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Knowledge structuring and representation in learning based on active recall (Wozniak)

## Using Mnemonic Techniques

To illustrate the phenomenon of increasing returns to scale, and the incredible competitive advantage the Ford Motor Company has gained in the early 1900s over its competitors though specialization of labor based on semi-automated assembly lines, the student might wish to note that in 1914 the FMC produced 270,000 cars with 13,000 employees; while the other 299 American auto companies at the same time, with 66,000 employees produced just 290,000 cars. The example posses a serious dilemma to a database developer. Each of the number quoted makes up useless garbage knowledge. However, taken together, the figure combine into a vivid and compelling illustration of increasing returns to scale and their importance in running any kind of business. Demanding from the student the understanding of increasing returns to scale deprives the example from its strong emotional overtones, as the student might identify him or herself with Henry Ford’s business cunning. Depriving the example from numbers takes a great deal of its vividness. The two proposed solutions are: (1) limit the question to an estimated figure that shows the FMC lead in the market, and (2) use Cloze deletion to dismember the above sentence, and use mnemonics to memorize the involved numbers. The first approach might look as follows:

Q: What was the share of the American automobile market commanded by the Ford Motor Company in 1914?

A: Close to 50%

or using Cloze deletion and mnemonic techniques:

Q: In 1914 the Ford Motor Company produced 270,000 cars with 13,000 employees; the other ... American auto companies, with 66,000 employees produced just 290,000 cars.

A: 299 (Ford turns on a light switch to see how many competitors he has got, and ... only two cats spring up turning their tails)

The seemingly flippant comments in the parentheses above are part and parcel of mnemonic representation. In the example above, an eleven-member peg list has been used with the number two represented by a light switch (the switch has two states: on and off), and nine represented by a cat ("cat has nine lives").

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Knowledge structuring for learning
ireball by activating the ringer, then we have effectively mapped an otherwise nonsensic phone number onto an easily retrievable graphic scene (the mapping being effected through the peg list). <span>To illustrate the phenomenon of increasing returns to scale, and the incredible competitive advantage the Ford Motor Company has gained in the early 1900s over its competitors though specialization of labor based on semi-automated assembly lines, the student might wish to note that in 1914 the FMC produced 270,000 cars with 13,000 employees; while the other 299 American auto companies at the same time, with 66,000 employees produced just 290,000 cars. The example posses a serious dilemma to a database developer. Each of the number quoted makes up useless garbage knowledge. However, taken together, the figure combine into a vivid and compelling illustration of increasing returns to scale and their importance in running any kind of business. Demanding from the student the understanding of increasing returns to scale deprives the example from its strong emotional overtones, as the student might identify him or herself with Henry Ford’s business cunning. Depriving the example from numbers takes a great deal of its vividness. The two proposed solutions are: (1) limit the question to an estimated figure that shows the FMC lead in the market, and (2) use Cloze deletion to dismember the above sentence, and use mnemonics to memorize the involved numbers. The first approach might look as follows: Q: What was the share of the American automobile market commanded by the Ford Motor Company in 1914? A: Close to 50% or using Cloze deletion and mnemonic techniques: Q: In 1914 the Ford Motor Company produced 270,000 cars with 13,000 employees; the other ... American auto companies, with 66,000 employees produced just 290,000 cars. A: 299 (Ford turns on a light switch to see how many competitors he has got, and ... only two cats spring up turning their tails) The seemingly flippant comments in the parentheses above are part and parcel of mnemonic representation. In the example above, an eleven-member peg list has been used with the number two represented by a light switch (the switch has two states: on and off), and nine represented by a cat ("cat has nine lives"). As the analysis of intractable items in numerous databases show that numbers take the lead in making items indigestible to human memory, the use of numbers in databases of all sort shou

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