Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 20-Dec-2016 (Tue)

Do you want BuboFlash to help you learning these things? Click here to log in or create user.

Flashcard 1428199443724

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Auctions can be categorized into two types depending on wether the value of the item being sold if for each bidder [...] or [...]
Answer
the same or unique to each bidder.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Sometimes markets really do use auctions to arrive at equilibrium price. Auctions can be categorized into two types depending on whether the value of the item being sold is the same for each bidder or is unique to each bidder.

Original toplevel document

3.8. Auctions as a Way to Find Equilibrium Price
Sometimes markets really do use auctions to arrive at equilibrium price. Auctions can be categorized into two types depending on whether the value of the item being sold is the same for each bidder or is unique to each bidder. The first case is called a common value auction in which there is some actual common value that will ultimately be revealed after the auction is settled. Prior to the auction’s settle







Flashcard 1428248988940

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Question
Treasury notes and some other financial instruments are sold using a form of [...] in which competitive and non-competitive bids are arrayed in descending price (increasing yield) order.
Answer
Dutch auction (called a single price auction)

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
illing to buy at that price. Second price sealed bid auctions are sometimes used to induce bidders to reveal their true reservation prices in private value auctions. Treasury notes and some other financial instruments are sold using a form of <span>Dutch auction (called a single price auction) in which competitive and non-competitive bids are arrayed in descending price (increasing yield) order. The winning bidders all pay the same price, but marginal bidders might not be abl

Original toplevel document

SUMMARY
ven price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, there is excess supply and price will fall. <span>Sometimes auctions are used to seek equilibrium prices. Common value auctions sell items that have the same value to all bidders, but bidders can only estimate that value before the auction is completed. Overly optimistic bidders overestimate the true value and end up paying a price greater than that value. This result is known as the winner’s curse. Private value auctions sell items that (generally) have a unique subjective value for each bidder. Ascending price auctions use an auctioneer to call out ever increasing prices until the last, highest bidder ultimately pays his/her bid price and buys the item. Descending price, or Dutch, auctions begin at a very high price and then reduce that price until one bidder is willing to buy at that price. Second price sealed bid auctions are sometimes used to induce bidders to reveal their true reservation prices in private value auctions. Treasury notes and some other financial instruments are sold using a form of Dutch auction (called a single price auction) in which competitive and non-competitive bids are arrayed in descending price (increasing yield) order. The winning bidders all pay the same price, but marginal bidders might not be able to fill their entire order at the market clearing price. Markets that work freely can optimize society’s welfare, as measured by consumer surplus and producer surplus. Consumer surplus is the difference between the total value







Flashcard 1429150240012

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The trivium, in itself a tool or a skill, has become associated with its most appropriate subject matter— [...], [...], [...], history, philosophy.
Answer
The languages, oratory, literature

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The trivium, in itself a tool or a skill, has become associated with its most appropriate subject matter—the languages, oratory, literature, history, philosophy.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1430521777420

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
In a case is called [...] in which there is some actual common value that will ultimately be revealed after the auction is settled. Prior to the auction’s settlement, however, bidders must estimate that true value.
Answer
common value auction

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The first case is called a common value auction in which there is some actual common value that will ultimately be revealed after the auction is settled. Prior to the auction’s settlement, however, bidders must estimate that true val

Original toplevel document

3.8. Auctions as a Way to Find Equilibrium Price
> Sometimes markets really do use auctions to arrive at equilibrium price. Auctions can be categorized into two types depending on whether the value of the item being sold is the same for each bidder or is unique to each bidder. <span>The first case is called a common value auction in which there is some actual common value that will ultimately be revealed after the auction is settled. Prior to the auction’s settlement, however, bidders must estimate that true value. An example of a common value auction would be bidding on a jar containing many coins. Each bidder could estimate the value; but until someone buys the jar and actually counts the coins, no one knows with certainty the true value. In the second case, called a private value auction , each buyer places a subjective value on the item, and in general their values differ. An example might be an auction for a unique p







Flashcard 1430707113228

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-2-consumer-theory-from-preferences-to-demand-function #study-session-4-microeconomics-analysis
Question

[...] can be defined as the branch of microeconomics that relates [...] to consumer preferences.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
2. CONSUMER THEORY: FROM PREFERENCES TO DEMAND FUNCTIONS
ous characteristics and manifestations. In this reading, we address the foundations of demand and supply analysis and seek to understand the sources of consumer demand through the theory of the consumer, also known as consumer choice theory. <span>Consumer choice theory can be defined as the branch of microeconomics that relates consumer demand curves to consumer preferences. Consumer choice theory begins with a fundamental model of how consumer prefe







Flashcard 1432236985612

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-2-consumer-theory-from-preferences-to-demand-function #study-session-4-microeconomics-analysis
Question
Consumer theory explores consumers’ willingness to [...], both of which the consumer finds beneficial.
Answer
trade off between two goods (or two baskets of goods)

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Consumer theory explores consumers’ willingness to trade off between two goods (or two baskets of goods), both of which the consumer finds beneficial.

Original toplevel document

2. CONSUMER THEORY: FROM PREFERENCES TO DEMAND FUNCTIONS
mer choice theory can be defined as the branch of microeconomics that relates consumer demand curves to consumer preferences. Consumer choice theory begins with a fundamental model of how consumer preferences and tastes might be represented. <span>It explores consumers’ willingness to trade off between two goods (or two baskets of goods), both of which the consumer finds beneficial. Consumer choice theory then recognizes that to consume a set of goods and services, consumers must purchase them at given market prices and with a limited income. In effect, consumer ch







Flashcard 1432333454604

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-4-the-opportunity-set #study-session-4
Question

A simple algebraic manipulation of Equation 4 yields the budget constraint in the form of an intercept and slope:

Equation (5) 

[...]

Answer
QW=I/PW−(PB/PW)*QB

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
A simple algebraic manipulation of Equation 4 yields the budget constraint in the form of an intercept and slope: Equation (5)  QW=IPW−PBPWQB

Original toplevel document

4. THE OPPORTUNITY SET: CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION, AND INVESTMENT CHOICE
aint Note: The budget constraint shows all the combinations of bread and wine that the consumer could purchase with a fixed amount of income, I, paying prices P B and P W , respectively. <span>A simple algebraic manipulation of Equation 4 yields the budget constraint in the form of an intercept and slope: Equation (5)  QW=IPW−PBPWQB Notice that the slope of the budget constraint is equal to –P B /P W , and it shows the amount of wine that Warren would have to give up if he were to purchase another sli







Flashcard 1432377756940

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
When one person, object or activity is compared with another a [...] form is used.
Answer
comparative

mia figlia nuota meglio della sua ‘my daughter swims better than hers’;

la pasta napoletana è migliore di quella siciliana ‘Neapolitan pasta is better than Sicilian pasta’.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
When one person, object or activity is compared with another a comparative form is used: mia figlia nuota meglio della sua ‘my daughter swims better than hers’; la pasta napoletana è migliore di quella siciliana ‘Neapolitan pasta is better than Sicilian pasta’

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432396893452

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
The word conjugation is also used to mean the regular patterns of verbs ending in [...] , [...] , [...] to which verbs belong.
Answer
-are, -ere, -ire

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
(io) vado ‘I go’; (noi) andremo ‘we will go’; le ragazze sono andate ‘the girls went’; voleva che io andassi a casa sua ‘he wanted me to go to his house’; etc. The word conjugation is also used to mean the regular patterns of verbs ending in <span>-are, -ere, -ire to which verbs belong.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432400301324

Tags
#conjunction #italian #italian-grammar
Question
What is a conjunction
Answer
A linking or joining word, usually linking two words, phrases or clauses within a sentence.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
A linking or joining word, usually linking two words, phrases or clauses within a sentence: Marco e Davide ‘Marco and Davide’; con amore ma con disciplina ‘with love but with discipline’; sono andata a letto perché ero stanca ‘I went to bed because I was tired’; i giudici dicono che bisogna

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432409738508

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
A noun is [...] if it can normally be used in both singular and plural, and take the indefinite article un, una (etc.)
Answer
countable

un bicchiere ‘a glass’; una pizza ‘a pizza’.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
A noun is countable if it can normally be used in both singular and plural, and take the indefinite article un, una (etc.): un bicchiere ‘a glass’; una pizza ‘a pizza’. Whereas an uncountable noun is one w

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432412097804

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
An [...] noun is one which is not normally found in the plural
Answer
uncountable

(e.g. zucchero ‘sugar’) or an abstract noun (such as tristezza ‘sadness’).

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
A noun is countable if it can normally be used in both singular and plural, and take the indefinite article un, una (etc.): un bicchiere ‘a glass’; una pizza ‘a pizza’. Whereas an uncountable noun is one which is not normally found in the plural (e.g. zucchero ‘sugar’) or an abstract noun (such as tristezza ‘sadness’).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432414457100

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
A demonstrative [...] or [...] is one which demonstrates or indicates the person or object being talked about.
Answer
adjective or a pronoun

questo carrello ‘this trolley’; quel professore ‘that teacher’; quelle tagliatelle ‘those tagliatelle’.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
A demonstrative adjective or a pronoun is one which demonstrates or indicates the person or object being talked about: questo carrello ‘this trolley’; quel professore ‘that teacher’; quelle tagliatelle ‘those tagliatelle’.</

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432494148876

Tags
#matter-and-form #nature-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
In water, the [...] consists of hydrogen and oxygen; the [...] is the precise mode of their union in a molecule of water and may be expressed by the chemical formula H 2 O.
Answer
matter

form

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
In water, the matter consists of hydrogen and oxygen; the form is the precise mode of their union in a molecule of water and may be expressed by the chemical formula H 2 O.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432537664780

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question
Blue Apron's distribution center in New Jersey, [...] and Papas weave through packing boxes stacked ceiling high to the command center, where a large screen shows the shipping schedules for packages destined for cities as far away as Chicago.
Answer
Salzberg

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Blue Apron's distribution center in New Jersey, Salzberg and Papas weave through packing boxes stacked ceiling high to the command center, where a large screen shows the shipping schedules for packages destined for cities as far away as Chica

Original toplevel document

Unknown title
le? People could be forgiven for mistaking Blue Apron, Plated and HelloFresh for Kozmo and Webvan, two delivery companies that were among the notorious flameouts of the first dot-com era. Or they could be the future of food. WALKING THROUGH <span>Blue Apron's distribution center in New Jersey, Salzberg and Papas weave through packing boxes stacked ceiling high to the command center, where a large screen shows the shipping schedules for packages destined for cities as far away as Chicago. Software predicts incoming demand and costs, and workers on custom assembly lines pack boxes with meat and vegetables that could land on dinner tables that day. IPads attached to each l







Flashcard 1432559947020

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef #operational-model #supply-chain
Question
The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, [...] is outsourced to the [...]
Answer
delivery

cheapest partner for a given shipment.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
hannel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, so <span>delivery is outsourced to the cheapest partner for a given shipment.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
lity ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlights the farms which provided the produce alongside information about how to cut and cook. Click here to view a video featuring Blue Apron’s Ghee Supplier. <span>Blue Apron aligns its operating model with its business model through: Control of the supply chain . Blue Apron’s model centers on delivering fresh ingredients. To maintain control of quality, the company manages its own distribution channel. The company sources farms differently for each of their three regional fulfilment centers, so the food is local and fresh and the delivery costs are low. The boxes are delivered in refrigerated boxes to maintain freshness, however, so delivery is outsourced to the cheapest partner for a given shipment. Bulk purchasing, portioned delivery . Blue Apron built its model on the idea of reducing food waste. At each fulfilment center, workers on assembly lines pack boxes with poultry, meat, vegetables and condiments to be delivered anywhere from 1-7 days later. Purchasing in bulk allows the company to negotiate prices with farmers, who are happy to receive a slightly lower price for a guaranteed volume. By only offering 6 recipes per week, Blue Apron can allocate the ingredients in a way that reduces food waste. Everything subscribers receive is pre-measured to the precise proportions the recipe requires, meaning less spending on unnecessary produce and less food waste. Data analytics . As a subscription business, Blue Apron collects data on its customers that allows for predictive modeling of demand. They built an internal suite of tools that manage the workflow of purchasing, fulfilment operations, ecommerce and order processing, shipping software, customer service software 6 . The software can estimate how many customers will cancel an order in any given week, for example, which allows the company to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops. Using this data helps create processes that improve operational efficiency and lower costs, supporting the $10 per meal price. Supporting Suppliers. There is a team at Blue Apron responsible for negotiating with farms to source ingredients, but they also work closely with farmers on crop rotation and management. This allows the company to work with farmers to plan production in a way that is more seasonal, more efficient and utilizes their resources better, all of which results in higher quality crops at lower prices for consumers. Additionally, by helping farmers to plan to rotate “heavy feeder” plants with less hungry plants like legumes, the farms use less pesticide and fertilize, resulting in healthier farms. Blue Apron focuses on bringing their customers an easy way to cook through a high quality food delivery service that has never bene available at scale before. Key operational decision







Object
#italian #italian-grammar
In grammatical terms, an object is the person or thing affected by the action or event, as opposed to the subject, which is the person or thing responsible for it. See: direct object, indirect object.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Participle
#italian #italian-grammar
(present, past) Verbs normally have a present participle and a past participle. Unlike other (finite) verb forms, the participle cannot be used on its own but is found together with other verb forms. The past participle is used with the verb avere or essere to form the passato prossimo tense: non abbiamo mangiato gli hamburgers ‘we didn’t eat hamburgers’. When used with essere, it agrees with the subject: nel 2004 siamo andati a Los Angeles ‘in 2004 we went to Los Angeles’. The present participle, less frequently used, changes form when used as an adjective i . . . cantanti.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Passato composto
#italian #italian-grammar
We use this term for the compound past, a past tense formed by auxiliary and participle: ho mangiato ‘I ate’; sono andato ‘I went’. Some books call it the passato prossimo ‘perfect tense’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Passato semplice
#italian #italian-grammar
We have used the term passato semplice ‘simple past’ to denote the past tense that is simple, not compound, e.g. andai ‘I went’ (as opposed to sono andato ‘I went’). Most books call this tense passato remoto, English ‘past definite’, ‘past historic’ or ‘past absolute’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Passive
#italian #italian-grammar
(verb forms) A passive construction is a sentence in which the subject of the sentence is the person or thing affected by the action or event taking place (as opposed to an active construction where the subject is the person carrying out the action): tutti gli studenti sono stati promossi ‘all the students were moved up a class’; il concerto è stato anticipato ‘the concert was put forward’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Person
#italian #italian-grammar
The verb subject can be a first person (io ‘I’), second person (tu ‘you’) third person (lui, lei ‘he, she’) and so on. Most verbs have three singular persons (English ‘I, you, he/she’) and three plural (English ‘we, you, they’).
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Personal pronouns
#italian #italian-grammar
Personal pronouns can be: subject pronouns io, tu, lui ‘I, you, he’, etc.; direct object pronouns mi, ti, lo, la ‘me, you, him, her’, etc.; indirect object pronouns mi, ti, gli, le ‘to me, to you, to him, to her’, etc.; disjunctive pronouns, used as stressed direct object or after a preposition (con) me, te, lui, lei ‘(with) me, you, him, her’, etc.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Possessive
#italian #italian-grammar
Possessive adjectives and/or pronouns denote ownership: il mio orologio ‘my watch’; la nostra macchina ‘our car’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Preposition
#italian #italian-grammar
A word that gives further information about a person, action or event, for example, about time, place, value or purpose: ci siamo sposati nel 1975 ‘we got married in 1975’; sono nata a Milano ‘I was born in Milan’; una macchina da caffè ‘a coffee machine’; un francobollo da 2 euro ‘a two euro stamp’; siamo venuti per imparare l’italiano ‘we came to learn Italian’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Pronoun
#italian #italian-grammar
A word that stands in for and/or refers to a noun. There are various categories of pronoun: demonstrative, such as hai visto quello? ‘have you seen that man’; indef- inite, such as alcuni ‘a few people’; interrogative, such as chi? ‘who?’; personal, such as io ‘I’, noi ‘ we, us’, lo ‘it’; possessive, such as il mio ‘my, mine’, i suoi ‘his, hers’ (m. pl. form); reflexive, such as mi, ti, si ‘myself, yourself, himself/herself’; relative, such as quello che ‘the one who’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Question
#italian #italian-grammar
Direct questions sometimes use a question word (dove vai stasera? ‘where are you going this evening?’) and sometimes they do not (hai tempo di parlarmi? ‘do you have time to speak to me?’). Indirect questions are introduced by words such as chiedere ‘to ask’: mi ha chiesto se avevo tempo di parlargli ‘he asked me if I had time to speak to him’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Reflexive verb
#italian #italian-grammar
A reflexive verb is a verb that can be used with a reflexive pronoun (the equivalent of English ‘myself, himself’) indicating that the subject and the object are one and the same: mi lavo ‘I wash’; si è fatto male ‘he hurt himself’. Sometimes the verb can only be used reflexively, and no object is actually present: molte volte i drogati si vergognano di quello che fanno ‘often drug addicts are ashamed of what they do’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Regular
#italian #italian-grammar
A regular noun or verb is one that follows one of the main noun or verb patterns, in other words one whose forms and endings can be predicted, for example: -are, parlare ‘to speak’; -ere, sorridere ‘to smile’; -ire, partire ‘to leave’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Relative
#italian #italian-grammar
A relative pronoun introduces a relative clause, i.e. a clause that gives more informa- tion about a person or thing specifically mentioned, or even an event referred to: ho visto la studentessa che veniva sempre nel mio ufficio ‘I saw the student who was always coming to my office’; è andato alla discoteca senza chiedere il permesso, ciò che mi ha fatto arrabbiare ‘he went to the disco without asking permission, which made me angry’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Reported speech
#italian #italian-grammar
This is also known as indirect speech and is a way of relating words spoken or written by someone else. Reported speech is usually introduced by verbs such as dire ‘to say, to tell’, scrivere ‘to write’, annunciare ‘to announce’, and the conjunc- tion che: i giornali annunciano che i soldati hanno massacrato migliaia di bambini ‘the newspapers say that the soldiers have massacred thousands of children’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Sentence
#italian #italian-grammar
A sentence must have a verb and a subject. It can either be a simple sentence (one subject, one verb), e.g. gli ospiti dormivano ‘the guests were asleep’, or a complex sentence (main clause plus one or more subordinate clauses), e.g. mentre dormivano, i ladri hanno portato via tutto ‘while they were asleep, the thieves took everything’
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Simple tenses
#italian #italian-grammar
Those that are formed of one word only. See also Compound tenses.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Subject
#italian #italian-grammar
The subject is usually a noun, pronoun or proper name denoting the person or object performing the action or the event taking place: mia madre ha comprato un tailleur ‘my mother bought a suit’; la festa si svolge a maggio ‘the festival takes place in May’. In the case of a passive construction, the subject is the person or thing affected by the action: gli studenti sono stati criticati dagli insegnanti ‘the students were criticised by their teachers’. With Italian verbs, it is not always essential to have a subject mentioned since it is understood from the verb form, e.g. abbiamo mangiato a mezzogiorno ‘we ate at midday’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Subjunctive
#italian #italian-grammar
The subjunctive mood is used to express doubt or uncertainty. It is almost always used in complex sentences where one clause depends on another (e.g. abbiamo comprato un cagnolino in modo che i bambini imparino a prendere cura degli animali ‘we bought a puppy so that the children can learn how to look after animals’), or where the subordinate clause depends on a main verb expressing uncertainty (dubito che lui possa farcela ‘I doubt if he can manage it’). However it can be found standing on its own, when used as an imperative form: vada via! ‘go away!’
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Subordinate (clauses)
#italian #italian-grammar
A subordinate clause is one that depends on another clause, usually the main clause in a sentence. It can be introduced by a conjunction such as che ‘what’ or perché ‘because’, or a relative pronoun such as che ‘who, which’. See Clauses.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Superlative
#italian #italian-grammar
(See also Comparative.) When one or more people, objects or activities are compared with others, or a comparison is implied, a superlative form is used to express the one that is superior to all the rest: la casa della mia amica Matilde era la più grande del paese ‘my friend Matilde’s house was the biggest in the village’; abbiamo fatto il meglio possibile ‘we did as well as we could’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Tense
#italian #italian-grammar
A finite verb form that normally provides a clue as to the time setting (present, past, future) for an action or event: andremo a New York ‘we will go to New York’; i miei amici ci sono stati ‘my friends have been there’. Occasionally the gram- matical verb tense does not correspond to the time setting – for example the future can be used for a present time setting: Sono le 4.00. Mio marito sarà già a Palermo ‘It’s 4.00. My husband will be at Palermo by now’ – and the imperfect can be used to express a polite request: volevo un francobollo da 2 euro ‘I wanted a 2 euro stamp’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Transitive verbs
#italian #italian-grammar
Transitive verbs are verbs that can always be used transitively, in other words with a direct object: ho fumato una sigaretta ‘I smoked a cigarette’. Sometimes no object is used ho fumato ‘I smoked’, but the verb is still a transitive verb because it can, and often does, take an object. Some verbs can be used both transitively and intran- sitively, e.g. aumentare ‘to increase’, diminuire ‘to decrease’, cambiare ‘to change’: abbiamo aumentato il prezzo del biglietto ‘we have increased the price of the ticket’; il prezzo del biglietto è aumentato ‘the price of the ticket has increased’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Verb
#italian #italian-grammar
A verb describes an action, event or state. It always has a subject and can also have an object. Its form varies according to mood and tense, and the person, gender and number of its subject.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Verb stem
#italian #italian-grammar
The stem of a verb is its ‘base’, the part of the verb left when you take away -are, -ere-, -ire from the infinitive form. In a regular verb the ending changes but the stem does not usually change. In an irregular verb, the stem may change too.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Voice
#italian #italian-grammar
Verbs normally have two voices: active and passive.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar
The main function of nouns in any language is to denote an entity (person, object, etc.) or concept (situation, abstract idea, etc.).
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432667688204

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
The main function of nouns in any language is to denote [...] or [...]
Answer
an entity (person, object, etc.)

concept (situation, abstract idea, etc.).

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The main function of nouns in any language is to denote an entity (person, object, etc.) or concept (situation, abstract idea, etc.).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar
Nouns are generally used together with articles (the, a) and/or adjectives (describing physical or other characteristics), which provide information about the entity or concept.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432671096076

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
Nouns are generally used together with [...] and/or [...] , which provide information about the entity or concept.
Answer
articles (the, a)

adjectives (describing physical or other characteristics)

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Nouns are generally used together with articles (the, a) and/or adjectives (describing physical or other characteristics), which provide information about the entity or concept.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar
Nouns, Adjectives and Articles together form a group of words called the noun group; two examples are shown below:

una (article) grande (adjective) casa (noun) a big house

la (article) ragazza (noun) inglese (adjective) the English girl
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432675814668

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
Nouns, Adjectives and Articles together form a group of words called the [...]; two examples are shown below:

una (article) grande (adjective) casa (noun) a big house

la (article) ragazza (noun) inglese (adjective) the English girl
Answer
noun group

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Nouns, Adjectives and Articles together form a group of words called the noun group; two examples are shown below: una (article) grande (adjective) casa (noun) a big house la (article) ragazza (noun) inglese (adjective) the English girl</sp

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Although the noun group may contain other elements (e.g. adverbs, prepositional phrases, etc.), in this chapter we will only deal with the three basic elements of noun/ article/adjective, analysing them one by one.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar #structure
In Italian the three components of the noun group can be considered not only separately but also as a ‘whole’, in which the various components have to ‘agree’, so we will also look at how they are used together.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar
The noun is the focus of the noun group, and in fact the article and adjectives always agree with the noun in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural).
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432683154700

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
The noun is the focus of the noun group, and in fact the article and adjectives always agree with the noun in [...] and [...]
Answer
gender (masculine or feminine)

number (singular or plural).

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The noun is the focus of the noun group, and in fact the article and adjectives always agree with the noun in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar
The two grammatical features of gender and number determine the form of noun, article and adjective.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432686038284

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
The two grammatical features of gender and number determine the form of [...], [...] and [...]
Answer
noun

article

adjective.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The two grammatical features of gender and number determine the form of noun, article and adjective.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar
All Italian nouns have either a masculine or a feminine gender
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432689446156

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
All Italian nouns have either a masculine or a feminine [...]
Answer
gender

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
All Italian nouns have either a masculine or a feminine gender

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar
Gender is a purely grammatical term.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432692067596

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
Gender is a purely [...] term.
Answer
grammatical

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Gender is a purely grammatical term.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar
Nouns referring to human beings or animals sometimes have the same grammatical gender as their natural gender, but not always (see below).
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432695475468

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
Nouns referring to human beings or animals sometimes have the same [...] as their [...] , but not always.
Answer
grammatical gender

natural gender

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Nouns referring to human beings or animals sometimes have the same grammatical gender as their natural gender, but not always (see below).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar #structure
speakers of other languages often find it difficult to remember the gender of nouns and this creates a problem when it comes to making the other components of the noun group ‘agree’ with the noun.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar
With non-animate objects, there is not always an obvious explanation for their gender.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432701242636

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
With [...], there is not always an obvious explanation for their gender.
Answer
non-animate objects

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
With non-animate objects, there is not always an obvious explanation for their gender.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Non-Italian speakers either have to learn and memorise the genders of words or consult a dictionary.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar
Italian dictionaries usually indicate the gender of nouns with abbreviations such as s.m. (sostantivo maschile) and s.f. (sostantivo femminile).
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432706223372

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Question
Italian dictionaries usually indicate the gender of nouns with abbreviations such as [...] and s.f. [...]
Answer
s.m. (sostantivo maschile)

(sostantivo femminile).

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Italian dictionaries usually indicate the gender of nouns with abbreviations such as s.m. (sostantivo maschile) and s.f. (sostantivo femminile).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Italian does not always have a male and a female of each animal species
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar #structure
Some animals – as in English – have two distinct names for the male and the female of the species:

un cane dog una cagna bitch

un gallo cock una gallina hen
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar
Some, but not all, professional and other titles may have a distinct form for the feminine. Nouns whose masculine form ends in -e have a feminine form ending either in -a or in -essa:

cameriere cameriera waiter/waitress
infermiere infermiera nurse
padrone padrona master/mistress
studente studentessa student
presidente presidentessa president
principe principessa prince/princess
conte contessa count/countess
barone baronessa baron/baroness
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar #structure
baroness Most nouns with masculine form ending in -tore have a feminine form ending in -trice:
ambasciatore ambasciatrice ambassador

attore attrice actor/actress

autore autrice author direttore

direttrice director, manager

imperatore imperatrice emperor/empress

pittore pittrice painter

scultore scultrice sculptor

scrittore scrittrice writer

senatore senatrice senator
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#italian #italian-grammar #number #structure
Number Unlike gender, the grammatical concept of singular or plural (‘number’) causes no problem for speakers of English. Occasionally (as in English) a singular noun is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e.g. la gente ‘people’. On the other hand, some objects that are singular in English may be plural in Italian, e.g. le lasagne ‘lasagne’ or i capelli ‘hair’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1432719854860

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #number #structure
Question
Number Unlike gender, the grammatical concept of [...] (‘number’) causes no problem for speakers of English.
Answer
singular or plural

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Number Unlike gender, the grammatical concept of singular or plural (‘number’) causes no problem for speakers of English. Occasionally (as in English) a singular noun is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plur

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 1432722214156

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar #number #structure
Question
Occasionally (as in English) a [...] is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e.g. la gente ‘people’.
Answer
singular noun

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Number Unlike gender, the grammatical concept of singular or plural (‘number’) causes no problem for speakers of English. Occasionally (as in English) a singular noun is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e.g. la gente ‘people’. On the other hand, some objects that are singular in English may be plu

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







#italian #italian-grammar #number #structure
Some objects that are singular in English may be plural in Italian, e.g. le lasagne ‘lasagne’ or i capelli ‘hair’.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
concept of singular or plural (‘number’) causes no problem for speakers of English. Occasionally (as in English) a singular noun is used to refer to a collective entity that one might expect to be grammatically plural, e.g. la gente ‘people’. <span>On the other hand, some objects that are singular in English may be plural in Italian, e.g. le lasagne ‘lasagne’ or i capelli ‘hair’.<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs