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Flashcard 1428168772876

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Besides a good’s own price, other variables also have influence on purchase decision, such as [...], [...], the prices of other goods that serve as substitutes or complements, and so on.
Answer
consumers’ incomes, their tastes and preferences


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Although a good’s own price is important in determining consumers’ willingness to purchase it, other variables also have influence on that decision, such as consumers’ incomes, their tastes and preferences, the prices of other goods that serve as substitutes or complements, and so on. Economists attempt to capture all of these influences in a relationship called the demand function .</spa

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3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
yers will choose to buy less of it, and as its price falls, they buy more. This is such a ubiquitous observation that it has come to be called the law of demand , although we shall see that it need not hold in all circumstances. <span>Although a good’s own price is important in determining consumers’ willingness to purchase it, other variables also have influence on that decision, such as consumers’ incomes, their tastes and preferences, the prices of other goods that serve as substitutes or complements, and so on. Economists attempt to capture all of these influences in a relationship called the demand function . (In general, a function is a relationship that assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given set of values of a group of independent variables.) We represent such a deman







Flashcard 1439271619852

Tags
#eximbank #key-common-features #octopus #usa
Question
Ex-Im Bank requires the foreign buyer to make a cash payment to the exporter equal to at least [...] of the U.S. supply contract.
Answer
15 percent


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Ex-Im Bank requires the foreign buyer to make a cash payment to the exporter equal to at least 15 percent of the U.S. supply contract.

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Government-Assisted Foreign Buyer Financing (Eximbank USA)
e sales package „ Cash payment upon shipment of the goods or services Cons „ Subject to certain restrictions for U.S. government policy reasons „ Possible lengthy process of approving financing <span>Key Common Features of Ex-Im Bank’s Loan Guarantees and Direct Loans Ex-Im Bank assists U.S. exporters by: (a) providing direct loans; or (b) guaranteeing repayment of commercial loans to creditworthy foreign buyers for purchases of U.S. goods and services. These loans are generally used to finance the purchase of high-value capital equipment or services or exports to large-scale projects that require medium- or long-term financing. Ex-Im Bank’s foreign buyer financing is also used to finance the purchase of refurbished equipment, software, and certain banking and legal fees, as well as some local costs and expenses. There is no minimum or maximum limit to the size of the export sale that may be supported by the Bank’s foreign buyer financing. Ex-Im Bank requires the foreign buyer to make a cash payment to the exporter equal to at least 15 percent of the U.S. supply contract. Repayment terms up to five years are available for exports of capital goods and services. Transportation equipment and exports to large-scale projects may be eligible for repayment terms up to 10 years (12 to 18 years for certain sectors). Military items are generally not eligible for Ex-Im Bank financing nor are sales to foreign military entities. In addition, goods must meet the Bank’s foreign content requirements. Finally, Ex-Im Bank financing may not be available in certain countries and certain terms for U.S. government policy reasons (for more information, see the Country Limitation Schedule posted on the Bank’s Web site, www.exim.gov, under the “Apply” section). Key Features of Ex-Im Bank Loan Guarantees Loans are made by commercial banks and repayment of these loans is guaranteed by Ex-Im Bank. Guarant







Flashcard 1439778868492

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-16-the-firm-and-market-structures #section-2-analysis-of-mkt-structures #study-session-4
Question
The oligopoly market structure is based on a [...] supplying the market.
Answer
relatively small number of firms


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The oligopoly market structure is based on a relatively small number of firms supplying the market. The small number of firms in the market means that each firm must consider what retaliatory strategies the other firms will pursue when prices and production level

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2. ANALYSIS OF MARKET STRUCTURES
yalty associated with soft drinks such as Coca-Cola. Many of Coca-Cola’s customers believe that their beverages are truly different from and better than all other soft drinks. The same is true for fashion creations and cosmetics. <span>The oligopoly market structure is based on a relatively small number of firms supplying the market. The small number of firms in the market means that each firm must consider what retaliatory strategies the other firms will pursue when prices and production levels change. Consider the pricing behavior of commercial airline companies. Pricing strategies and route scheduling are based on the expected reaction of the other carriers in similar markets. For any given route—say, from Paris, France, to Chennai, India—only a few carriers are in competition. If one of the carriers changes its pricing package, others will likely retaliate. Understanding the market structure of oligopoly markets can help in identifying a logical pattern of strategic price changes for the competing firms. Finally, the least competitive market structure is monopoly . In pure monopoly markets, there are no other good substitutes for the given product or service. There is a si







Flashcard 1611287366924

Tags
#balance-sheet-analysis
Question
[...] ratios measure the ability of a company to meet future short-term financial obligations.
Answer
Liquidity ratios


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Subject 5. Uses and Analysis of the Balance Sheet
Balance Sheet Ratios Liquidity ratios measure the ability of a company to meet future short-term financial obligations from current assets and, more importantly, cash flows. Each of the following ratios takes a slightly different view of cash or near-cash items. Current Ratio is a measure of the number of dollars of current assets available to







Flashcard 1620039306508

Question
Who is the focus of a dissertation? A book?
Answer
1. the student 2. the reader


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Often obscure, abstract Clear with judicious use and heavy on jargon of technical terms where needed

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Flashcard 1620043238668

Question
How does the language of a diss. differ from a book?
Answer
1. Often obscure, abstract and heavy on jargon 2. Clear with judicious use of technical terms where needed


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Often obscure, abstract Clear with judicious use and heavy on jargon of technical terms where needed

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Dissertation Structure: Often progressive
Book Structure: Organic unity, narrative recitation thread

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Dissertation Referencing: Often far more than strictly necessary
Book Referencing: Only what is necessary

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Language teachers tend to agree with the notion that what needs to be taught is critical language awareness, interpretive skills, and historical consciousness,

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we argue that our understanding of culture is socially and historically contingent and that different views on history are not only difficult to grasp but, for many, impossible to accept. We offer a way of language teaching that approaches language as both a personal and a cultural/historical event and that places individual experience into a larger social and historical framework.

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Flashcard 1620136561932

Question
What are the parts of the CNS?
Answer
The brain and spinal cord


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Flashcard 1620142853388

Question
What are the parts of the PNS?
Answer
(Peripheral Nervous System) - the nerves that go to and from the brain and spinal cord (i.e., the cranial nerves, spinal nerves and peripheral ganglia)


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The peripheral nervous system has two main subdivisions, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

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The somatic nervous system sends and receives sensory messages that control voluntary motor movement of the skeletal (striated or lined) muscles.

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The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls automatic or involuntary bodily functions of the smooth muscles and glands, including digestion, heart rate, and breathing. The primary function of the ANS is to maintain homeostasis.

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The ANS is further subdivided into two systems, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

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The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is the body's "mobilizing" system. Also known as the "fight or flight" system, itis dominant during times of stress. When this mobilizing system is activated, hormones are released into the bloodstream. These hormones result in increased respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure and decreases in the processes of digestion and elimination.

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The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is the "energy conserving" system, and is dominant when a person is relaxed. The main function of the PNS is basic body maintenance, which is accomplished by slowing heart rate, blood pressure and respiration, while increasing digestion and elimination.

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The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the spinal cord and brain, with sensory (afferent) neurons carrying information into the CNS, and motor (efferent) neurons carrying information away from the CNS to muscles and glands.

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The spinal cord is divided into four regions. The cervical or neck region includes vertebrae CI through C7. The thoracic or chest region includes vertebrae Tl through T12. The lumbar or back region includes vertebrae LI through L5. Finally, the sacral region includes the SI vertebra. When the spinal cord is damaged, muscles served by sections of the spinal cord below the damaged area do not function normally, and paralysis may result.

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Severing the spinal cord anywhere between CI and C5 results in paralysis in all four limbs termed quadriplegia

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Paraplegia refers to paralysis in the legs only. Severing the spinal cord at C6 or C7 results in both paraplegiaand partial paralysis of the arms. Severing the spinal cord at Tl or below results in paraplegia only

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Incomplete severing of the spinal cord may result in muscle weakness, termed paresis,ratherthan full paralysis. Strokes can also cause paresis.

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Even when the spinal cord is damaged, many reflexes still remain intact (e.g., the knee jerk reflex). A male who is paralyzed can therefore achieve an erection (a reflex). He may even be able to ejaculate and experience sensations of orgasm.

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The major divisions of the brain are: a) the cerebrum, consisting of the cerebral cortex and subcortical areas, b) the cerebellum,and c) the brain stem.

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The cerebrum is involved with complex thought, perception, and action. The outer layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex and the inside layer contains the subcortical areas.

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The cerebral cortex is divided into halves, the right and left hemispheres, which are connected with a thick band of nerve fibers, the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes -- frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. Thus one can speak of eight different combinations: the right frontal lobe, the left frontal lobe, the right temporal lobe, etc. The lobes are separated from each other by elongated grooves (sulci). The central sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes; the lateral sulcus separates the temporal lobes from the frontal and parietal lobes.

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The left hemisphere is dominant in about 97% of all people. Dominance refers to control over language, which includes reading, writing, speaking, spelling, naming, as well as motor control. About 90% of the population is right handed, and almost all right-handers are left hemisphere dominant

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damage to the left hemisphere may result in aphasia (speech disorder), other language problems (e.g., agraphia, anomia), apraxia (motor disorder), and/or difficulties with the right side of the body.

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The right hemisphere is involved with perceptual, visuospatial, artistic, musical, and intuitive activities. The right hemisphere is also associated with the maintenance of body image, and the comprehension and expression of visual, facial, and verbal emotion

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Damage to the right hemisphere mayresultin cognitive abnormalities that includeleft side hemi-neglect, prosopagnosia, visual-perceptual disturbances, and agnosia for musical sounds. Affective abnormalities that may occur include indifference, euphoria, hysteria, depression, mania, disinhibition, impulsivity, and abnormal sexual behavior.

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There are three main divisions of the frontal lobes: the prefrontal cortex, the premotor area, and the motor area.

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The prefrontal cortex is critical to personality, emotionality, inhibition, planning and initiative, abstract thinking, judgment, and higher mental functions (e.g., cognitive flexibility) - that which makes us unique humanbeings.

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The premotor area is involved in planningmovement, while the motor area instigates voluntary muscle movement.

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Broca's area is located in the left frontal lobe, and controls the muscles that produce speech.

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