the CSF is contained in t




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In normal adults, the CSF volume is 90 to 200 mL [1]; approximately 20 percent of the CSF is contained in the ventricles; the rest is contained in the subarachnoid space in the cranium and spinal cord. The normal rate of CSF production is approximately 20 mL per hour
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tive stroma. A specialized layer of ependymal cells called the choroidal epithelium overlies these villi (figure 1). CSF is formed in the choroid plexus by both filtration and active transport. <span>In normal adults, the CSF volume is 90 to 200 mL [1]; approximately 20 percent of the CSF is contained in the ventricles; the rest is contained in the subarachnoid space in the cranium and spinal cord. The normal rate of CSF production is approximately 20 mL per hour. CSF circulates from the lateral ventricles though the interventricular foramina of Monro into the third ventricle and then the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct. Thereafter, C




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CSF circulates from the lateral ventricles though the interventricular foramina of Monro into the third ventricle and then the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct. Thereafter, CSF passes through median (foramen of Magendie) and lateral (foramina of Luschka) apertures in the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain and then flows over the convexities of the brain and down the length of the spinal cord.
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ent of the CSF is contained in the ventricles; the rest is contained in the subarachnoid space in the cranium and spinal cord. The normal rate of CSF production is approximately 20 mL per hour. <span>CSF circulates from the lateral ventricles though the interventricular foramina of Monro into the third ventricle and then the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct. Thereafter, CSF passes through median (foramen of Magendie) and lateral (foramina of Luschka) apertures in the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain and then flows over the convexities of the brain and down the length of the spinal cord. The CSF is propelled along the neuroaxis by a cranio-caudal pulsatile wave induced by flow in the cerebral arteries and by the associated expansions of the vascular compartment in the c




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The CSF is propelled along the neuroaxis by a cranio-caudal pulsatile wave induced by flow in the cerebral arteries and by the associated expansions of the vascular compartment in the cranial vault
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amina of Luschka) apertures in the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain and then flows over the convexities of the brain and down the length of the spinal cord. <span>The CSF is propelled along the neuroaxis by a cranio-caudal pulsatile wave induced by flow in the cerebral arteries and by the associated expansions of the vascular compartment in the cranial vault. CSF is reabsorbed in the arachnoid villi, located along the superior sagittal and intracranial venous sinuses and around the spinal nerve roots. Each arachnoid villus functions as a on




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CSF is reabsorbed in the arachnoid villi, located along the superior sagittal and intracranial venous sinuses and around the spinal nerve roots. Each arachnoid villus functions as a one-way valve permitting unidirectional flow of CSF into the blood.
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SF is propelled along the neuroaxis by a cranio-caudal pulsatile wave induced by flow in the cerebral arteries and by the associated expansions of the vascular compartment in the cranial vault. <span>CSF is reabsorbed in the arachnoid villi, located along the superior sagittal and intracranial venous sinuses and around the spinal nerve roots. Each arachnoid villus functions as a one-way valve permitting unidirectional flow of CSF into the blood. Arachnoid villi and venous sinuses are separated by endothelial cells connected by tight junctions (figure 1). Arachnoid villi normally allow the passage of particles less than 7.5 micr




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Arachnoid villi and venous sinuses are separated by endothelial cells connected by tight junctions ( figure 1). Arachnoid villi normally allow the passage of particles less than 7.5 micron in diameter from the CSF into the blood
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the superior sagittal and intracranial venous sinuses and around the spinal nerve roots. Each arachnoid villus functions as a one-way valve permitting unidirectional flow of CSF into the blood. <span>Arachnoid villi and venous sinuses are separated by endothelial cells connected by tight junctions (figure 1). Arachnoid villi normally allow the passage of particles less than 7.5 micron in diameter from the CSF into the blood. Movement of CSF and cellular components across arachnoid villi occurs via transport within giant vesicles. These vesicles may become obstructed by bacteria or cells as a result of an i




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Movement of CSF and cellular components across arachnoid villi occurs via transport within giant vesicles. These vesicles may become obstructed by bacteria or cells as a result of an inflammatory process or by red blood cells during subarachnoid hemorrhage
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are separated by endothelial cells connected by tight junctions (figure 1). Arachnoid villi normally allow the passage of particles less than 7.5 micron in diameter from the CSF into the blood. <span>Movement of CSF and cellular components across arachnoid villi occurs via transport within giant vesicles. These vesicles may become obstructed by bacteria or cells as a result of an inflammatory process or by red blood cells during subarachnoid hemorrhage. Lipid-soluble molecules or drugs readily diffuse across the vascular endothelium and epithelium of the choroid plexus into the interstitial fluid and CSF. In contrast, ionically charge




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Lipid-soluble molecules or drugs readily diffuse across the vascular endothelium and epithelium of the choroid plexus into the interstitial fluid and CSF. In contrast, ionically charged molecules generally require active transport for entry into the CSF. Drug entry also may be altered in patients with meningitis by the accompanying inflammation, and this may subsequently rapidly change with regression of this inflammation with therapy.
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ccurs via transport within giant vesicles. These vesicles may become obstructed by bacteria or cells as a result of an inflammatory process or by red blood cells during subarachnoid hemorrhage. <span>Lipid-soluble molecules or drugs readily diffuse across the vascular endothelium and epithelium of the choroid plexus into the interstitial fluid and CSF. In contrast, ionically charged molecules generally require active transport for entry into the CSF. Drug entry also may be altered in patients with meningitis by the accompanying inflammation, and this may subsequently rapidly change with regression of this inflammation with therapy. (See 'CSF in CNS infection' below.) In addition to these well-described transport mechanisms, newer studies have documented the existence of other pathways involved in the movement of C




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The finding of dura-associated lymphatic vessels is contrary to long-held beliefs about the absence of meningeal lymphatics. The role of these lymphatic pathways, however, in the clearance of interstitial and CSF solutes has not yet been elucidated
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tes from the brain to the CSF and extra-axial meningeal lymphatic vessels associated with the dural sinuses that facilitate the movement of solutes in the CSF into the systemic vascular system. <span>The finding of dura-associated lymphatic vessels is contrary to long-held beliefs about the absence of meningeal lymphatics. The role of these lymphatic pathways, however, in the clearance of interstitial and CSF solutes has not yet been elucidated. CSF PRESSURE — Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion and reabsorption remain in balance in most healthy individuals to maintain a CSF pressure less than 15 cmH2O. The normal CSF pressure




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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion and reabsorption remain in balance in most healthy individuals to maintain a CSF pressure less than 15 cmH2O. The normal CSF pressure as measured with a manometer in a patient lying flat in the lateral decubitus position with the legs extended is between 6 and 25 cmH2O [3]; however, some experts consider the upper limit of normal CSF pressure to be 20 cmH2O (figure 2) [4].
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ld beliefs about the absence of meningeal lymphatics. The role of these lymphatic pathways, however, in the clearance of interstitial and CSF solutes has not yet been elucidated. CSF PRESSURE — <span>Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion and reabsorption remain in balance in most healthy individuals to maintain a CSF pressure less than 15 cmH2O. The normal CSF pressure as measured with a manometer in a patient lying flat in the lateral decubitus position with the legs extended is between 6 and 25 cmH2O [3]; however, some experts consider the upper limit of normal CSF pressure to be 20 cmH2O (figure 2) [4]. A variety of factors, such as the patient's position, the skill of the person performing the lumbar puncture, and the patient’s degree of relaxation, can affect the measurement of the o




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A variety of factors, such as the patient's position, the skill of the person performing the lumbar puncture, and the patient’s degree of relaxation, can affect the measurement of the opening pressure
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flat in the lateral decubitus position with the legs extended is between 6 and 25 cmH2O [3]; however, some experts consider the upper limit of normal CSF pressure to be 20 cmH2O (figure 2) [4]. <span>A variety of factors, such as the patient's position, the skill of the person performing the lumbar puncture, and the patient’s degree of relaxation, can affect the measurement of the opening pressure. Patients with obesity tend to have higher opening pressures; however, the correlation between opening pressure and body mass index was weak in a study involving 242 outpatients with a




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Slow-growing masses, such as abscesses or tumors, may allow time for compensation between CSF secretion and absorption to occur; thus, a rise in CSF pressure may not occur until the normal compliance of the intracranial structures is overcome. In contrast, acute infections, such as meningitis, typically lead to rapid increases in CSF pressure due to alterations in either production or reabsorption of CSF, or as a result of cerebral edema.
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atory mechanisms develop. Processes, such as infection, bleeding, or a tumor, can alter the balance between CSF secretion and reabsorption and have potential to cause intracranial hypertension. <span>Slow-growing masses, such as abscesses or tumors, may allow time for compensation between CSF secretion and absorption to occur; thus, a rise in CSF pressure may not occur until the normal compliance of the intracranial structures is overcome. In contrast, acute infections, such as meningitis, typically lead to rapid increases in CSF pressure due to alterations in either production or reabsorption of CSF, or as a result of cerebral edema. (See "Neurologic complications of bacterial meningitis in adults", section on 'Increased intracranial pressure'.) Intracranial hypertension may cause downward and backward shifting of t




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There are actually two barriers: a blood-brain barrier and a blood-CSF barrier.
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hat separate the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the blood and prevent entry by simple diffusion of fluids, electrolytes, and other substances from blood into the CSF or brain [6]. <span>There are actually two barriers: a blood-brain barrier and a blood-CSF barrier. Both barriers separate the central nervous system (CNS) from systemic immune responses and affect the composition of the brain interstitial fluid and CSF. The blood-brain and the blood-




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The blood-brain and the blood-CSF barriers are not precisely equivalent [ 6].
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brain barrier and a blood-CSF barrier. Both barriers separate the central nervous system (CNS) from systemic immune responses and affect the composition of the brain interstitial fluid and CSF. <span>The blood-brain and the blood-CSF barriers are not precisely equivalent [6]. Blood-brain barrier — The blood-brain barrier controls the content of brain interstitial fluid. It has a 5000-fold greater surface area than the blood-CSF barrier [6]. The anatomic basi




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Blood-brain barrier — The blood-brain barrier controls the content of brain interstitial fluid. It has a 5000-fold greater surface area than the blood-CSF barrier [6]. The anatomic basis for the blood-brain barrier is a series of high-resistance, tight junctions between endothelial cells as well as astrocytes with processes that terminate in overlapping fashion on capillary walls.

Lipid-soluble small molecules with a molecular mass less than 400 to 600 Da are transported readily through the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, many drugs and other small molecules cannot cross this barrier system [7].

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vous system (CNS) from systemic immune responses and affect the composition of the brain interstitial fluid and CSF. The blood-brain and the blood-CSF barriers are not precisely equivalent [6]. <span>Blood-brain barrier — The blood-brain barrier controls the content of brain interstitial fluid. It has a 5000-fold greater surface area than the blood-CSF barrier [6]. The anatomic basis for the blood-brain barrier is a series of high-resistance, tight junctions between endothelial cells as well as astrocytes with processes that terminate in overlapping fashion on capillary walls. Lipid-soluble small molecules with a molecular mass less than 400 to 600 Da are transported readily through the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, many drugs and other small molecules cannot cross this barrier system [7]. Blood-CSF barrier — The blood-CSF barrier controls the composition of the CSF, which, as noted above, is primarily dependent upon secretion in the choroid plexus. The blood-CSF barrier




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Blood-CSF barrier — The blood-CSF barrier controls the composition of the CSF, which, as noted above, is primarily dependent upon secretion in the choroid plexus. The blood-CSF barrier is formed by tight junctions between choroid epithelial cells.

Both barrier systems are dynamic. Endothelial cells and astrocytes that compose the blood-brain barrier and cells forming the blood-CSF barrier are capable of producing cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukins. In addition, astrocytes can act as antigen-presenting cells that modulate the immunologic response to CNS infections. Release of cytokines from endothelial cells and astrocytes probably mediate or generate much of the CNS inflammatory response in infectious and noninfectious conditions.

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es with a molecular mass less than 400 to 600 Da are transported readily through the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, many drugs and other small molecules cannot cross this barrier system [7]. <span>Blood-CSF barrier — The blood-CSF barrier controls the composition of the CSF, which, as noted above, is primarily dependent upon secretion in the choroid plexus. The blood-CSF barrier is formed by tight junctions between choroid epithelial cells. Both barrier systems are dynamic. Endothelial cells and astrocytes that compose the blood-brain barrier and cells forming the blood-CSF barrier are capable of producing cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukins. In addition, astrocytes can act as antigen-presenting cells that modulate the immunologic response to CNS infections. Release of cytokines from endothelial cells and astrocytes probably mediate or generate much of the CNS inflammatory response in infectious and noninfectious conditions. A brain-CSF barrier also exists in the pia mater. A continuous layer of astrocytes overlies the basement membrane of cells in the pia mater. These astrocytes are separated by gap juncti




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Normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is clear and colorless. Both infectious and noninfectious processes can alter the appearance of the CSF.
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ion of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is presented in a separate topic review. (See "Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis".) COMPOSITION OF THE CSF Xanthochromia — <span>Normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is clear and colorless. Both infectious and noninfectious processes can alter the appearance of the CSF. As few as 200 white blood cells (WBCs)/microL or 400 red blood cells (RBCs)/microL will cause CSF to appear turbid. CSF will appear grossly bloody if ≥6000 RBCs/microL are present [4].




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As few as 200 white blood cells (WBCs)/microL or 400 red blood cells (RBCs)/microL will cause CSF to appear turbid. CSF will appear grossly bloody if ≥6000 RBCs/microL are present [ 4]
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al meningitis".) COMPOSITION OF THE CSF Xanthochromia — Normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is clear and colorless. Both infectious and noninfectious processes can alter the appearance of the CSF. <span>As few as 200 white blood cells (WBCs)/microL or 400 red blood cells (RBCs)/microL will cause CSF to appear turbid. CSF will appear grossly bloody if ≥6000 RBCs/microL are present [4]. Red blood cells rapidly lyse after entry into CSF. The breakdown of hemoglobin first to oxyhemoglobin (pink) and later to bilirubin (yellow) leads to a yellow or pink discoloration of




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Red blood cells rapidly lyse after entry into CSF. The breakdown of hemoglobin first to oxyhemoglobin (pink) and later to bilirubin (yellow) leads to a yellow or pink discoloration of the CSF known as xanthochromia. Spectrophotometry can be used to analyze blood breakdown products as they progress from oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin and finally to bilirubin, thereby ruling out traumatic blood [13-15].
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the CSF. As few as 200 white blood cells (WBCs)/microL or 400 red blood cells (RBCs)/microL will cause CSF to appear turbid. CSF will appear grossly bloody if ≥6000 RBCs/microL are present [4]. <span>Red blood cells rapidly lyse after entry into CSF. The breakdown of hemoglobin first to oxyhemoglobin (pink) and later to bilirubin (yellow) leads to a yellow or pink discoloration of the CSF known as xanthochromia. Spectrophotometry can be used to analyze blood breakdown products as they progress from oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin and finally to bilirubin, thereby ruling out traumatic blood [13-15]. Although xanthochromia is generally confirmed visually [16], laboratory confirmation with spectrophotometry may be more sensitive and, if available, is recommended by some experts [13,1




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Xanthochromia can be detected as soon as two to four hours after RBCs have entered the subarachnoid space, and therefore this is often used in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Xanthochromia is present in over 90 percent of patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage within 12 hours of the onset of bleeding, and it may persist thereafter for two to four weeks [13,19-21].
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. Although xanthochromia is generally confirmed visually [16], laboratory confirmation with spectrophotometry may be more sensitive and, if available, is recommended by some experts [13,17,18]. <span>Xanthochromia can be detected as soon as two to four hours after RBCs have entered the subarachnoid space, and therefore this is often used in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Xanthochromia is present in over 90 percent of patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage within 12 hours of the onset of bleeding, and it may persist thereafter for two to four weeks [13,19-21]. The use of xanthochromia and RBC count to distinguish SAH from traumatic tap is discussed separately. (See "Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis", s




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The use of xanthochromia and RBC count to distinguish SAH from traumatic tap is discussed separately. (See "Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis", section on 'Lumbar puncture'.)
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Xanthochromia is present in over 90 percent of patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage within 12 hours of the onset of bleeding, and it may persist thereafter for two to four weeks [13,19-21]. <span>The use of xanthochromia and RBC count to distinguish SAH from traumatic tap is discussed separately. (See "Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis", section on 'Lumbar puncture'.) Xanthochromia can also occur with increased CSF concentrations of protein (≥150 mg/dL) or systemic hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin >10 to 15 mg/dL) [4]. Cells Normal findings — T




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Xanthochromia can also occur with increased CSF concentrations of protein (≥150 mg/dL) or systemic hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin >10 to 15 mg/dL) [4].
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mia and RBC count to distinguish SAH from traumatic tap is discussed separately. (See "Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis", section on 'Lumbar puncture'.) <span>Xanthochromia can also occur with increased CSF concentrations of protein (≥150 mg/dL) or systemic hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin >10 to 15 mg/dL) [4]. Cells Normal findings — The CSF is normally acellular. However, up to 5 WBCs and 5 RBCs are considered normal in adults when the CSF is sampled by lumbar puncture (LP). More than 3 poly




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Normal findings — The CSF is normally acellular. However, up to 5 WBCs and 5 RBCs are considered normal in adults when the CSF is sampled by lumbar puncture (LP). More than 3 polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)/microL are abnormal in adults. The CSF cell profiles in neonates and children are discussed separately.
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tion on 'Lumbar puncture'.) Xanthochromia can also occur with increased CSF concentrations of protein (≥150 mg/dL) or systemic hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin >10 to 15 mg/dL) [4]. Cells <span>Normal findings — The CSF is normally acellular. However, up to 5 WBCs and 5 RBCs are considered normal in adults when the CSF is sampled by lumbar puncture (LP). More than 3 polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)/microL are abnormal in adults. The CSF cell profiles in neonates and children are discussed separately. (See "Bacterial meningitis in the neonate: Clinical features and diagnosis", section on 'Cell count' and "Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: Clinical features and di




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The CSF cell count determination should be performed promptly since the count may be falsely low if measured more than 60 minutes after the LP is performed. This spuriously low cell count may be due to settling of the cells in the CSF over time and/or adherence of RBCs or PMNs to plastic tubes
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he neonate: Clinical features and diagnosis", section on 'Cell count' and "Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: Clinical features and diagnosis", section on 'Interpretation'.) <span>The CSF cell count determination should be performed promptly since the count may be falsely low if measured more than 60 minutes after the LP is performed. This spuriously low cell count may be due to settling of the cells in the CSF over time and/or adherence of RBCs or PMNs to plastic tubes. Pleocytosis — An elevated CSF WBC concentration does not diagnose an infection, since increases in the CSF WBC concentration can occur in infectious and noninfectious inflammatory stat




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The CSF cell count must always be correlated with clinical findings. PMNs, for example, predominate in the CSF of as many as two-thirds of patients with meningitis due to enteroviruses; a shift to lymphocytic predominance usually occurs within 12 to 24 hours [22,23]. On the other hand, lymphocytes rarely predominate in the early phases of bacterial meningitis
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on, since increases in the CSF WBC concentration can occur in infectious and noninfectious inflammatory states. The following truisms about the interpretation of CSF cell counts may be useful: ●<span>The CSF cell count must always be correlated with clinical findings. PMNs, for example, predominate in the CSF of as many as two-thirds of patients with meningitis due to enteroviruses; a shift to lymphocytic predominance usually occurs within 12 to 24 hours [22,23]. On the other hand, lymphocytes rarely predominate in the early phases of bacterial meningitis. (See "Aseptic meningitis in adults" and 'CSF in CNS infection' below.) ●The presence of eosinophils in the CSF has limited diagnostic utility. CSF eosinophilia may occur in parasitic i




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The presence of eosinophils in the CSF has limited diagnostic utility. CSF eosinophilia may occur in parasitic infestations but also in infections due to other microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Rickettsia rickettsii, some fungi, and in noninfectious conditions, such as lymphomas, leukemias of various types, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and obstructive hydrocephalus
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in 12 to 24 hours [22,23]. On the other hand, lymphocytes rarely predominate in the early phases of bacterial meningitis. (See "Aseptic meningitis in adults" and 'CSF in CNS infection' below.) ●<span>The presence of eosinophils in the CSF has limited diagnostic utility. CSF eosinophilia may occur in parasitic infestations but also in infections due to other microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Rickettsia rickettsii, some fungi, and in noninfectious conditions, such as lymphomas, leukemias of various types, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Predicted WBC count after traumatic tap — Accidental trauma to a capillary or venule may occur during performance of an LP, increasing the number of both RBCs and WBCs in the CSF. If a




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If a traumatic lumbar puncture is suspected and the peripheral WBC count is not abnormally low or high, a good rule of thumb for estimating the adjusted WBC count is to subtract 1 WBC for every 500 to 1500 RBCs measured in the CSF. The formula in the following Calculator can also be used to determine the adjusted WBC count in the presence of CSF RBCs (calculator 1) [24,25].
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ydrocephalus. Predicted WBC count after traumatic tap — Accidental trauma to a capillary or venule may occur during performance of an LP, increasing the number of both RBCs and WBCs in the CSF. <span>If a traumatic lumbar puncture is suspected and the peripheral WBC count is not abnormally low or high, a good rule of thumb for estimating the adjusted WBC count is to subtract 1 WBC for every 500 to 1500 RBCs measured in the CSF. The formula in the following Calculator can also be used to determine the adjusted WBC count in the presence of CSF RBCs (calculator 1) [24,25]. The interpretation of CSF pleocytosis in the setting of bacterial meningitis is discussed in detail separately. The presence or absence of otherwise unexplained xanthochromia also may h




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The presence or absence of otherwise unexplained xanthochromia also may help distinguish a traumatic tap from subarachnoid hemorrhage as long as the LP is performed at least six hours after the onset of headache.
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ermine the adjusted WBC count in the presence of CSF RBCs (calculator 1) [24,25]. The interpretation of CSF pleocytosis in the setting of bacterial meningitis is discussed in detail separately. <span>The presence or absence of otherwise unexplained xanthochromia also may help distinguish a traumatic tap from subarachnoid hemorrhage as long as the LP is performed at least six hours after the onset of headache. (See 'Xanthochromia' above.) Interpretation of traumatic LPs in children is discussed separately. (See "Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: Clinical features and diag




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Proteins are largely excluded from the CSF by the blood-CSF barrier. Proteins gaining access to the CSF primarily reach the CSF by transport within pinocytotic vesicles traversing capillary endothelial cells.
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diagnosis", section on 'Interpretation'.) Chemical composition — Determination of CSF protein and glucose concentrations are routinely done and may reveal useful clinical information. Protein — <span>Proteins are largely excluded from the CSF by the blood-CSF barrier. Proteins gaining access to the CSF primarily reach the CSF by transport within pinocytotic vesicles traversing capillary endothelial cells. The normal CSF protein concentration ranges from 23 to 38 mg/dL (0.23 to 0.38 g/L) in adults [4]; in one report, the extreme upper and lower CSF protein concentrations in normal individ




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The normal CSF protein concentration ranges from 23 to 38 mg/dL (0.23 to 0.38 g/L) in adults [ 4]; in one report, the extreme upper and lower CSF protein concentrations in normal individuals were 58 and 9 mg/dL (0.58 and 0.09 g/L), respectively [21]
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rgely excluded from the CSF by the blood-CSF barrier. Proteins gaining access to the CSF primarily reach the CSF by transport within pinocytotic vesicles traversing capillary endothelial cells. <span>The normal CSF protein concentration ranges from 23 to 38 mg/dL (0.23 to 0.38 g/L) in adults [4]; in one report, the extreme upper and lower CSF protein concentrations in normal individuals were 58 and 9 mg/dL (0.58 and 0.09 g/L), respectively [21]. CSF protein concentrations in premature and term neonates normally range between 20 and 170 mg/dL (0.2 and 1.7 g/L) [26]. The CSF protein concentration may be mildly elevated in patien




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The CSF protein concentration may be mildly elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus
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individuals were 58 and 9 mg/dL (0.58 and 0.09 g/L), respectively [21]. CSF protein concentrations in premature and term neonates normally range between 20 and 170 mg/dL (0.2 and 1.7 g/L) [26]. <span>The CSF protein concentration may be mildly elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. CSF protein can also be elevated by a subarachnoid hemorrhage or a traumatic LP. The presence of CSF bleeding results in approximately 1 mg of protein/dL per 1000 RBCs/microL. When ass




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The presence of CSF bleeding results in approximately 1 mg of protein/dL per 1000 RBCs/microL
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(0.2 and 1.7 g/L) [26]. The CSF protein concentration may be mildly elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. CSF protein can also be elevated by a subarachnoid hemorrhage or a traumatic LP. <span>The presence of CSF bleeding results in approximately 1 mg of protein/dL per 1000 RBCs/microL. When assessing the potential effect of CSF bleeding on an elevated CSF protein concentration, the CSF protein concentration and RBC count should be performed on the same tube of CSF. E




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CSF protein elevations may persist for weeks or months following recovery from meningitis and have little utility in assessing cure or the response to therapy [27].
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med on the same tube of CSF. Elevations in the CSF protein concentration can occur in both infectious and noninfectious conditions, including conditions associated with obstruction of CSF flow. <span>CSF protein elevations may persist for weeks or months following recovery from meningitis and have little utility in assessing cure or the response to therapy [27]. (See 'CSF in CNS infection' below.) Immunoglobulins and oligoclonal bands — Immunoglobulins are almost totally excluded from the CSF in healthy individuals. The blood to CSF ratio of Ig




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Elevations in the CSF protein concentration can occur in both infectious and noninfectious conditions, including conditions associated with obstruction of CSF flow.
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Cs/microL. When assessing the potential effect of CSF bleeding on an elevated CSF protein concentration, the CSF protein concentration and RBC count should be performed on the same tube of CSF. <span>Elevations in the CSF protein concentration can occur in both infectious and noninfectious conditions, including conditions associated with obstruction of CSF flow. CSF protein elevations may persist for weeks or months following recovery from meningitis and have little utility in assessing cure or the response to therapy [27]. (See 'CSF in CNS inf




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Immunoglobulins are almost totally excluded from the CSF in healthy individuals. The blood to CSF ratio of IgG is normally 500:1 or more.
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months following recovery from meningitis and have little utility in assessing cure or the response to therapy [27]. (See 'CSF in CNS infection' below.) Immunoglobulins and oligoclonal bands — <span>Immunoglobulins are almost totally excluded from the CSF in healthy individuals. The blood to CSF ratio of IgG is normally 500:1 or more. Elevations in oligoclonally expanded immunoglobulin concentrations in the CSF, termed oligoclonal bands, may occur in any disorder that disrupts the blood-brain barrier. Oligoclonal ban




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Elevations in oligoclonally expanded immunoglobulin concentrations in the CSF, termed oligoclonal bands, may occur in any disorder that disrupts the blood-brain barrier.
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ection' below.) Immunoglobulins and oligoclonal bands — Immunoglobulins are almost totally excluded from the CSF in healthy individuals. The blood to CSF ratio of IgG is normally 500:1 or more. <span>Elevations in oligoclonally expanded immunoglobulin concentrations in the CSF, termed oligoclonal bands, may occur in any disorder that disrupts the blood-brain barrier. Oligoclonal bands may also be caused by intrathecal production of IgG, and the presence of such bands is a diagnostic criterion for multiple sclerosis [28]. Examples of other diseases t




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Oligoclonal bands may also be caused by intrathecal production of IgG, and the presence of such bands is a diagnostic criterion for multiple sclerosis [ 28]. Examples of other diseases that can cause oligoclonal bands in the CSF include infections (eg, nervous system Lyme disease), autoimmune diseases, brain tumors, and lymphoproliferative diseases. Given how many diseases can result in oligoclonal bands in the CSF, the diagnostic utility of this finding is limited.
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normally 500:1 or more. Elevations in oligoclonally expanded immunoglobulin concentrations in the CSF, termed oligoclonal bands, may occur in any disorder that disrupts the blood-brain barrier. <span>Oligoclonal bands may also be caused by intrathecal production of IgG, and the presence of such bands is a diagnostic criterion for multiple sclerosis [28]. Examples of other diseases that can cause oligoclonal bands in the CSF include infections (eg, nervous system Lyme disease), autoimmune diseases, brain tumors, and lymphoproliferative diseases. Given how many diseases can result in oligoclonal bands in the CSF, the diagnostic utility of this finding is limited. (See "Nervous system Lyme disease", section on 'Cerebrospinal fluid analysis' and "Evaluation and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in adults", section on 'CSF analysis and oligoclonal ba




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Low CSF glucose concentration (hypoglycorrhachia) may occur in a variety of infectious and noninfectious pathologic conditions. Elevated CSF glucose concentrations only occur in the setting of hyperglycemia
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rvous system Lyme disease", section on 'Cerebrospinal fluid analysis' and "Evaluation and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in adults", section on 'CSF analysis and oligoclonal bands'.) Glucose — <span>Low CSF glucose concentration (hypoglycorrhachia) may occur in a variety of infectious and noninfectious pathologic conditions. Elevated CSF glucose concentrations only occur in the setting of hyperglycemia. ●CSF glucose concentrations less than 18 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) are strongly predictive of bacterial meningitis [27]. Abnormally low CSF glucose concentrations can also occur in mycobacter




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CSF glucose concentrations less than 18 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) are strongly predictive of bacterial meningitis [27]. Abnormally low CSF glucose concentrations can also occur in mycobacterial, mycoplasmal (M. pneumoniae), treponemal, and fungal CNS infections (table 1). During recovery from meningitis, CSF glucose concentration tends to normalize more rapidly than the CSF cell count and protein concentration.
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concentration (hypoglycorrhachia) may occur in a variety of infectious and noninfectious pathologic conditions. Elevated CSF glucose concentrations only occur in the setting of hyperglycemia. ●<span>CSF glucose concentrations less than 18 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) are strongly predictive of bacterial meningitis [27]. Abnormally low CSF glucose concentrations can also occur in mycobacterial, mycoplasmal (M. pneumoniae), treponemal, and fungal CNS infections (table 1). During recovery from meningitis, CSF glucose concentration tends to normalize more rapidly than the CSF cell count and protein concentration. (See 'CSF in CNS infection' below.) In contrast, the CSF glucose concentration is typically normal during most viral CNS infections, although low concentrations have been reported in pa




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In contrast, the CSF glucose concentration is typically normal during most viral CNS infections, although low concentrations have been reported in patients with meningoencephalitis due to mumps, enteroviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), herpes simplex, and herpes zoster viruses
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ions (table 1). During recovery from meningitis, CSF glucose concentration tends to normalize more rapidly than the CSF cell count and protein concentration. (See 'CSF in CNS infection' below.) <span>In contrast, the CSF glucose concentration is typically normal during most viral CNS infections, although low concentrations have been reported in patients with meningoencephalitis due to mumps, enteroviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), herpes simplex, and herpes zoster viruses. ●Low CSF glucose concentrations can also occur in noninfectious conditions; patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, leukemia, CNS lymphoma, severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, or neu




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Low CSF glucose concentrations can also occur in noninfectious conditions; patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, leukemia, CNS lymphoma, severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, or neurosarcoidosis may have hypoglycorrhachia because of cellular or inflammatory infiltrates that disrupt the active transport of glucose into the CSF (table 1) [29].
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although low concentrations have been reported in patients with meningoencephalitis due to mumps, enteroviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), herpes simplex, and herpes zoster viruses. ●<span>Low CSF glucose concentrations can also occur in noninfectious conditions; patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, leukemia, CNS lymphoma, severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, or neurosarcoidosis may have hypoglycorrhachia because of cellular or inflammatory infiltrates that disrupt the active transport of glucose into the CSF (table 1) [29]. Salicylate poisoning has been reported to cause low CSF glucose concentration, but this has not been well-documented, and this association is speculative [30-32]. Also, hypoglycemic pat




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The normal CSF-to-serum glucose ratio ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 [33-35], and shows large hourly diurnal variations related to timing of food intake [36]
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ellitus: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and causes"). In the setting of hyperglycemia, a low CSF glucose may not be recognized if only the absolute CSF glucose concentration is considered. <span>The normal CSF-to-serum glucose ratio ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 [33-35], and shows large hourly diurnal variations related to timing of food intake [36]. Attempts to "correct" the CSF glucose concentration for hyperglycemia should take into account the fact that it takes several hours for the serum glucose to equilibrate with the CSF gl




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Attempts to "correct" the CSF glucose concentration for hyperglycemia should take into account the fact that it takes several hours for the serum glucose to equilibrate with the CSF glucose; thus the timing of the last meal and/or administration of insulin or oral hypoglycemic may be relevant [ 36].
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e CSF glucose concentration is considered. The normal CSF-to-serum glucose ratio ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 [33-35], and shows large hourly diurnal variations related to timing of food intake [36]. <span>Attempts to "correct" the CSF glucose concentration for hyperglycemia should take into account the fact that it takes several hours for the serum glucose to equilibrate with the CSF glucose; thus the timing of the last meal and/or administration of insulin or oral hypoglycemic may be relevant [36]. Other considerations include that CSF-to-serum glucose ratios in neonates are highly variable and also that ventricular CSF glucose concentration is 6 to 18 mg/dL (0.33 to 1.0 mmol/L) h




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Other considerations include that CSF-to-serum glucose ratios in neonates are highly variable and also that ventricular CSF glucose concentration is 6 to 18 mg/dL (0.33 to 1.0 mmol/L) higher than in the lumbar CSF [ 37]
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at it takes several hours for the serum glucose to equilibrate with the CSF glucose; thus the timing of the last meal and/or administration of insulin or oral hypoglycemic may be relevant [36]. <span>Other considerations include that CSF-to-serum glucose ratios in neonates are highly variable and also that ventricular CSF glucose concentration is 6 to 18 mg/dL (0.33 to 1.0 mmol/L) higher than in the lumbar CSF [37]. In addition, CSF glucose levels rarely exceed 300 mg/dL (16.7 mmol/L) even in patients with severe hyperglycemia. Lactate — Determination of the CSF lactate concentration has been sugg




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In addition, CSF glucose levels rarely exceed 300 mg/dL (16.7 mmol/L) even in patients with severe hyperglycemia
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de that CSF-to-serum glucose ratios in neonates are highly variable and also that ventricular CSF glucose concentration is 6 to 18 mg/dL (0.33 to 1.0 mmol/L) higher than in the lumbar CSF [37]. <span>In addition, CSF glucose levels rarely exceed 300 mg/dL (16.7 mmol/L) even in patients with severe hyperglycemia. Lactate — Determination of the CSF lactate concentration has been suggested as a useful test to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. Two meta-analyses that included 25 studie




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Cytology is occasionally useful for the diagnosis of malignancy involving the CNS [40]. In such instances, at least 10 to 15 mL of fluid should be sent to the pathology laboratory for prompt examination. Cytology should be performed within one hour of collection in specialized laboratories with experienced staff [41].
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], although sensitivity was lower in patients who received antimicrobial treatment prior to lumbar puncture [39], and CSF lactate may be elevated in patients with other CNS diseases. Cytology — <span>Cytology is occasionally useful for the diagnosis of malignancy involving the CNS [40]. In such instances, at least 10 to 15 mL of fluid should be sent to the pathology laboratory for prompt examination. Cytology should be performed within one hour of collection in specialized laboratories with experienced staff [41]. CSF IN CNS INFECTION — Chemical analysis and Gram stain of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are an integral part of the evaluation of patients with suspected meningitis or encephalitis. Al




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Among patients with viral meningitis, the typical findings include:

● The CSF white blood cell (WBC) count is usually less than 250/microL and almost always less than 2000/microL [27]. The differential typically shows a predominance of lymphocytes, although early infection may reveal a predominance of neutrophils that, within the next 24 hours, generally shows a shift from neutrophils to lymphocytes [23].

● The CSF protein concentration is typically less than 150 mg/dL; it has been estimated that CSF protein concentrations greater than 220 mg/dL reduce the probability of viral infection to 1 percent or less [27].

● The CSF glucose concentration is usually more than 50 percent of serum concentration, but moderately reduced values are occasionally seen with herpes simplex virus (HSV), mumps, some enteroviruses, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

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bacterial and viral infections (table 2). (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults" and "Viral encephalitis in adults" and "Aseptic meningitis in adults".) <span>Among patients with viral meningitis, the typical findings include: ●The CSF white blood cell (WBC) count is usually less than 250/microL and almost always less than 2000/microL [27]. The differential typically shows a predominance of lymphocytes, although early infection may reveal a predominance of neutrophils that, within the next 24 hours, generally shows a shift from neutrophils to lymphocytes [23]. ●The CSF protein concentration is typically less than 150 mg/dL; it has been estimated that CSF protein concentrations greater than 220 mg/dL reduce the probability of viral infection to 1 percent or less [27]. ●The CSF glucose concentration is usually more than 50 percent of serum concentration, but moderately reduced values are occasionally seen with herpes simplex virus (HSV), mumps, some enteroviruses, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Among patients with bacterial meningitis, the classic findings are (table 2): ●A CSF WBC count above 1000/microL, usually with a neutrophilic predominance ●A CSF protein concentration




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Among patients with bacterial meningitis, the classic findings are (table 2):

● A CSF WBC count above 1000/microL, usually with a neutrophilic predominance

● A CSF protein concentration above 250 mg/dL

● A CSF glucose concentration below 45 mg/dL (2.5 mmol/L)

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e than 50 percent of serum concentration, but moderately reduced values are occasionally seen with herpes simplex virus (HSV), mumps, some enteroviruses, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. <span>Among patients with bacterial meningitis, the classic findings are (table 2): ●A CSF WBC count above 1000/microL, usually with a neutrophilic predominance ●A CSF protein concentration above 250 mg/dL ●A CSF glucose concentration below 45 mg/dL (2.5 mmol/L) However, the spectrum of CSF values in bacterial meningitis is so wide that there is substantial overlap with the findings in viral infection (table 2). This was illustrated in a review




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However, the spectrum of CSF values in bacterial meningitis is so wide that there is substantial overlap with the findings in viral infection (table 2). This was illustrated in a review of 296 episodes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: 50 percent had a CSF glucose above 40 mg/dL (2.2 mmol/L), 44 percent had a CSF protein below 200 mg/dL, and 13 percent had a CSF white cell count below 100/microL [42]
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are (table 2): ●A CSF WBC count above 1000/microL, usually with a neutrophilic predominance ●A CSF protein concentration above 250 mg/dL ●A CSF glucose concentration below 45 mg/dL (2.5 mmol/L) <span>However, the spectrum of CSF values in bacterial meningitis is so wide that there is substantial overlap with the findings in viral infection (table 2). This was illustrated in a review of 296 episodes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: 50 percent had a CSF glucose above 40 mg/dL (2.2 mmol/L), 44 percent had a CSF protein below 200 mg/dL, and 13 percent had a CSF white cell count below 100/microL [42]. (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults", section on 'Cerebrospinal fluid analysis'.) SUMMARY ●Cerebrospinal fluid pressure – The normal cerebrosp




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Cerebrospinal fluid pressure – The normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is 6 to 20 cmH2O; patients with obesity may have CSF pressures up to 25 cmH2O.
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13 percent had a CSF white cell count below 100/microL [42]. (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults", section on 'Cerebrospinal fluid analysis'.) SUMMARY ●<span>Cerebrospinal fluid pressure – The normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is 6 to 20 cmH2O; patients with obesity may have CSF pressures up to 25 cmH2O. (See 'Physiology of CSF formation and flow' above.) Infection, bleeding, or a tumor can alter the balance between CSF secretion and reabsorption, resulting in intracranial hypertension.




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In a second pro- spective study of 301 patients with sus- pected meningitis, 235 underwent a CT scan prior to LP. 13 The mean age of pa- tients was 40 years (16% were ! 60 years), 25% were immunocompro- mised, and 27% of patients had a Charl- son comorbidity score of more than 1. Patients were assessed clinically by an emergency physician or general inter- nist.

The absence of a number of clinical features at baseline was able to identify those who were unlikely to have an abnormal CT result (LR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03-0.31).

The absence of all of the fol- lowing baseline characteristics was associated with this low LR: age 60 years or older, immunocompromised state, history of central nervous system disease, and seizure within 1 week of presentation.

In addition, there could be none of the following physical examination findings: abnormal level of consciousness, inability to answer 2 questions correctly, inability to follow 2 consecutive commands correctly, gaze palsy, abnormal visual fields, facial palsy, arm drift, leg drift, and abnormal language.

Using the pretest probability of an abnormal CT finding from this study (23.8%), the absence of all of these features would reduce the probability of an abnormal finding to 3.0%.

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Flashcard 7093163265292

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#DAG #causal #edx #has-images
[unknown IMAGE 7093163789580]
[unknown IMAGE 7093158022412]

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repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
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Flashcard 7093201276172

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#DAG #causal #edx #has-images
[unknown IMAGE 7093201800460]
[unknown IMAGE 7093193149708]

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Flashcard 7093297483020

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[unknown IMAGE 7093298007308]
Question
Controlling for L?
[unknown IMAGE 7093292240140]

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Flashcard 7093315308812

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#DAG #causal #edx #has-images
[unknown IMAGE 7093315833100]
[unknown IMAGE 7093310065932]

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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