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Flashcard 149468304

Question
Make sure that there is enough [...] and it is notable.
Answer
context


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Wikipedia:FAQ - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
development; and you may wish to try the Article Wizard. For creating a new page in your userspace see How do I create a user subpage?; or use the Article Wizard, which has an option for that. <span>Make sure that there is enough context and it is notable. Why was my article deleted? Further information: Wikipedia:Why was the page I created deleted? If you look at the address where your page was, it should have a red box above it







Flashcard 1411020623116

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 5 etiologies of postmenopausal bleeding
Answer
Atrophic vulvovaginitis (most common causes)
• Exogenous estrogen
• Endometrial cancer (15-20%)
• Endometrial hyperplasia
• Endometrial or cervical polyps
• Cervical ectropion
• Other gynecologic malignancies
---• Carcinoma of cervix
---• Carcinoma vagina
---• Uterine sarcoma
---• Fallopian tube/ovarian cancer
• Bleeding from the urinary tract
• Bleeding from the GI tract
• Coagulation disorder


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etio of postmenopausal bleeding
Etiology of Postmenopausal Bleeding • Atrophic vulvovaginitis (most common causes) • Exogenous estrogen • Endometrial cancer (15-20%) • Endometrial hyperplasia • Endometrial or cervical polyps • Cervical ectropion • O







#cognitive_bias #psychology #well-being
differentiated between what they called decision utility, or “wantability” and experienced utility, a form of happiness or well-being

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Wantability, Well-Being and Risk | Risk and Well-Being
s critical–those decisions relate to what we want, not necessarily what makes us happy. The Nobel prize-winning economist Daniel Kahneman, together with Richard Thaler, looked at this distinction in a famous 2006 article. The two economists <span>differentiated between what they called decision utility, or “wantability” and experienced utility, a form of happiness or well-being. The two things are frequently not the same, and we have a growing evidence base to prove it. This adds a whole new dimension to risk since we may not only not get those things to which




#cognitive_bias #psychology #well-being
distinction between the remembering self and the experiencing self.

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Rationally Speaking: The remembering self vs the experiencing self
f [imagelink] by Ian Pollock I’ve just finished Daniel Kahneman’s book Thinking, Fast and Slow, which everybody needs to read. One of the useful concepts that he analyzes, which I believe I first heard from Dan Ariely, is the <span>distinction between the remembering self and the experiencing self. Following Kahneman’s presentation, think for a moment about where you would go on vacation if you could leave right now and money were no object. Why would you go there? What co




#cognitive_bias #psychology #well-being
think for a moment about where you would go on vacation if you could leave right now and money were no object. Why would you go there?

What comes to my mind is a hike along the East Coast Trail in Newfoundland. It’s been a few years since I’ve done any serious backpacking, so I suppose that I’m itching for a bit of challenge.

Now another question: where would you go if you could leave right now, money were no object, but your memory of the vacation would be erased when you returned?

I’m guessing that your choice under these circumstances is far more simply hedonistic – I’m inclined to choose some tropical beach destination.

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Rationally Speaking: The remembering self vs the experiencing self
Slow, which everybody needs to read. One of the useful concepts that he analyzes, which I believe I first heard from Dan Ariely, is the distinction between the remembering self and the experiencing self. Following Kahneman’s presentation, <span>think for a moment about where you would go on vacation if you could leave right now and money were no object. Why would you go there? What comes to my mind is a hike along the East Coast Trail in Newfoundland. It’s been a few years since I’ve done any serious backpacking, so I suppose that I’m itching for a bit of challenge. Now another question: where would you go if you could leave right now, money were no object, but your memory of the vacation would be erased when you returned? I’m guessing that your choice under these circumstances is far more simply hedonistic – I’m inclined to choose some tropical beach destination. According to Kahneman and others, this disparity reflects a difference in our preferences between a here-and-now preferrer — the experiencing self — that wants this pleasure to cont




#cognitive_bias #psychology #well-being
The creepy comes in when people are asked whether it would be acceptable to them to have an operation without anesthetic, so long as they do not remember it. According to Kahneman, many people (including himself) are all right with that, showing extreme callousness toward their experiencing selves!

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Rationally Speaking: The remembering self vs the experiencing self
lly prefer to have a band-aid slowly peeled off, rather than “getting it over with.” Our remembering selves see the former as a less bad experience, even as our experiencing selves suffer for twice as long with pain that is not much less. <span>The creepy comes in when people are asked whether it would be acceptable to them to have an operation without anesthetic, so long as they do not remember it. According to Kahneman, many people (including himself) are all right with that, showing extreme callousness toward their experiencing selves! (I happen to lack whatever intuition is driving this phenomenon — I’m quite protective of my experiencing self.) Of course, the remembering self is not always cast as the bad guy. I




#cognitive_bias #psychology #well-being
I suspect most of us will have had the odd day on which all of our considered plans were dropped because of some hedonistic distraction — say, watching an entire season of Game of Thrones

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Rationally Speaking: The remembering self vs the experiencing self
wing extreme callousness toward their experiencing selves! (I happen to lack whatever intuition is driving this phenomenon — I’m quite protective of my experiencing self.) Of course, the remembering self is not always cast as the bad guy. <span>I suspect most of us will have had the odd day on which all of our considered plans were dropped because of some hedonistic distraction — say, watching an entire season of Game of Thrones in one’s housecoat while wolfing down snacks (speaking purely hypothetically, of course). Here the experiencing self has triumphed over the remembering self. (Incidentally, there is int




M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors

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M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G pr

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
is claim instead found no significant association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence. [8] Olfactory behavior[edit] Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating) [9] Mechanism of action[edit] <span>M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. Ligands[edit] Few highly selective M 2 agonists are available at present, although there are several non-selective muscarinic agonists that stimulate M 2 , and a number of selectiv




M2-receptors modulate muscarinic potassium channels.[11][12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M2. This part of the G protein can open K+ channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate.

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M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate.

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
is claim instead found no significant association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence. [8] Olfactory behavior[edit] Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating) [9] Mechanism of action[edit] <span>M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. Ligands[edit] Few highly selective M 2 agonists are available at present, although there are several non-selective muscarinic agonists that stimulate M 2 , and a number of selectiv




Flashcard 1417414839564

Question
The [...] receptors are located in the heart
Answer
M2 muscarinic


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The M 2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
] Contents [hide] 1 Function 1.1 Heart 1.2 IQ 1.3 Olfactory behavior 2 Mechanism of action 3 Ligands 3.1 Agonists 3.2 Antagonists 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links Function[edit] Heart[edit] <span>The M 2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart, where they act to slow the heart rate down to normal sinus rhythm after positive stimulatory actions of the parasympathetic nervous system, by slowing the speed of depolarization. They







Flashcard 1417416412428

Question
The M2 muscarinic receptors are located in the [...]
Answer
heart


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The M 2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
] Contents [hide] 1 Function 1.1 Heart 1.2 IQ 1.3 Olfactory behavior 2 Mechanism of action 3 Ligands 3.1 Agonists 3.2 Antagonists 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links Function[edit] Heart[edit] <span>The M 2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart, where they act to slow the heart rate down to normal sinus rhythm after positive stimulatory actions of the parasympathetic nervous system, by slowing the speed of depolarization. They







Flashcard 1417417985292

Question
Vilken receptor binder ACh till i hjärtat?
Answer
M2 receptorn


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The M 2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
] Contents [hide] 1 Function 1.1 Heart 1.2 IQ 1.3 Olfactory behavior 2 Mechanism of action 3 Ligands 3.1 Agonists 3.2 Antagonists 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links Function[edit] Heart[edit] <span>The M 2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart, where they act to slow the heart rate down to normal sinus rhythm after positive stimulatory actions of the parasympathetic nervous system, by slowing the speed of depolarization. They







Flashcard 1417422179596

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 5 factors which appear to predispose fetus to breech position
Answer
-uterine relaxation assc w/ great parity
-mult fetuses
-hydramnios
-oligohydramnios
-hydrocephalus
-anencephalus
-prev breech delivery
-uterine anomalies
-pelvic tumours


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Flashcard 1417424014604

Tags
#has-images #obgyn
Question
What is a frank breech?
Answer

foot to mouth


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Flashcard 1417427422476

Tags
#has-images #obgyn
Question
What is a complete breech?
Answer

buddah baby (knees & hips flexed)


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Flashcard 1417430830348

Tags
#has-images #obgyn
Question
What is an incomplete breech?
Answer

one/both hips not flexed and one/both feet/knees lie below buttocks (footling/kneeling breech)


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Flashcard 1417434238220

Tags
#obgyn
Question
With twin pregnancy, when can you do a footling delivery? with which baby? how much time do you have?
Answer
can footling deliver the 2nd baby since first baby will dilate cervix, but need to do w/i 15 min (if past, can't do vag delivery)


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Flashcard 1417436073228

Tags
#obgyn
Question
which breech position has best chance of safe vaginal delivery?
Answer
frank breech


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Flashcard 1417437908236

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Which breech position is the least safe for vaginal delivery? What are they more likely to cause?
Answer
incomplete breech; more likely to experience birth trauma & death from head not delivering


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Flashcard 1417439743244

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 5 complications that can be anticipated with a breech presentation compared to a cephalic presentation
Answer
-perinatal morbidity & mortality from birth trauma/asphyxia (r/t head entrapment)
-low birth wt from preterm delivery and/or growth restriction
-prolapsed cord
-placenta previa
-fetal, neonatal, and infant anomalies
-uterine anomalies & tumours
-multiple fetuses
-operative intervention, esp c/s


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Flashcard 1417441578252

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What factors indicate mother may be able to safely deliver a breech baby vaginally?
Answer
-labour occurs at term (40 weeks)
-baby is correct weight
-baby is complete/frank breech
-mom & baby are otherwise healthy w/ no abnormalities


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Flashcard 1417443413260

Tags
#obgyn
Question
with breech presentation, c/s is recommended if:
Answer
-labour not progressing normally
-umbilical cord comes out before baby
-baby not in complete/frank breech


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Flashcard 1417445248268

Tags
#obgyn
Question
At what week(s) should you recognize & confirm breech presentation?
Answer
35-36 weeks to have adequate time for discussion of management options


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Flashcard 1417447083276

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are 2 options to offer a woman with breech baby?
Answer
-external cephalic version (ECV)
-planned lower segment c/s


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Flashcard 1417448918284

Tags
#obgyn
Question
When is the ideal time (GA) to perform external cephalic version (ECV)?
Answer
after 36 weeks


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Flashcard 1417450753292

Tags
#obgyn
Question
Why is it ideal to perform an external cephalic version after 36 weeks?
Answer
-spontaneous version often occurs prior to 36 wks
-turning back to breech after 36 wks is uncommon
-and if complications requiring immediate delivery, fetus mature after 36 wks


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Flashcard 1417453374732

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are risks of ECV (external cephalic version)?
Answer
-intrauterine death secondary to cord accident
-feto-maternal hemorrhage (rare)
-abruption
-rupture of membranes
-labour
-fetal bradycardia necessitating immediate c/s (<1%)
-alloimmunization


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Flashcard 1417455209740

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#obgyn
Question
What should be done to prevent alloimmunization when performing an ECV?
Answer
give Rhogam if mom Rh -ve


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Flashcard 1417457044748

Tags
#obgyn
Question
vag breech birth can be assc w/ higher risk of what than elective c/s?
Answer
perinatal mortality & short-term neonatal morbidity (e.g. seizures)


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Flashcard 1417458879756

Tags
#obgyn
Question
what outcome doesn't differ b/w vag breech birth & elective c/s?
Answer
long-term neurologic infant outcomes don't differ even when serious short-term morbidities present (through vag deliv)


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Flashcard 1417460714764

Tags
#obgyn
Question
do a pre/early labour US in breech presentation to assess:
Answer
-type of breech
-estimated fetal wt (EFW)
-attitude of fetal head (flexion preferred)


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Flashcard 1417462549772

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What should you do if US is not available in breech presentation?
Answer
c/s


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Flashcard 1417464384780

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 5 contraindications for labour in breech:
Answer
-cord presentation
-fetal growth restriction
-macrosomia
-any presentation other than frank/complete
-inadequate maternal pelvis
-fetal anomaly incompatible w/ vag deliv (e.g. hydrocephalus)
-woman refuses trial of vag breech birth


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Flashcard 1417466219788

Tags
#obgyn
Question
At what range of estimated fetal wt (EFW) can we offer vag breech deliv?
Answer
2500-4000g (normal wt)


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Flashcard 1417468054796

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 7 steps in labour management of vag breech deliv
Answer
-check maternal pelvis for any abn pelvic contraction
-good labour progress is best indicator that there's adequate room for fetus (c/s advised if labour progress inadequate)
-continuous fetal monitoring preferred
-check for prolapsed cord when membranes ruptured
-induction of labour is not recommended
-oxytocin augmentation of labour is acceptable if contractions are infreq/weak
-active 2nd stage (pushing) should be done near OR, prepared to perform C/S
-hcp for vag breech birth needs the skills & experience
-hcp skilled in neonatal resusc should be in attendance for deliv in case head is trapped or nuchal arms are irreducible (arms stuck behind head)
-once active pushing occurs, c/s recommended if deliv not imminent after 60 min


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Flashcard 1417469889804

Tags
#obgyn
Question
What are methods of intrauterine resusc?
Answer
-change maternal position
-IV fluid
-O2
-stop oxy if abn tracing while in labour


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Flashcard 1417471724812

Tags
#obgyn
Question
if fetal head doesn't restitute spontaneously in delivery, probably [...]
Answer
shoulder dystocia


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Flashcard 1417473559820

Tags
#obgyn
Question
List 5 risk factors for shoulder dystocia
Answer
-post-term pregnancy
-maternal obesity
-fetal macrosomia
-prev shoulder dystocia
-operative vag deliv (c/s)
-prolonged labour
-poorly controlled DM


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Flashcard 1417475394828

Tags
#obgyn
Question
maternal complications of shoulder dystocia (list 4)
Answer
-PPH
-uterine atony
-maternal lacerations
-uterine rupture


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Flashcard 1417477229836

Tags
#obgyn
Question
fetal complications of shoulder dystocia (list 5)
Answer
-birth injuries
-fractures (clavicle, humerus)
-brachial plexus palsy
-hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)
-death


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