# on 18-Oct-2015 (Sun)

#### Annotation 149468295

 adding article you MUST have a user

Wikipedia:FAQ - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
cal, legal, financial, safety, and other critical issues? 8 Who owns Wikipedia? 9 Why am I having trouble logging in? 10 How can I contact Wikipedia? How do I create a new page? <span>You are required to have a Wikipedia account to create a new articleâ€”you can register here. To see other benefits to creating an account, see Why create an account? For creating a new article see Wikipedia:Your first article and Wikipedia:Article development; and you may wi

#### Annotation 149623697

 #bonds #finance #yield-to-maturity for zero coupon bonds, the yield to maturity and the rate of return are equivalent since there are no coupon payments to reinvest. it is dubious. YTM is not about reinvesting coupons

Yield to Maturity
ng period return, as the two often differ. Yield to maturity is generally given in terms of Annual Percentage Rate (APR), and it is an estimation of future return, as the rate at which coupon payments can be reinvested at is unknown. However, <span>for zero coupon bonds, the yield to maturity and the rate of return are equivalent since there are no coupon payments to reinvest. Another way of putting it is that the yield to maturity is the rate of return that makes the present value (PV) of the cash flow generated by the bond equal to the price. Yield to maturi

#### Annotation 149623941

 #finance #yield-curve at the short end of the curve, where there are few cashflows, the first few elements of P (rate function) may be found by bootstrapping from one to the next.

Yield curve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
orward interest rates, zero coupon bond prices, or zero coupon bond yieldsLocal regression using kernelsLinear programming In the money market practitioners might use different techniques to solve for different areas of the curve. For example <span>at the short end of the curve, where there are few cashflows, the first few elements of P may be found by bootstrapping from one to the next. At the long end, a regression technique with a cost function that values smoothness might be used. How the yield curve affects bond prices There is a time dimension to the analysis

#### Annotation 149624179

 yield to maturity - reinvesting coupons #bonds #finance #yield-to-maturity All the coupons are reinvested at an interest rate equal to the yield-to-maturity - it is a common mistaken assumption, but not true. Each part of today's price earns interest before being paid out either as a coupon or as a principal.

Yield to maturity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ds6 See also7 References8 External links Main assumptions The main underlying assumptions used concerning the traditional yield measures are: The bond will be held to maturity.All coupon and principal payments will be made on schedule.<span>All the coupons are reinvested at an interest rate equal to the yield-to-maturity.[3]The yield is usually quoted without making any allowance for tax paid by the investor on the return, and is then known as "gross redemption yield". It also does not make an

#### Annotation 149624868

 #bonds #convexity #finance bond convexity is a measure of the sensitivity of the duration of a bond to changes in interest rates

Bond convexity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2007) In finance, <span>bond convexity is a measure of the sensitivity of the duration of a bond to changes in interest rates, the second derivative of the price of the bond with respect to interest rates (duration is the first derivative). In general, the higher the convexity, the more sensitive the bond pric

#### Annotation 149624875

 #bonds #convexity #finance Bond convexity is the second derivative of the price of the bond with respect to interest rates (duration is the first derivative)

Bond convexity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
elp improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2007) In finance, bond convexity is a measure of the sensitivity of the duration of a bond to changes in interest rates, <span>the second derivative of the price of the bond with respect to interest rates (duration is the first derivative). In general, the higher the convexity, the more sensitive the bond price is to the change in interest rates. Bond convexity is one of the most basic and widely used forms of convexity i

#### Annotation 149634080

 #finance a foreign exchange swap, forex swap, or FX swap is a simultaneous purchase and sale of identical amounts of one currency for another with two different value dates (normally spot to forward)

Foreign exchange swap - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
cy forwardNon-deliverable forwardForeign exchange swapCurrency swapForeign-exchange option Historical agreements Bretton Woods ConferenceSmithsonian AgreementPlaza AccordLouvre Accord See also Bureau de changeHard currency vte In finance, <span>a foreign exchange swap, forex swap, or FX swap is a simultaneous purchase and sale of identical amounts of one currency for another with two different value dates (normally spot to forward).[1] see Foreign exchange derivative. Foreign Exchange Swap allows sums of a certain currency to be used to fund charges designated in another currency without acquiring foreign exchange

#### Annotation 149634118

 #currency-swap #finance The simplest currency swap structure is to exchange only the principal with the counterparty at a specified point in the future at a rate agreed now. Such an agreement performs a function equivalent to a forward contract or futures. The cost of finding a counterparty (either directly or through an intermediary), and drawing up an agreement with them, makes swaps more expensive than alternative derivatives (and thus rarely used) as a method to fix shorter term forward exchange rates. However for the longer term future, commonly up to 10 years, where spreads are wider for alternative derivatives, principal-only currency swaps are often used as a cost-effective way to fix forward rates. This type of currency swap is also known as an FX-swap

Currency swap - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
-counter derivatives, and are closely related to interest rate swaps. However, unlike interest rate swaps, currency swaps can involve the exchange of the principal.[1] There are three different ways in which currency swaps can exchange loans: <span>The simplest currency swap structure is to exchange only the principal with the counterparty at a specified point in the future at a rate agreed now. Such an agreement performs a function equivalent to a forward contract or futures. The cost of finding a counterparty (either directly or through an intermediary), and drawing up an agreement with them, makes swaps more expensive than alternative derivatives (and thus rarely used) as a method to fix shorter term forward exchange rates. However for the longer term future, commonly up to 10 years, where spreads are wider for alternative derivatives, principal-only currency swaps are often used as a cost-effective way to fix forward rates. This type of currency swap is also known as an FX-swap.[3]Another currency swap structure is to combine the exchange of loan principal, as above, with an interest rate swap. In such a swap, interest cash flows are not netted before they are

#### Annotation 149634125

 #currency-swap #finance Another currency swap structure is to combine the exchange of loan principal, as above, with an interest rate swap. In such a swap, interest cash flows are not netted before they are paid to the counterparty (as they would be in a vanilla interest rate swap) because they are denominated in different currencies. As each party effectively borrows on the other's behalf, this type of swap is also known as a back-to-back loan.

Currency swap - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
er term future, commonly up to 10 years, where spreads are wider for alternative derivatives, principal-only currency swaps are often used as a cost-effective way to fix forward rates. This type of currency swap is also known as an FX-swap.[3]<span>Another currency swap structure is to combine the exchange of loan principal, as above, with an interest rate swap. In such a swap, interest cash flows are not netted before they are paid to the counterparty (as they would be in a vanilla interest rate swap) because they are denominated in different currencies. As each party effectively borrows on the other's behalf, this type of swap is also known as a back-to-back loan.[3]Last here, but certainly not least important, is to swap only interest payment cash flows on loans of the same size and term. Again, as this is a currency swap, the exchanged cash flo

#### Annotation 149638585

 #finance #yield-curve The curve shows the relation between the (level of) interest rate (or cost of borrowing) and the time to maturity, known as the "term", of the debt for a given borrower in a given currency

Yield curve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ebruary 9, 2005. The curve has a typical upward sloping shape. In finance, the yield curve is a curve showing several yields or interest rates across different contract lengths (2 month, 2 year, 20 year, etc...) for a similar debt contract. <span>The curve shows the relation between the (level of) interest rate (or cost of borrowing) and the time to maturity, known as the "term", of the debt for a given borrower in a given currency.[1] For example, the U.S. dollar interest rates paid on U.S. Treasury securities for various maturities are closely watched by many traders, and are commonly plotted on a graph such as

#### Annotation 149645084

 #bond-valuation #bonds #finance The coupon rate (or nominal rate or nominal yield) of a fixed income security is the (annualized) amount of the coupon, which is a fixed percentage of the par value.

Nominal yield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

#### Annotation 149645091

 #bond-valuation #bonds #finance Unlike current yield, nominal yield does not vary with the market price of the security.

Nominal yield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
e sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009) The coupon rate (or nominal rate or nominal yield) of a fixed income security is the (annualized) amount of the coupon, which is a fixed percentage of the par value. <span>Unlike current yield, it does not vary with the market price of the security. The coupon rate is typically stated in the name of the bond, such as "US Treasury Bond 6.25%". vte Bond market BondDebentureFixed income Types of bonds by issuer Agency

#### Annotation 149645116

 #bond-valuation #bonds #finance The current yield, interest yield, income yield, flat yield, market yield, mark to market yield or running yield is a financial term used in reference to bonds and other fixed-interest securities such as gilts. It is the ratio of the annual interest payment and the bond's current clean price

Current yield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
navigation, search This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (July 2008) <span>The current yield, interest yield, income yield, flat yield, market yield, mark to market yield or running yield is a financial term used in reference to bonds and other fixed-interest securities such as gilts. It is the ratio of the annual interest payment and the bond's current clean price: The current yield only therefore refers to the yield of the bond at the current moment. It does not reflect the total return over the life of the bond. In particular, it takes no acco

#### Annotation 149645123

 #bond-valuation #bonds #finance The concept of current yield is closely related to other bond concepts, including yield to maturity, and coupon yield

Current yield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
par value, which can be an important component of a bond's return. Contents 1 Relationship between yield to maturity and coupon rate2 Example Calculation3 See also4 References Relationship between yield to maturity and coupon rate <span>The concept of current yield is closely related to other bond concepts, including yield to maturity, and coupon yield. When a bond sells at; a discount: YTM > current yield > coupon yield a premium: coupon yield > current yield > YTM par: YTM = current yield = coupon yield. Current Yield =

#### Annotation 149655413

 #economics #money A financial asset is unlike a real asset (a building, a car, a television, a painting) because there can only be a financial asset (notes and coins in your pocket, cash in the bank, corporate or government bonds) if there is an equal and opposite financial liability. The two always net off to nil.

values fall (because of reckless loans on land and buildings which fall in value) then the value of the liabilities fall as well (i.e. if you own shares or bonds in a bank which is making big losses, the value of your shares or bonds fall).b) <span>A financial asset is unlike a real asset (a building, a car, a television, a painting) because there can only be a financial asset (notes and coins in your pocket, cash in the bank, corporate or government bonds) if there is an equal and opposite financial liability. The two always net off to nil. So, for example, if you have a mortgage on your house, you have a liability but the bank records it as an asset.2. The traditional books explain how banks started off using 'fractional r

#### Annotation 149655420

 #economics #money The traditional books explain how banks started off using 'fractional reserve banking', i.e. they take 100 gold coins as deposits and lend out 90 of them, keeping 10 in the safe in case depositors come round to make a withdrawal.

the bank, corporate or government bonds) if there is an equal and opposite financial liability. The two always net off to nil. So, for example, if you have a mortgage on your house, you have a liability but the bank records it as an asset.2. <span>The traditional books explain how banks started off using 'fractional reserve banking', i.e. they take 100 gold coins as deposits and lend out 90 of them, keeping 10 in the safe in case depositors come round to make a withdrawal.3. So in the old fashioned view of banking regulation (or self-regulation), we look at the assets side: as long as the bank has a tenth* of its assets in liquid form (i.e. gold coins in

#### Annotation 149655427

 #economics #money n the old fashioned view of banking regulation (or self-regulation), we look at the assets side: as long as the bank has a tenth* of its assets in liquid form (i.e. gold coins in the safe), it will probably do OK.

set.2. The traditional books explain how banks started off using 'fractional reserve banking', i.e. they take 100 gold coins as deposits and lend out 90 of them, keeping 10 in the safe in case depositors come round to make a withdrawal.3. So i<span>n the old fashioned view of banking regulation (or self-regulation), we look at the assets side: as long as the bank has a tenth* of its assets in liquid form (i.e. gold coins in the safe), it will probably do OK.4. The modern view of banking regulation (i.e. Basel rules), we look at the liabilities side, and say that share capital (a non-repayable liability or source of finance) should be at lea

#### Annotation 149655434

 #economics #money The modern view of banking regulation (i.e. Basel rules), we look at the liabilities side, and say that share capital (a non-repayable liability or source of finance) should be at least a tenth* of total assets; so if the value of assets falls by a tenth or less, there are still enough assets left to repay depositors and bondholders.

o make a withdrawal.3. So in the old fashioned view of banking regulation (or self-regulation), we look at the assets side: as long as the bank has a tenth* of its assets in liquid form (i.e. gold coins in the safe), it will probably do OK.4. <span>The modern view of banking regulation (i.e. Basel rules), we look at the liabilities side, and say that share capital (a non-repayable liability or source of finance) should be at least a tenth* of total assets; so if the value of assets falls by a tenth or less, there are still enough assets left to repay depositors and bondholders.5. Quite how the myth that a bank can lend out ten times as much as it takes in deposits (or bonds) arose, I have no idea, it is quite simply not true. The Basel one-tenth* limit is impo

#### Annotation 149655441

 #economics #money Basel rule says something like "The total amount that a bank can lend out is no more than ten times its share capital" - it says nothing about ratio of lending to deposits, like in traditional view of "fractional reserve banking".

s.5. Quite how the myth that a bank can lend out ten times as much as it takes in deposits (or bonds) arose, I have no idea, it is quite simply not true. The Basel one-tenth* limit is imposed by regulators, so it might be accurate to say that <span>"The total amount that a bank can lend out is no more than ten times its share capital", but that is merely the upper limit, and depends on people wanting to borrow that much.So much to the background6. Modern banking, i.e. 'how banks behave once the government takes its e

#### Annotation 149655452

 #economics #money what money is, namely the physical or electronic record of who owes whom how much; 'money' is a liability as much as it is an asset

per cent interest and paying the depositor three per cent interest, pocketing two per cent for itself.11. Some refer to the process outlined in para 7 to 9 above as 'printing money', which it is - but the problem is that people don't realise <span>what money is, namely the physical or electronic record of who owes whom how much; 'money' is a liability as much as it is an asset; you can only have cash in the bank if somebody somewhere owes the bank money.12. As a final thought: the Basel capital requirement rules (see para 4 and 5 above) are of very limited us

#### Annotation 149655459

 #economics #money you can only have cash in the bank if somebody somewhere owes the bank money

outlined in para 7 to 9 above as 'printing money', which it is - but the problem is that people don't realise what money is, namely the physical or electronic record of who owes whom how much; 'money' is a liability as much as it is an asset; <span>you can only have cash in the bank if somebody somewhere owes the bank money.12. As a final thought: the Basel capital requirement rules (see para 4 and 5 above) are of very limited use in preventing credit bubbles. All the banks would have to do is tell the ven

#### Annotation 149655475

 #economics #money During the years of the credit bubble, banks were not issuing any new shares - if anything they were buying them back (reducing share capital). It is only after things went horribly wrong again in 2008 that banks started raising more share capital (or converting bonds to share capital).