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#feature-engineering #lstm #recurrent-neural-networks #rnn
in a complex environment where there are multiple streams of data, such as in a data-rich environment where the analyst has access to historical marketing activity of various sorts (e.g., multiple types of solicitations sent through various marketing channels) and diverse customer behaviors (e.g., purchase histories across various product categories and sales channels) observed across different contexts (e.g., multiple business units or websites, see Park & Fader, 2004), the vast number and exponential complexity of inter-sequence and inter-temporal interactions (e.g., sequences of marketing actions, such as email–phone–catalog vs. catalog–email– phone) will make the data analyst's job arduous
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#English #vocabulary

arduous

/ˈɑːdjʊəs,ˈɑːdʒʊəs/

Learn to pronounce

adjective

  1. involving or requiring strenuous effort; difficult and tiring

  2. "an arduous journey"

    Similar:

    onerous

    taxing

    difficult

    hard

    heavy

    laborious

    burdensome

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Flashcard 7552488312076

Tags
#deep-learning #keras #lstm #python #sequence
Question
Mini-batch gradient descent with a batch size of [...] is a common configuration for LSTMs.
Answer
32

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Mini-batch gradient descent with a batch size of 32 is a common configuration for LSTMs.

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Flashcard 7552494341388

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Question

During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century.[8] In medieval England, Michaelmas marked the ending and beginning of the husbandman's year, George C. Homans observes: "at that time harvest was over, and the bailiff or reeve of the manor would be making out the accounts for the year."[9]

Because it falls near the equinox, this holy day is associated in the northern hemisphere with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days. It was also one of the English, Welsh, and Irish quarter days, when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day when a reeve was elected from the peasants.[10] Michaelmas hiring fairs were held at the end of September or beginning of October.[11] The day was also considered a "gale day" in Ireland when rent would be due, as well as a day for the issuing or settling of contracts or other legal transactions.[12]

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Answer
29 september

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Michaelmas - Wikipedia
ing of "Michael's Mass", in the same style as Christmas (Christ's Mass) and Candlemas (Candle Mass, the Mass where traditionally the candles to be used throughout the year would be blessed).[7] <span>During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century.[8] In medieval England, Michaelmas marked the ending and beginning of the husbandman's year, George C. Homans observes: "at that time harvest was over, and the bailiff or reeve of the manor would be making out the accounts for the year."[9] Because it falls near the equinox, this holy day is associated in the northern hemisphere with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days. It was also one of the English, Welsh, and Irish quarter days, when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day when a reeve was elected from the peasants.[10] Michaelmas hiring fairs were held at the end of September or beginning of October.[11] The day was also considered a "gale day" in Ireland when rent would be due, as well as a day for the issuing or settling of contracts or other legal transactions.[12] Celebration[edit] On the Isle of Skye, Scotland, a procession was held.[8] One of the few flowers left around at this time of year is the Michaelmas daisy (also known as asters). Hence







The financial crisis of 2008, or Global Financial Crisis (GFC), was a severe worldwide economic crisis that occurred in the early 21st century. It was the most serious financial crisis since the Great Depression (1929). Predatory lending targeting low-income homebuyers,[1] excessive risk-taking by global financial institutions,[2] and the bursting of the United States housing bubble culminated in a "perfect storm." Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) tied to American real estate, as well as a vast web of derivatives linked to those MBS, collapsed in value. Financial institutions worldwide suffered severe damage,[3] reaching a climax with the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008, and a subsequent international banking crisis.[4]

The preconditions for the financial crisis were complex and multi-causal.[5][6][7] Almost two decades prior, the U.S. Congress had passed legislation encouraging financing for affordable housing.[8] In 1999, parts of the Glass-Steagall legislation were repealed, permitting financial institutions to comingle their commercial (risk-averse) and proprietary trading (risk-taking) operations.[9] Arguably the largest contributor to the conditions necessary for financial collapse was the rapid development in predatory financial products which targeted low-income, low-information homebuyers who largely belonged to racial minorities.[10] This market development went unattended by regulators and thus caught the U.S. government by surprise.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008 - Wikipedia
oup Chrysler Citigroup Fannie Mae Freddie Mac General Motors Lehman Brothers Royal Bank of Scotland Group UBS Related list: List of banks acquired or bankrupted during the Great Recession v t e <span>The financial crisis of 2008, or Global Financial Crisis (GFC), was a severe worldwide economic crisis that occurred in the early 21st century. It was the most serious financial crisis since the Great Depression (1929). Predatory lending targeting low-income homebuyers,[1] excessive risk-taking by global financial institutions,[2] and the bursting of the United States housing bubble culminated in a "perfect storm." Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) tied to American real estate, as well as a vast web of derivatives linked to those MBS, collapsed in value. Financial institutions worldwide suffered severe damage,[3] reaching a climax with the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008, and a subsequent international banking crisis.[4] The preconditions for the financial crisis were complex and multi-causal.[5][6][7] Almost two decades prior, the U.S. Congress had passed legislation encouraging financing for affordable housing.[8] In 1999, parts of the Glass-Steagall legislation were repealed, permitting financial institutions to comingle their commercial (risk-averse) and proprietary trading (risk-taking) operations.[9] Arguably the largest contributor to the conditions necessary for financial collapse was the rapid development in predatory financial products which targeted low-income, low-information homebuyers who largely belonged to racial minorities.[10] This market development went unattended by regulators and thus caught the U.S. government by surprise.[11] After the onset of the crisis, governments deployed massive bail-outs of financial institutions and other palliative monetary and fiscal policies to prevent a collapse of the global financial system.[12] The crisis sparked the Great Recession which resulted in increases in unemployment[13] and suicide[14] and decreases in institutional trust[15] and fertility,[16] among other metrics. The recession was a significant precondition for the European debt crisis. In 2010, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was enacted in the US as a response to the crisis to "promote the financial stability of the United States".[17] T




The European debt crisis, often also referred to as the eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis, is a multi-year debt crisis that took place in the European Union (EU) from 2009 until the mid to late 2010s. Several eurozone member states (Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus) were unable to repay or refinance their government debt or to bail out over-indebted banks under their national supervision without the assistance of third parties like other eurozone countries, the European Central Bank (ECB), or the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

The eurozone crisis was caused by a balance-of-payments crisis, which is a sudden stop of foreign capital into countries that had substantial deficits and were dependent on foreign lending. The crisis was worsened by the inability of states to resort to devaluation (reductions in the value of the national currency).[3][4] Debt accumulation in some eurozone members was in part due to macroeconomic differences among eurozone member states prior to the adoption of the euro. The European Central Bank adopted an interest rate that incentivized investors in Northern eurozone members to lend to the South, whereas the South was incentivized to borrow because interest rates were very low. Over time, this led to the accumulation of deficits in the South, primarily by private economic actors.[3][4] A lack of fiscal policy coordination among eurozone member states contributed to imbalanced capital flows in the eurozone,[3][4] while a lack of financial regulatory centralization or harmonization among eurozone states, coupled with a lack of credible commitments to provide bailouts to banks, incentivized risky financial transactions by banks.[3][4] The detailed causes of the crisis varied from country to country. In several countries, private debts arising from a property bubble were transferred to sovereign debt as a result of banking system bailouts and government responses to slowing economies post-bubble. European banks own a significant amount of sovereign debt, such that concerns regarding the solvency of banking systems or sovereigns are negatively reinforcing.

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European debt crisis - Wikipedia
oup Chrysler Citigroup Fannie Mae Freddie Mac General Motors Lehman Brothers Royal Bank of Scotland Group UBS Related list: List of banks acquired or bankrupted during the Great Recession v t e <span>The European debt crisis, often also referred to as the eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis, is a multi-year debt crisis that took place in the European Union (EU) from 2009 until the mid to late 2010s. Several eurozone member states (Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus) were unable to repay or refinance their government debt or to bail out over-indebted banks under their national supervision without the assistance of third parties like other eurozone countries, the European Central Bank (ECB), or the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The eurozone crisis was caused by a balance-of-payments crisis, which is a sudden stop of foreign capital into countries that had substantial deficits and were dependent on foreign lending. The crisis was worsened by the inability of states to resort to devaluation (reductions in the value of the national currency).[3][4] Debt accumulation in some eurozone members was in part due to macroeconomic differences among eurozone member states prior to the adoption of the euro. The European Central Bank adopted an interest rate that incentivized investors in Northern eurozone members to lend to the South, whereas the South was incentivized to borrow because interest rates were very low. Over time, this led to the accumulation of deficits in the South, primarily by private economic actors.[3][4] A lack of fiscal policy coordination among eurozone member states contributed to imbalanced capital flows in the eurozone,[3][4] while a lack of financial regulatory centralization or harmonization among eurozone states, coupled with a lack of credible commitments to provide bailouts to banks, incentivized risky financial transactions by banks.[3][4] The detailed causes of the crisis varied from country to country. In several countries, private debts arising from a property bubble were transferred to sovereign debt as a result of banking system bailouts and government responses to slowing economies post-bubble. European banks own a significant amount of sovereign debt, such that concerns regarding the solvency of banking systems or sovereigns are negatively reinforcing.[5] The onset of crisis was in late 2009 when the Greek government disclosed that its budget deficits were far higher than previously thought.[3] Greece called for external help in early 2010, receiving an EU–IMF bailout package in May 2010.[3] European nations implemented a series of financial support measures such as the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) in early 2010 and the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) in late 2010. The ECB also contributed to solve the crisis by lowering interest rates and providing cheap loans of more than one trillion euro in order to maintain money flows between European banks. On 6 September 2012, the ECB calmed financial markets by announcing free unlimited support for all eurozone countries involved in a sovereign state bailout/precautionary programme from EFSF/ESM, through some yield lowering Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT).[6] Ireland and Portugal received EU-IMF bailouts In November 2010 and May 2011, respectively.[3] In March 2012, Greece received its second bailout. Both Spain and Cyprus received rescue packages in June 2012.[3] Return to economic growth and improved structural deficits enabled Ireland and Portugal to exit their bailout programmes in July 2014. Greece and Cyprus both managed to partly regain ma




The COVID-19 recession, also referred to as the Great Lockdown, is a global economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The recession began in most countries in February 2020.

After a year of global economic slowdown that saw stagnation of economic growth and consumer activity, the COVID-19 lockdowns and other precautions taken in early 2020 drove the global economy into crisis.[1][2][3][4] Within seven months, every advanced economy had fallen to recession.[5][6]

The first major sign of recession was the 2020 stock market crash, which saw major indices drop 20 to 30% in late February and March. Recovery began in early April 2020; by April 2022, the GDP for most major economies had either returned to or exceeded pre-pandemic levels [7] and many market indices recovered or even set new records by late 2020.[8][9][10]

The recession saw unusually high and rapid increases in unemployment in many countries. By October 2020, more than 10 million unemployment cases had been filed in the United States,[11] swamping state-funded unemployment insurance computer systems and processes.[12][13] The United Nations (UN) predicted in April 2020 that global unemployment would wipe out 6.7% of working hours globally in the second quarter of 2020—equivalent to 195 million full-time workers.[14] In some countries, unemployment was expected to be around 10%, with more severely affected nations from the pandemic having higher unemployment rates.[15][16][17] Developing countries were also affected by a drop in remittances[18] and exacerbating COVID-19 pandemic–related famines.[19]

The recession and the accompanying

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COVID-19 recession - Wikipedia
isons Religion Catholic Church Hajj Science and technology Social media Strikes Suicides Telehealth Xenophobia and racism Society Ireland Malaysia New Zealand Russia UK US COVID-19 portal v t e <span>The COVID-19 recession, also referred to as the Great Lockdown, is a global economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The recession began in most countries in February 2020. After a year of global economic slowdown that saw stagnation of economic growth and consumer activity, the COVID-19 lockdowns and other precautions taken in early 2020 drove the global economy into crisis.[1][2][3][4] Within seven months, every advanced economy had fallen to recession.[5][6] The first major sign of recession was the 2020 stock market crash, which saw major indices drop 20 to 30% in late February and March. Recovery began in early April 2020; by April 2022, the GDP for most major economies had either returned to or exceeded pre-pandemic levels [7] and many market indices recovered or even set new records by late 2020.[8][9][10] The recession saw unusually high and rapid increases in unemployment in many countries. By October 2020, more than 10 million unemployment cases had been filed in the United States,[11] swamping state-funded unemployment insurance computer systems and processes.[12][13] The United Nations (UN) predicted in April 2020 that global unemployment would wipe out 6.7% of working hours globally in the second quarter of 2020—equivalent to 195 million full-time workers.[14] In some countries, unemployment was expected to be around 10%, with more severely affected nations from the pandemic having higher unemployment rates.[15][16][17] Developing countries were also affected by a drop in remittances[18] and exacerbating COVID-19 pandemic–related famines.[19] The recession and the accompanying 2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war led to a drop in oil prices; the collapse of tourism, the hospitality industry, and the energy industry; and a downturn in consumer activity in comparison to the previous decade.[20][21][22] The 2021–2022 global energy crisis was driven by a global surge in demand as the world exited the early recession caused by the pandemic, particularly due to strong energy demand in Asia.[23][24][25] This was then further exacerbated by the reaction to escalations of the Russo-Ukrainian War, culminating in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine and the 2022 Russian debt default.[26] Contents 1 Background 1.1 Corporate debt bubble 1.2 2019 global economic slowdown 1.2.1 China–United States trade war 1.2.2 Brexit 1.3 Aggravating circumstances 1.3.1 Evergrande liquidi