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on 21-Mar-2017 (Tue)

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Flashcard 1484402593036

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In other words, the normalizer for the beta distribution is the [equation]
Answer
beta function \(B(a,b) = \int d\theta \space \theta^{a-1}(1-\theta)^{b-1}\)


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In other words, the normalizer for the beta distribution is the beta function \(B(a,b) = \int d\theta \space \theta^{a-1}(1-\theta)^{b-1}\)

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Flashcard 1491360156940

Tags
#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
Kullbac k-Leibler (KL) div ergence : [...] (3.50) In the case of discrete v ariables, it is the extra amount of information (measured in bits if we use the base 2 logarithm, (but in machine learning w e usually use nats and the natural logarithm) needed to send a message containing symbols drawn from probability distribution P , when w e use a co de that w as designed to minimize the length of messages dra wn from probabilit y distribution Q.
Answer
\(D_{KL}( P||Q) = E_{x\sim P} [log\frac{ P (x )}{ Q (x )}] = E_{x \sim P} [log P(x) - log Q(x)] \)


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Kullbac k-Leibler (KL) div ergence : \(D_{KL}( P||Q) = E_{x\sim P} = [log\frac{ P (x )}{ Q (x )}] = E_{x \sim P} [log P(x) - log Q(x)] \) (3.50) In the case of discrete v ariables, it is the extra amount of information (measured in bits if we use the base 2 logarithm, (but in machine learning w e usually use nats and the

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#1 #2 #anki #byrokratian_ihannemalli #klassiset_koulukunnat #lk1
tehokkuus aiheutui siitä, että virkoihin valittiin niihin koulutuksen saaneita henkilöitä

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#am #am-lk1 #anki #ihmissuhdekoulukunta #johtamis-ja_markkinointiajattelun_kehittyminen
Hawthorne-tutkimuksilla oli käänteentekevä vaikutus organisaatioteorioille, tuotannon sosiologialle ja työn psykologialle. Niiden vaikutuksesta tutkijoiden mielenkiinto siirtyi rakenteiden yksipuolisesta tarkastelusta sosiaalisten järjestelmien tarkasteluun. Tutkimukset johtivat siihen, että organisaatioita alettiin tarkastella sekä sosiaalisina, teknisinä että taloudellisina järjestelminä

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#anki #johtamisajattelu #kehittyminen #markkinointiajattelu
organisaatio pyrkii sopeutumaan ympäristön aiheuttamaan epävarmuuteen tiedonvaihdon ja tietojen prosessoinnin avulla

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#1.5 #am #am-lk1 #johtamis-ja_markkinointiajattelun_kehittyminen #tuotantokeskeisestä_ajattelusta_asiakaslähtöiseenmarkkinointiin
Markkinointiajattelu selittää yritysten ja asiakkaiden käyttäytymistä erilaisissa markkinoinnin tilanteissa.

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1.5 Tuotantokeskeisestä ajattelusta asiakaslähtöiseenmarkkinointiin
#1.5 #am #am-lk1 #johtamis-ja_markkinointiajattelun_kehittyminen #tuotantokeskeisestä_ajattelusta_asiakaslähtöiseenmarkkinointiin
Markkinoinnin tieteenä katsotaan syntyneen 1960-luvulla ja saaneen alkunsa Harvard Business Review’n artikkelista ”Marketing Myopia”, jossa professori Ted Levitt kuvaa kilpailun ja asiakkaiden ratkaisevaa roolia liiketoiminnassa

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#sleep

The Cardinal men’s basketball team volunteered to be Mah’s study cohort. Eleven players used motion-sensing wristbands to determine how long they slept on average—just over 6.5 hours a night. For two weeks, the team kept to their normal schedules, while Mah’s researchers measured their performances on sprint drills, free throws, and three-point shooting. Then, the players were told to try and sleep as much as they could for five to seven weeks, with a goal of 10 hours in bed each night. Their actual time asleep, as measured by the sensors attached to their wrists, went from an average of 6.5 hours to nearly 8.5 hours.

The results were startling. By the end of the extra-sleep period, players had improved their free throw shooting by 11.4 percent and their three-point shooting by 13.7 percent. There was an improvement of 0.7 seconds on the 282-foot sprint drill—every single player on the team was quicker than before the study had started.

A 13-percent performance enhancement is the sort of gain that one associates with drugs or years of training—not simply making sure to get tons of sleep.

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Building Better Athletes With More Sleep - The Atlantic
weeks trying to extend their sleep as much as possible, to see what effect it would have on objective measurements of athletic performance. Amazingly, no one had ever done a study to see the effect of sleep extension on competitive athletes. <span>The Cardinal men’s basketball team volunteered to be Mah’s study cohort. Eleven players used motion-sensing wristbands to determine how long they slept on average—just over 6.5 hours a night. For two weeks, the team kept to their normal schedules, while Mah’s researchers measured their performances on sprint drills, free throws, and three-point shooting. Then, the players were told to try and sleep as much as they could for five to seven weeks, with a goal of 10 hours in bed each night. Their actual time asleep, as measured by the sensors attached to their wrists, went from an average of 6.5 hours to nearly 8.5 hours. The results were startling. By the end of the extra-sleep period, players had improved their free throw shooting by 11.4 percent and their three-point shooting by 13.7 percent. There was an improvement of 0.7 seconds on the 282-foot sprint drill—every single player on the team was quicker than before the study had started. A 13-percent performance enhancement is the sort of gain that one associates with drugs or years of training—not simply making sure to get tons of sleep. Mah’s research strongly suggests that most athletes would perform much better with more sleep—if they could get it. But it’s not quite that easy; in fact, athletes face challenges with




Flashcard 1495107505420

Tags
#asdf #definition #linear-algebra
Question
Def: composition of functions
Answer
Given two functions f : A → B and g : B → C, the function g ◦ f, called the composition of g and f, is a function whose domain is A and its co-domain is C. It is defined by the rule

(g ◦ f)(x )=g(f(x))

[$$]\forall x \in A[/$$].

If the image of f is not contain ed in the dom ain of g then g f is not a legal expression.


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Flashcard 1495110651148

Tags
#asdf #definition #linear-algebra #theorem
Question
Theorem: Associativity of composition
Answer
For functions f, g, h,

h ◦ (g ◦ f) = (h ◦ g) ◦ f

if the compositions are legal.


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Flashcard 1495115369740

Tags
#asdf #definition #linear-algebra
Question
Def: functional inverse
Answer
We say that functions f and g are functional inverses of each other if

f ◦ g is defined and is the identity function on the domain of g, and
g ◦ f is defined and is the identity function on the domain of f.


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Flashcard 1495117204748

Tags
#cloze #linear-algebra
Question
A function that has an inverse is said to be {{c1::invertible}}.
Answer
Not every function has an inverse.


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Flashcard 1495119039756

Tags
#asdf #definition #linear-algebra
Question
Def: one-to-one
Answer
Consider a function f : D → F .
We say that f is one-to-one if for every x, yD, f(x) = f(y) ⇒ x = y.


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Flashcard 1495120874764

Tags
#cloze #definition #linear-algebra
Question
[$$] f: D \mapsto F[/$$]
We say that f is {{c1::onto}} if, for every zF ,there exists xD such that f(x) = z.


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Flashcard 1495123496204

Tags
#cloze #linear-algebra #theorem
Question
Lemma: An invertible function is {{c1::one-to-one}}.


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