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#computer-science
YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a human-readable data serialization language.

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YAML - Wikipedia
ml Internet media type not registered Initial release 11 May 2001; 16 years ago (2001-05-11) Latest release 1.2 (Third Edition) (1 October 2009; 8 years ago (2009-10-01)) Type of format Data interchange Open format? Yes Website yaml.org <span>YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a human-readable data serialization language. It is commonly used for configuration files, but could be used in many applications where data is being stored (e.g. debugging output) or transmitted (e.g. document headers). YAML targe




Flashcard 1803885088012

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#computer-science
Question
YAML is a [... language ...]


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YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a human-readable data serialization language.

Original toplevel document

YAML - Wikipedia
ml Internet media type not registered Initial release 11 May 2001; 16 years ago (2001-05-11) Latest release 1.2 (Third Edition) (1 October 2009; 8 years ago (2009-10-01)) Type of format Data interchange Open format? Yes Website yaml.org <span>YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a human-readable data serialization language. It is commonly used for configuration files, but could be used in many applications where data is being stored (e.g. debugging output) or transmitted (e.g. document headers). YAML targe







Flashcard 2976208260364

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#best-practice #git
Question
writing commit messages with the [...mood and tense...] to be consistent with generated messages from commands like git merge.
Answer
imperative, present


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writing commit messages with the imperative, present tense to be consistent with generated messages from commands like git merge.

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Version Control Best Practices
. Separate it from the following body by including a blank line. The body of your message should provide detailed answers to the following questions: What was the motivation for the change? How does it differ from the previous implementation? <span>Use the imperative, present tense („change“, not „changed“ or „changes“) to be consistent with generated messages from commands like git merge. Version Control is not a Backup System Having your files backed up on a remote server is a nice side effect of having a version control system. But you should not use your VCS like







Flashcard 2976210619660

Tags
#best-practice #git
Question
The body of your commit message should provide the [... and ...] of the commit.
Answer
Why and what

motivation and difference


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The body of your commit message should provide motivation to and difference of the commit.

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Version Control Best Practices
n it comes to pushing / sharing your code with others. Write Good Commit Messages Begin your message with a short summary of your changes (up to 50 characters as a guideline). Separate it from the following body by including a blank line. <span>The body of your message should provide detailed answers to the following questions: What was the motivation for the change? How does it differ from the previous implementation? Use the imperative, present tense („change“, not „changed“ or „changes“) to be consistent with generated messages from commands like git merge. Version Control is not a Backup System







#python-glossary
iterable

An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects , and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics.

Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator , sequence , and generator .

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Glossary — Python 3.6.5 documentation
as the resources it relies on may not function anymore (common examples are library modules or the warnings machinery). The main reason for interpreter shutdown is that the __main__ module or the script being run has finished executing. <span>iterable An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects, and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator, sequence, and generator. iterator An object representing a stream of data. Repeated calls to the iterator’s __next__() method (or passing it to the built-in function next() ) return successive items in th




Flashcard 2976638700812

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#python-glossary
Question
[...] is an object capable of returning its members one at a time.
Answer
iterable


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iterable An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like

Original toplevel document

Glossary — Python 3.6.5 documentation
as the resources it relies on may not function anymore (common examples are library modules or the warnings machinery). The main reason for interpreter shutdown is that the __main__ module or the script being run has finished executing. <span>iterable An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects, and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator, sequence, and generator. iterator An object representing a stream of data. Repeated calls to the iterator’s __next__() method (or passing it to the built-in function next() ) return successive items in th







#python-glossary
Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …).

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uch as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects , and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. <span>Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. W

Original toplevel document

Glossary — Python 3.6.5 documentation
as the resources it relies on may not function anymore (common examples are library modules or the warnings machinery). The main reason for interpreter shutdown is that the __main__ module or the script being run has finished executing. <span>iterable An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects, and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator, sequence, and generator. iterator An object representing a stream of data. Repeated calls to the iterator’s __next__() method (or passing it to the built-in function next() ) return successive items in th




#python-glossary
When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object.

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classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). <span>When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for state

Original toplevel document

Glossary — Python 3.6.5 documentation
as the resources it relies on may not function anymore (common examples are library modules or the warnings machinery). The main reason for interpreter shutdown is that the __main__ module or the script being run has finished executing. <span>iterable An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects, and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator, sequence, and generator. iterator An object representing a stream of data. Repeated calls to the iterator’s __next__() method (or passing it to the built-in function next() ) return successive items in th




Flashcard 2976646302988

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#python-glossary
Question
When an iterable object is passed as an argument to [...] it returns an iterator for the object.
Answer
the built-in function iter()


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When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object.

Original toplevel document

Glossary — Python 3.6.5 documentation
as the resources it relies on may not function anymore (common examples are library modules or the warnings machinery). The main reason for interpreter shutdown is that the __main__ module or the script being run has finished executing. <span>iterable An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects, and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator, sequence, and generator. iterator An object representing a stream of data. Repeated calls to the iterator’s __next__() method (or passing it to the built-in function next() ) return successive items in th







Flashcard 2976648662284

Tags
#python-glossary
Question
Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a [...] is needed
Answer
sequence

(for , zip() , map() , …).


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Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …).

Original toplevel document

Glossary — Python 3.6.5 documentation
as the resources it relies on may not function anymore (common examples are library modules or the warnings machinery). The main reason for interpreter shutdown is that the __main__ module or the script being run has finished executing. <span>iterable An object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list , str , and tuple ) and some non-sequence types like dict , file objects, and objects of any classes you define with an __iter__() method or with a __getitem__() method that implements Sequence semantics. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed ( zip() , map() , …). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the built-in function iter() , it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator, sequence, and generator. iterator An object representing a stream of data. Repeated calls to the iterator’s __next__() method (or passing it to the built-in function next() ) return successive items in th







Flashcard 2976829017356

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
The definite article is used with nouns in [...] sense.

He likes coffee.
Answer
a general

Il aime le café


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The definite article is used with nouns in a general sense.

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Flashcard 2976836095244

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
Normally, in negative sentences, the partitive article is replaced by [...].


I don't have any bread.
Answer
de

J’ai du pain.
Je n’ai pas de pain.


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Normally, in negative sentences, the partitive article is replaced by de.

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Flashcard 2976840027404

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
If the sentence implies an affirmative idea or if you want to emphasize the noun, you may use the [...] in negative sentences

Don't you have any family here?
Answer
partitive article

N’avez-vous pas de la famille ici?


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If the sentence implies an affirmative idea or if you want to emphasize the noun, you may use the partitive article in negative sentences

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 2976853658892

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
When an adjective precedes a noun in the plural, the partitive article becomes [...].

I have some good books.
Answer
de

J’ai un bon livre. J’ai de bons livres.
This doesn't look like partitives, more like indefinite.


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When an adjective precedes a noun in the plural, the partitive article becomes de. Singular Plural J’ai un bon livre. J’ai de bons livres.

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Flashcard 2976856018188

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
When an adjective and noun are very closely related, they are treated as one single noun and the [...] is used.

Some young girls.
Answer
partitive article

des jeunes filles, des jeunes gens


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When an adjective and noun are very closely related, they are treated as one single noun and the partitive article is used. des jeunes filles girls des jeunes gens young people

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Flashcard 2976858377484

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
The partitive becomes [...] after expressions of quantity such assez, beaucoup...

He has many books.
Answer
de

Il a des livres.
Il a beaucoup de livres.


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The partitive becomes de after expressions of quantity such as the following: assez enough une boı ˆ te a box beaucoup a lot une bouteille a bottle

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Flashcard 2976863882508

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
After expressions [...] there is no partitive.

I need some money.
Answer
using de

J’ai de l’argent.
J’ai besoin d’argent. (just avoir besoin de + noun)


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After expressions using de, such as avoir besoin de ( to need), avoir envie de (to desire to want), se passer de (to get along without), there is no partitive. J’ai de l’argent. But: J’ai besoin d’argent

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Flashcard 2976866241804

Tags
#french #nouns
Question
quantifiers like​​​​​​​ [...] do not require the partitive.
Answer
Plusieurs (several) and quelques (a few)

J’ai beaucoup de livres.
J’ai plusieurs livres.

J’ai assez de livres.
J’ai quelques livres.


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Plusieurs (several) and quelques (a few) do not require the partitive. Study the following: J’ai beaucoup de livres. But: J’ai plusieurs livres. I have many books. I have several books. J’ai assez de livres. But: J’ai quelques

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Flashcard 2976910019852

Tags
#tmux-sessions
Question
[...keyboard shortcut...] new session
Answer
:new<CR>


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This should mean great things for Australia, a country so rich in solar potential that some have dubbed it the Saudi Arabia of solar.

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If renewable energy can power entire countries, why isn't everyone doing it? - CNET
cades, solar energy has grown 37 percent each year on average, according to Matthew Stocks, a research fellow at Australia National University. That equals a doubling in solar production every three years, a trend that's not expected to stop. <span>This should mean great things for Australia, a country so rich in solar potential that some have dubbed it the Saudi Arabia of solar. "We have huge potential, far more than enough for our own needs, and we could be exporting solar energy in the future to Asia," said Mark Diesendorf, associate professor of en




Flashcard 2977062063372

Question
pumped hydroelectricity
Answer
Pumped hydro, pictured below, is a little different. It's the battery of the hydro world. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an elevated one, where huge quantities of it are stored. When electricity is needed, the floodgates of the elevated reservoir open, shooting through turbines and creating electricity.


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If renewable energy can power entire countries, why isn't everyone doing it? - CNET
ams. Water from rivers gets funneled through tunnels, where it smashes through turbines housed in a power station. As the turbines turn, their rapid rotations create electricity. Australia gets around 7 percent of its total power from hydro. <span>Pumped hydro, pictured below, is a little different. It's the battery of the hydro world. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an elevated one, where huge quantities of it are stored. When electricity is needed, the floodgates of the elevated reservoir open, shooting through turbines and creating electricity. "Pumped hydro is a technology that's been around considerably longer [than batteries] at a much greater scale and is actually a much cheaper way of storing energy," said ANU's







Flashcard 2977065209100

Question
two chemicals in sunscreen harmful to coral reefs according to hawaii bill
Answer
[default - edThe bill prohibits the sale of sunscreen containing two chemicals, oxybenzone and octinoxate, that its authors say “have significant harmful impacts on Hawaii’s marine environment and residing ecosystems, including coral reefs.”it me]


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Hawaii To Become First State to Ban Coral Harming Sunscreens | Time
y Eli Meixler Hawaii state lawmakers passed a bill this week that would ban the sale of sunscreen containing chemicals that are harmful to coral reefs, one of the state’s top tourist attractions. <span>The bill prohibits the sale of sunscreen containing two chemicals, oxybenzone and octinoxate, that its authors say “have significant harmful impacts on Hawaii’s marine environment and residing ecosystems, including coral reefs.” The measure passed both houses of the state legislature Tuesday, and now awaits the signature of Gov. David Ige. The ban, the first of its kind in the U.S., would go i







Scientists have argued that oxybenzone and octinoxate accelerate coral bleaching and prevent reefs from regenerating, making them less resilient to climate change. According to the bill, HI SB2571, scientific studies show that the chemicals also threaten fish populations.

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Hawaii To Become First State to Ban Coral Harming Sunscreens | Time
the Associated Press. “Hopefully, other jurisdictions will look at this legislation and follow suit.” <span>Scientists have argued that oxybenzone and octinoxate accelerate coral bleaching and prevent reefs from regenerating, making them less resilient to climate change. According to the bill, HI SB2571, scientific studies show that the chemicals also threaten fish populations. Elevated levels of the toxic chemicals have been found near coral reefs at popular swimming beaches in Hawaii, including Waikiki beach on Oahu and




Flashcard 2977070714124

Question

Scientists have argued that [...] accelerate coral bleaching and prevent reefs from regenerating, making them less resilient to climate change. According to the bill, HI SB2571, scientific studies show that the chemicals also threaten fish populations.

Answer
oxybenzone and octinoxate


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Scientists have argued that oxybenzone and octinoxate accelerate coral bleaching and prevent reefs from regenerating, making them less resilient to climate change. According to the bill, HI SB2571, scientific studies show that the chemical

Original toplevel document

Hawaii To Become First State to Ban Coral Harming Sunscreens | Time
the Associated Press. “Hopefully, other jurisdictions will look at this legislation and follow suit.” <span>Scientists have argued that oxybenzone and octinoxate accelerate coral bleaching and prevent reefs from regenerating, making them less resilient to climate change. According to the bill, HI SB2571, scientific studies show that the chemicals also threaten fish populations. Elevated levels of the toxic chemicals have been found near coral reefs at popular swimming beaches in Hawaii, including Waikiki beach on Oahu and







In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World

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Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily
a's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org 2 min remaining Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org · by James MacDonald · May 1, 2018 <span>In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World.” But the isolated summits are more than a great setting for a novel: they’re the center of an evolutionary mystery. Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did th




Flashcard 2977076219148

Question
In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The [...], as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World
Answer
tepuis


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In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Co

Original toplevel document

Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily
a's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org 2 min remaining Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org · by James MacDonald · May 1, 2018 <span>In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World.” But the isolated summits are more than a great setting for a novel: they’re the center of an evolutionary mystery. Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did th







Flashcard 2977077267724

Question
In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The [...] as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World
Answer
tepuis,


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In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Con

Original toplevel document

Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily
a's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org 2 min remaining Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org · by James MacDonald · May 1, 2018 <span>In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World.” But the isolated summits are more than a great setting for a novel: they’re the center of an evolutionary mystery. Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did th







Flashcard 2977078840588

Question
In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “[...]
Answer
The Lost World


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ove the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “<span>The Lost World <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily
a's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org 2 min remaining Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily daily.jstor.org · by James MacDonald · May 1, 2018 <span>In southeastern Venezuela, huge sandstone towers tower thousands of feet above the forest. The tepuis, as they are known, are the remnants of an enormous plateau. The flat formations are covered with bizarre rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World.” But the isolated summits are more than a great setting for a novel: they’re the center of an evolutionary mystery. Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did th







Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did those species get there?

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Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily
rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World.” But the isolated summits are more than a great setting for a novel: they’re the center of an evolutionary mystery. <span>Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did those species get there? While the species inhabiting the tepui highlands are well surveyed, their origins have not been. Biologists Patricia E. Salerno et al. note that are several species of frog found nowh




Flashcard 2977083559180

Question
Many species on the tepui summits are [...]. How did those species get there?
Answer
found nowhere else


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Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did those species get there?

Original toplevel document

Venezuela's Mysterious Tepuis | JSTOR Daily
rock formations. The primeval landscape served as inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s dinosaur-infested “The Lost World.” But the isolated summits are more than a great setting for a novel: they’re the center of an evolutionary mystery. <span>Many species on the tepui summits are found nowhere else. How did those species get there? While the species inhabiting the tepui highlands are well surveyed, their origins have not been. Biologists Patricia E. Salerno et al. note that are several species of frog found nowh







#shell
when creating directory, mkdir -p mydir Create intermediate directories as required.

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mkdir(1) Mac OS X Manual Page
argument can be in any of the formats specified to the chmod(1) command. If a symbolic mode is specified, the operation characters ``+'' and ``-'' are interpreted relative to an initial mode of ``a=rwx''. <span>-p Create intermediate directories as required. If this option is not specified, the full path prefix of each operand must already exist. On the other hand, with this option specified, no error will be reported if a directory given as an operand already exists. Intermediate direc- tories directories




#Make
  • Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
Reference About Discussion Instructor Notes License Improve this page Automation and Make: Running Make Key Points Introduction <span>Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule




#Make

Use # for comments in Makefiles.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
Automation and Make: Running Make Key Points Introduction Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles <span>Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files.




#Make

Write rules as target: dependencies.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
ning Make Key Points Introduction Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. <span>Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables U




#Make

Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
duction Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . <span>Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to




#Make
  • Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
n what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. <span>Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< t




#Make

Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
nts in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables <span>Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code




Flashcard 2977108987148

Tags
#Make
Question
  • [...] allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date.

Answer
Make


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Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Reference About Discussion Instructor Notes License Improve this page Automation and Make: Running Make Key Points Introduction <span>Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule







Flashcard 2977110560012

Tags
#Make
Question

Use [...] for comments in Makefiles.

Answer
#


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Use # for comments in Makefiles.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Automation and Make: Running Make Key Points Introduction Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles <span>Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files.







Flashcard 2977112132876

Tags
#Make
Question

Write rules as [...]

Answer
target: dependencies.


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Write rules as target: dependencies .

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
ning Make Key Points Introduction Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. <span>Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables U







Flashcard 2977113705740

Tags
#Make
Question

Specify [...] in a tab-indented block under the rule.

Answer
update actions


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Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
duction Make allows us to specify what depends on what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . <span>Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to







Flashcard 2977115278604

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Use [...] to mark targets that don’t correspond to files.

Answer
.PHONY


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Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
n what and how to update things that are out of date. Makefiles Use # for comments in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. <span>Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< t







Flashcard 2977116851468

Tags
#Make
Question

Use [...] to refer to the target of the current rule.

Answer
$@


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Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
nts in Makefiles. Write rules as target: dependencies . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables <span>Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code







Flashcard 2977121307916

Tags
#shell
Question
when creating directory, [...] Create intermediate directories as required.
Answer
mkdir -p mydir


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when creating directory, mkdir -p mydir Create intermediate directories as required.

Original toplevel document

mkdir(1) Mac OS X Manual Page
argument can be in any of the formats specified to the chmod(1) command. If a symbolic mode is specified, the operation characters ``+'' and ``-'' are interpreted relative to an initial mode of ``a=rwx''. <span>-p Create intermediate directories as required. If this option is not specified, the full path prefix of each operand must already exist. On the other hand, with this option specified, no error will be reported if a directory given as an operand already exists. Intermediate direc- tories directories







#Make
Target names should use hyphened lowercase.

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Makefile style guide — style-guides latest documentation
The recommended name for make files is Makefile [f2]. Misc make files with common targets or variables should have extension .mk . This helps text redactors to identify that this is a makefile and enable syntax highlighting. Targets¶ <span>Target names should use lower case letters. Words are separated with a hyphen ‘-‘. E.g.: test-debug: $(build_dir)/debug/bin Variables¶ Variables which are not special to make or inherited from the environment should be in lowercase. Words should b




#Make
Variables not special to make or the environment should be in underscored lowercase.

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Makefile style guide — style-guides latest documentation
s to identify that this is a makefile and enable syntax highlighting. Targets¶ Target names should use lower case letters. Words are separated with a hyphen ‘-‘. E.g.: test-debug: $(build_dir)/debug/bin Variables¶ <span>Variables which are not special to make or inherited from the environment should be in lowercase. Words should be separated with underscore symbol ‘_’. E.g.: src_dir = $(CURDIR)/src build_dir = $(CURDIR)/build Special targets¶ Phony targets¶ Phony target declarations should follow appropriate target declarations rath




Flashcard 2977136250124

Tags
#Make
Question
Target names should use [...].
Answer
hyphened lowercase


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Target names should use hyphened lower case letters.

Original toplevel document

Makefile style guide — style-guides latest documentation
The recommended name for make files is Makefile [f2]. Misc make files with common targets or variables should have extension .mk . This helps text redactors to identify that this is a makefile and enable syntax highlighting. Targets¶ <span>Target names should use lower case letters. Words are separated with a hyphen ‘-‘. E.g.: test-debug: $(build_dir)/debug/bin Variables¶ Variables which are not special to make or inherited from the environment should be in lowercase. Words should b







Flashcard 2977140968716

Tags
#Make
Question
Variables not special to make or the environment should be in [...].
Answer
underscored lowercase


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Variables not special to make or the environment should be in underscored lowercase.

Original toplevel document

Makefile style guide — style-guides latest documentation
s to identify that this is a makefile and enable syntax highlighting. Targets¶ Target names should use lower case letters. Words are separated with a hyphen ‘-‘. E.g.: test-debug: $(build_dir)/debug/bin Variables¶ <span>Variables which are not special to make or inherited from the environment should be in lowercase. Words should be separated with underscore symbol ‘_’. E.g.: src_dir = $(CURDIR)/src build_dir = $(CURDIR)/build Special targets¶ Phony targets¶ Phony target declarations should follow appropriate target declarations rath







#Make

Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
s . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. <span>Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code Make results depend on processing scripts as well a




Flashcard 2977144638732

Tags
#Make
Question

Use [...] in action to refer to the dependencies of the current rule.

Answer
$^


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Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
s . Specify update actions in a tab-indented block under the rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. <span>Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code Make results depend on processing scripts as well a







#Make
  • Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
e rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. <span>Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B




#Make

Include scripts in dependency list to make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
$@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code <span>Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules Use the wild




#Make
  • Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. <span>Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files i




#Make

Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules <span>Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference v




#Make
  • Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. <span>Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is




#Make

Define variables by assigning values to names.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
Pattern Rules Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables <span>Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function




#Make
  • Reference variables using $(...).

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Automation and Make: Running Make
Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. <span>Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a patt




#Make

Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
cial variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions <span>Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Docum




#Make

Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. <span>Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to




#Make
  • Use patsubst function to rewrite file names.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
es to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. <span>Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conc




#Make
  • Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
lly a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles <span>Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conclusion Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make




#Make
  • Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conclusion <span>Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make To run Make: $ make Make will look for a Makefile called Makefile and will build the default target, the first target in the Makefile. To use a




Flashcard 2977172163852

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Use [...] to refer to the first dependency of the current rule.

Answer
$<


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Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
e rule. Use .PHONY to mark targets that don’t correspond to files. Automatic Variables Use $@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. <span>Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B







Flashcard 2977174523148

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Dependencies are [...]: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A.

Answer
transitive


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Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. <span>Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files i







Flashcard 2977176096012

Tags
#Make
Question

Use [...] as a placeholder in targets and dependencies.

Answer
the wildcard %


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules <span>Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference v







Flashcard 2977177668876

Tags
#Make
Question

Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in [...].

Answer
targets and dependencies

But not in actions.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules <span>Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference v







Flashcard 2977180028172

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Use the [...] to refer to matching sets of files in actions.

Answer
special variable $*


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. <span>Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is







Flashcard 2977181601036

Tags
#Make
Question

Define [...] by assigning values to names.

Answer
variables


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Define variables by assigning values to names.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Pattern Rules Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables <span>Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function







Flashcard 2977183173900

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Reference variables using [...].

Answer
$(...)


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Reference variables using $(...) .

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Use the wildcard % as a placeholder in targets and dependencies. Use the special variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. <span>Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a patt







Flashcard 2977186057484

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#Make
Question

Make is actually a [...] with many built-in functions.

Answer
small programming language


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Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
cial variable $* to refer to matching sets of files in actions. Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions <span>Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Docum







Flashcard 2977187630348

Tags
#Make
Question

Use [...] to get lists of files matching a pattern.

Answer
wildcard function


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Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
Variables Define variables by assigning values to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. <span>Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to







Flashcard 2977189203212

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Use [...] to rewrite file names.

Answer
patsubst function


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Use patsubst function to rewrite file names.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
es to names. Reference variables using $(...) . Functions Make is actually a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. <span>Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conc







Flashcard 2977190776076

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#Make
Question
  • Document Makefiles by adding [...] and a target to extract and format them.

Answer
specially-formatted comments


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Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
lly a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles <span>Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conclusion Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make







Flashcard 2977192348940

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and [...].

Answer
a target to extract and format them


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Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
lly a small programming language with many built-in functions. Use wildcard function to get lists of files matching a pattern. Use patsubst function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles <span>Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conclusion Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make







Flashcard 2977193921804

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save [...] by documenting how to reproduce results.

Answer
thinking


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Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conclusion <span>Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make To run Make: $ make Make will look for a Makefile called Makefile and will build the default target, the first target in the Makefile. To use a







Flashcard 2977195494668

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by [...].

Answer
documenting how to reproduce results


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Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
function to rewrite file names. Self-Documenting Makefiles Document Makefiles by adding specially-formatted comments and a target to extract and format them. Conclusion <span>Makefiles save time by automating repetitive work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make To run Make: $ make Make will look for a Makefile called Makefile and will build the default target, the first target in the Makefile. To use a







#Make
To use a Makefile with a different name, use the -f flag

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Automation and Make: Running Make
e work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make To run Make: $ make Make will look for a Makefile called Makefile and will build the default target, the first target in the Makefile. <span>To use a Makefile with a different name, use the -f flag e.g. $ make -f build-files/analyze.mk To build a specific target, provide it as an argument e.g. $ make isles.dat If the target is up-to-date, Make will print a message li




#Make
To build a specific target, provide it as an argument

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Automation and Make: Running Make
ake: $ make Make will look for a Makefile called Makefile and will build the default target, the first target in the Makefile. To use a Makefile with a different name, use the -f flag e.g. $ make -f build-files/analyze.mk <span>To build a specific target, provide it as an argument e.g. $ make isles.dat If the target is up-to-date, Make will print a message like: make: `isles.dat' is up to date. To see the actions Make will run when building a target




#Make
To see the actions Make will run when building a target, without running the actions, use the --dry-run flag

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Automation and Make: Running Make
the -f flag e.g. $ make -f build-files/analyze.mk To build a specific target, provide it as an argument e.g. $ make isles.dat If the target is up-to-date, Make will print a message like: make: `isles.dat' is up to date. <span>To see the actions Make will run when building a target, without running the actions, use the --dry-run flag e.g. $ make --dry-run isles.dat Alternatively, use the abbreviation -n . $ make -n isles.dat Trouble Shooting If Make prints a message like, Makefile:3: *** missing




#Make
: separates the target and the dependencies.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
ions. Makefiles Rules: target : dependency1 dependency2 ... action1 action2 ... Each rule has a target, a file to be created, or built. Each rule has zero or more dependencies, files that are needed to build the target. <span>: separates the target and the dependencies. Dependencies are separated by spaces. Each rule has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8




#Make
  • Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
more dependencies, files that are needed to build the target. : separates the target and the dependencies. Dependencies are separated by spaces. Each rule has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. <span>Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces. Dependencies: If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will




#Make
If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
target and the dependencies. Dependencies are separated by spaces. Each rule has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces. Dependencies: <span>If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will be built in the order in which they are listed. Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph.




#Make
The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces. Dependencies: If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. <span>The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will be built in the order in which they are listed. Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph. A target cannot depend on a dependency which, in tu




#Make
Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
8 spaces. Dependencies: If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will be built in the order in which they are listed. <span>Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph. A target cannot depend on a dependency which, in turn depends upon, or has a dependency which depends upon, that target. Comments: # This is a Make comment. Line continuation




#Make
Backslash,\, the line continuation character, allows you to split up a list of dependencies or an action over multiple lines, to make them easier to read.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
comment. Line continuation character: ARCHIVE = isles.dat isles.png \ abyss.dat abyss.png \ sierra.dat sierra.png If a list of dependencies or an action is too long, a Makefile can become more difficult to read. <span>Backslash, \ , the line continuation character, allows you to split up a list of dependencies or an action over multiple lines, to make them easier to read. Make will combine the multiple lines into a single list of dependencies or action. Phony targets: .PHONY : clean clean : rm -f *.dat Phony targets are a short-hand for




#Make
Phony targets are a short-hand for sequences of actions.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
lit up a list of dependencies or an action over multiple lines, to make them easier to read. Make will combine the multiple lines into a single list of dependencies or action. Phony targets: .PHONY : clean clean : rm -f *.dat <span>Phony targets are a short-hand for sequences of actions. No file with the target name is built when a rule with a phony target is run. Automatic variables: $< denotes ‘the first dependency of the current rule’. $@ denotes ‘the targ




#Make
Prefix an action by @ to instruct Make not to print that action.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
he value wordcount.py . $(...) is a reference to a variable. It requests that Make substitutes the name of a variable for its value. Suppress printing of actions: .PHONY : variables variables: @echo TXT_FILES: $(TXT_FILES) <span>Prefix an action by @ to instruct Make not to print that action. Include the contents of a Makefile in another Makefile: include config.mk wildcard function: TXT_FILES=$(wildcard books/*.txt) Looks for all files matching a pattern e.




#Make
In Make 3.81, the default target can be explicitly set using the special variable .DEFAULT_GOAL

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Automation and Make: Running Make
ILES is books/abyss.txt books/isles.txt books/last.txt books/sierra.txt this sets DAT_FILES to abyss.dat isles.dat last.dat sierra.dat . Default targets: In Make version 3.79 the default target is the first target in the Makefile. <span>In Make 3.81, the default target can be explicitly set using the special variable .DEFAULT_GOAL e.g. .DEFAULT_GOAL := all Manuals GNU Make Manual. Reference sections include: Summary of Options for the make command. Quick Reference of Make directives, text manipula




#Make
automatic variableA variable whose value is automatically redefined for each rule. Make’s automatic variables include $@, which holds the rule’s target, $^, which holds its dependencies, and, $<, which holds the first of its dependencies, and $*, which holds the stem with which the pattern was matched. Automatic variables are typically used in pattern rules.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
ns, and special variables. Automatic Variables. Special Built-in Target Names Glossary action The steps a build manager must take to create or update a file or other object. assignment A request that Make stores something in a variable. <span>automatic variable A variable whose value is automatically redefined for each rule. Make’s automatic variables include $@ , which holds the rule’s target, $^ , which holds its dependencies, and, $< , which holds the first of its dependencies, and $* , which holds the stem with which the pattern was matched. Automatic variables are typically used in pattern rules. build file A description of dependencies and rules for a build manager. build manager A program, such as Make, whose main purpose is to build or update software, documentation, web site




#Make
incremental buildThe feature of a build manager by which it only rebuilds files that, either directory or indirectly, depend on a file that was changed.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
false dependency is introduced if a data analysis script is added as a dependency to the data files that the script analyses. function A built-in Make utility that performs some operation, for example gets a list of files matching a pattern. <span>incremental build The feature of a build manager by which it only rebuilds files that, either directory or indirectly, depend on a file that was changed. macro Used as a synonym for variable in certain versions of Make. Make A popular build manager, from GNU, created in 1977. Makefile A build file used by Make, which, by default, are nam




#Make
pattern rule is a rule that specifies a general way to build or update an entire class of files in the same way.

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Automation and Make: Running Make
rectly, depend on a file that was changed. macro Used as a synonym for variable in certain versions of Make. Make A popular build manager, from GNU, created in 1977. Makefile A build file used by Make, which, by default, are named Makefile . <span>pattern rule A rule that specifies a general way to build or update an entire class of files that can be managed the same way. For example, a pattern rule can specify how to compile any C file rather than a single, specific C file, or, to analyze any data file rather than a single, specific data file. Pattern r




Flashcard 2977220660492

Tags
#Make
Question
To use a Makefile with a different name, use [...]
Answer
the -f flag


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To use a Makefile with a different name, use the -f flag

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
e work, and save thinking by documenting how to reproduce results. Running Make To run Make: $ make Make will look for a Makefile called Makefile and will build the default target, the first target in the Makefile. <span>To use a Makefile with a different name, use the -f flag e.g. $ make -f build-files/analyze.mk To build a specific target, provide it as an argument e.g. $ make isles.dat If the target is up-to-date, Make will print a message li







Flashcard 2977222233356

Tags
#Make
Question
To build a specific target, [...]
Answer
provide it as an argument


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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To build a specific target, provide it as an argument

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
ake: $ make Make will look for a Makefile called Makefile and will build the default target, the first target in the Makefile. To use a Makefile with a different name, use the -f flag e.g. $ make -f build-files/analyze.mk <span>To build a specific target, provide it as an argument e.g. $ make isles.dat If the target is up-to-date, Make will print a message like: make: `isles.dat' is up to date. To see the actions Make will run when building a target







Flashcard 2977223806220

Tags
#Make
Question
To see the actions Make will run when building a target, without running the actions, use [...]
Answer
the --dry-run flag

or -n for short


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To see the actions Make will run when building a target, without running the actions, use the --dry-run flag

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
the -f flag e.g. $ make -f build-files/analyze.mk To build a specific target, provide it as an argument e.g. $ make isles.dat If the target is up-to-date, Make will print a message like: make: `isles.dat' is up to date. <span>To see the actions Make will run when building a target, without running the actions, use the --dry-run flag e.g. $ make --dry-run isles.dat Alternatively, use the abbreviation -n . $ make -n isles.dat Trouble Shooting If Make prints a message like, Makefile:3: *** missing







Flashcard 2977226165516

Tags
#Make
Question
[...] separates the target and the dependencies.
Answer
:


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: separates the target and the dependencies.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
ions. Makefiles Rules: target : dependency1 dependency2 ... action1 action2 ... Each rule has a target, a file to be created, or built. Each rule has zero or more dependencies, files that are needed to build the target. <span>: separates the target and the dependencies. Dependencies are separated by spaces. Each rule has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8







Flashcard 2977227738380

Tags
#Make
Question
  • Actions are indented using [...].

Answer
the TAB character

not 8 or 4 spaces!!


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Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
more dependencies, files that are needed to build the target. : separates the target and the dependencies. Dependencies are separated by spaces. Each rule has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. <span>Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces. Dependencies: If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will







Flashcard 2977230097676

Tags
#Make
Question
If any dependency does not exist then Make will [...].
Answer
look for a rule to build it


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If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
target and the dependencies. Dependencies are separated by spaces. Each rule has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces. Dependencies: <span>If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will be built in the order in which they are listed. Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph.







Flashcard 2977231670540

Tags
#Make
Question
The order of rebuilding dependencies is [...].
Answer
arbitrary


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The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
has zero or more actions, commands to run to build the target using the dependencies. Actions are indented using the TAB character, not 8 spaces. Dependencies: If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. <span>The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will be built in the order in which they are listed. Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph. A target cannot depend on a dependency which, in tu







Flashcard 2977233243404

Tags
#Make
Question
Dependencies must form a [...].
Answer
directed acyclic graph


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Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
8 spaces. Dependencies: If any dependency does not exist then Make will look for a rule to build it. The order of rebuilding dependencies is arbitrary. You should not assume that they will be built in the order in which they are listed. <span>Dependencies must form a directed acyclic graph. A target cannot depend on a dependency which, in turn depends upon, or has a dependency which depends upon, that target. Comments: # This is a Make comment. Line continuation







Flashcard 2977234816268

Tags
#Make
Question
[...] is the line continuation character
Answer
Backslash,\


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Backslash, \ , the line continuation character, allows you to split up a list of dependencies or an action over multiple lines, to make them easier to read.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
comment. Line continuation character: ARCHIVE = isles.dat isles.png \ abyss.dat abyss.png \ sierra.dat sierra.png If a list of dependencies or an action is too long, a Makefile can become more difficult to read. <span>Backslash, \ , the line continuation character, allows you to split up a list of dependencies or an action over multiple lines, to make them easier to read. Make will combine the multiple lines into a single list of dependencies or action. Phony targets: .PHONY : clean clean : rm -f *.dat Phony targets are a short-hand for







Flashcard 2977237175564

Tags
#Make
Question
[...] are a short-hand for sequences of actions.
Answer
Phony targets


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Phony targets are a short-hand for sequences of actions.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
lit up a list of dependencies or an action over multiple lines, to make them easier to read. Make will combine the multiple lines into a single list of dependencies or action. Phony targets: .PHONY : clean clean : rm -f *.dat <span>Phony targets are a short-hand for sequences of actions. No file with the target name is built when a rule with a phony target is run. Automatic variables: $< denotes ‘the first dependency of the current rule’. $@ denotes ‘the targ







Flashcard 2977238748428

Tags
#Make
Question
Prefix an action by [...] to instruct Make not to print that action.
Answer
@


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Prefix an action by @ to instruct Make not to print that action.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
he value wordcount.py . $(...) is a reference to a variable. It requests that Make substitutes the name of a variable for its value. Suppress printing of actions: .PHONY : variables variables: @echo TXT_FILES: $(TXT_FILES) <span>Prefix an action by @ to instruct Make not to print that action. Include the contents of a Makefile in another Makefile: include config.mk wildcard function: TXT_FILES=$(wildcard books/*.txt) Looks for all files matching a pattern e.







Flashcard 2977240321292

Tags
#Make
Question
In Make 3.81, the default target can be explicitly set using the special variable [...]
Answer
.DEFAULT_GOAL


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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In Make 3.81, the default target can be explicitly set using the special variable .DEFAULT_GOAL

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
ILES is books/abyss.txt books/isles.txt books/last.txt books/sierra.txt this sets DAT_FILES to abyss.dat isles.dat last.dat sierra.dat . Default targets: In Make version 3.79 the default target is the first target in the Makefile. <span>In Make 3.81, the default target can be explicitly set using the special variable .DEFAULT_GOAL e.g. .DEFAULT_GOAL := all Manuals GNU Make Manual. Reference sections include: Summary of Options for the make command. Quick Reference of Make directives, text manipula







Flashcard 2977241894156

Tags
#Make
Question
[...] is a variable whose value is automatically redefined for each rule.
Answer
automatic variable

Make’s automatic variables include $@, which holds the rule’s target, $^, which holds its dependencies, and, $<, which holds the first of its dependencies, and $*, which holds the stem with which the pattern was matched. Automatic variables are typically used in pattern rules.


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automatic variableA variable whose value is automatically redefined for each rule. Make’s automatic variables include $@ , which holds the rule’s target, $^ , which holds its dependencies, and, $< ,

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Automation and Make: Running Make
ns, and special variables. Automatic Variables. Special Built-in Target Names Glossary action The steps a build manager must take to create or update a file or other object. assignment A request that Make stores something in a variable. <span>automatic variable A variable whose value is automatically redefined for each rule. Make’s automatic variables include $@ , which holds the rule’s target, $^ , which holds its dependencies, and, $< , which holds the first of its dependencies, and $* , which holds the stem with which the pattern was matched. Automatic variables are typically used in pattern rules. build file A description of dependencies and rules for a build manager. build manager A program, such as Make, whose main purpose is to build or update software, documentation, web site







Flashcard 2977244253452

Tags
#Make
Question
[...] is the feature of a build manager by which it only rebuilds files that, either directory or indirectly, depend on a file that was changed.
Answer
incremental build


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incremental buildThe feature of a build manager by which it only rebuilds files that, either directory or indirectly, depend on a file that was changed.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
false dependency is introduced if a data analysis script is added as a dependency to the data files that the script analyses. function A built-in Make utility that performs some operation, for example gets a list of files matching a pattern. <span>incremental build The feature of a build manager by which it only rebuilds files that, either directory or indirectly, depend on a file that was changed. macro Used as a synonym for variable in certain versions of Make. Make A popular build manager, from GNU, created in 1977. Makefile A build file used by Make, which, by default, are nam







Flashcard 2977247399180

Tags
#Make
Question
[...] is a rule that specifies a general way to build or update an entire class of files in the same way.
Answer
pattern rule


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pattern rule is a rule that specifies a general way to build or update an entire class of files in the same way.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
rectly, depend on a file that was changed. macro Used as a synonym for variable in certain versions of Make. Make A popular build manager, from GNU, created in 1977. Makefile A build file used by Make, which, by default, are named Makefile . <span>pattern rule A rule that specifies a general way to build or update an entire class of files that can be managed the same way. For example, a pattern rule can specify how to compile any C file rather than a single, specific C file, or, to analyze any data file rather than a single, specific data file. Pattern r







Flashcard 2977248972044

Tags
#Make
Question

[...] to make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files.

Answer
Include scripts in dependency list


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Include scripts in dependency list to make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Running Make
$@ to refer to the target of the current rule. Use $^ to refer to the dependencies of the current rule. Use $< to refer to the first dependency of the current rule. Dependencies on Data and Code <span>Make results depend on processing scripts as well as data files. Dependencies are transitive: if A depends on B and B depends on C, a change to C will indirectly trigger an update to A. Pattern Rules Use the wild







#Make
A directory’s timestamp is not automatically updated when files are copied into it.

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Automation and Make: Conclusion
it must be archived too. touch the Archive Directory Why does the Makefile rule for the archive directory touch the archive directory after moving our code, data, plots and summary table into it? Solution <span>A directory’s timestamp is not automatically updated when files are copied into it. If the code, data, plots, and summary table are updated and copied into the archive directory, the archive directory’s timestamp must be updated with touch so that the rule that makes




#sed
sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language.

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sed - Wikipedia
out the text processing utility. For other uses, see Sed (disambiguation). sed Paradigm scripting Designed by Lee E. McMahon First appeared 1974; 44 years ago (1974) Implementation language C Influenced by ed Influenced Chomski, Perl, AWK <span>sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language. sed was developed from 1973 to 1974 by Lee E. McMahon of Bell Labs, [1] and is available today for most operating systems. [2] sed was based on the scripting features of the interacti




#shell
grep < pattern > < filenames > # looks for the string in the files

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#shell
grep -r < pattern > < dir > # search recursively for pattern in directory

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Flashcard 2977262865676

Tags
#shell
Question
[...] # search recursively for pattern in directory
Answer
grep -r < pattern > < dir >


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grep -r < pattern > < dir > # search recursively for pattern in directory






Flashcard 2977264438540

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#shell
Question
[...] # looks for the string in the files
Answer
grep < pattern > < filenames >


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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grep < pattern > < filenames > # looks for the string in the files






Flashcard 2977266011404

Tags
#Make
Question
A directory’s [...] is not automatically updated when files are copied into it.
Answer
timestamp


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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A directory’s timestamp is not automatically updated when files are copied into it.

Original toplevel document

Automation and Make: Conclusion
it must be archived too. touch the Archive Directory Why does the Makefile rule for the archive directory touch the archive directory after moving our code, data, plots and summary table into it? Solution <span>A directory’s timestamp is not automatically updated when files are copied into it. If the code, data, plots, and summary table are updated and copied into the archive directory, the archive directory’s timestamp must be updated with touch so that the rule that makes







#shell
tail < filename > # outputs the last 10 lines of file (useful with -f option)

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Flashcard 2977269157132

Tags
#shell
Question
[...] # outputs the last 10 lines of file (useful with -f option)
Answer
tail < filename >


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tail < filename > # outputs the last 10 lines of file (useful with -f option)






#shell

The shell does not have a trash bin: once something is deleted, it’s really gone.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
copies a file. mkdir path creates a new directory. mv old new moves (renames) a file or directory. rm path removes (deletes) a file. Use of the Control key may be described in many ways, including Ctrl-X , Control-X , and ^X . <span>The shell does not have a trash bin: once something is deleted, it’s really gone. Depending on the type of work you do, you may need a more powerful text editor than Nano. Pipes and Filters cat displays the contents of its input




Flashcard 2977276759308

Tags
#shell
Question

The shell does not have a [...]: once something is deleted, it’s really gone.

Answer
trash bin


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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The shell does not have a trash bin: once something is deleted, it’s really gone.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
copies a file. mkdir path creates a new directory. mv old new moves (renames) a file or directory. rm path removes (deletes) a file. Use of the Control key may be described in many ways, including Ctrl-X , Control-X , and ^X . <span>The shell does not have a trash bin: once something is deleted, it’s really gone. Depending on the type of work you do, you may need a more powerful text editor than Nano. Pipes and Filters cat displays the contents of its input







#shell

first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
ero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. <span>first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose programs (filters). Loops A for loop repeats commands once for eve




#shell
  • The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose programs (filters).

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. <span>The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose programs (filters). Loops A for loop repeats commands once for every thing in a list. Every for loop needs a variable to refer to the thing it is currently operati




#shell

* matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
cat displays the contents of its inputs. head displays the first few lines of its input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. sort sorts its inputs. wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. <span>* matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeli




#shell

? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
s input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. sort sorts its inputs. wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . <span>? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. The best way to use t




#shell

command > file redirects a command’s output to a file.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
ts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . <span>command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose pro




#shell

wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
editor than Nano. Pipes and Filters cat displays the contents of its inputs. head displays the first few lines of its input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. sort sorts its inputs. <span>wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not a




#shell

sort sorts its inputs.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
need a more powerful text editor than Nano. Pipes and Filters cat displays the contents of its inputs. head displays the first few lines of its input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. <span>sort sorts its inputs. wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single chara




#shell
  • Use history to display recent commands, and !number to repeat a command by number.

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The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
at are easy to match with wildcard patterns to make it easy to select them for looping. Use the up-arrow key to scroll up through previous commands to edit and repeat them. Use Ctrl-R to search through the previously entered commands. <span>Use history to display recent commands, and !number to repeat a command by number. Shell Scripts Save commands in files (usually called shell scripts) for re-use. bash filename runs the commands saved in a file. $@ refers to a




Flashcard 2977294060812

Tags
#shell
Question

[...] sorts its inputs.

Answer
sort


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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sort sorts its inputs.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
need a more powerful text editor than Nano. Pipes and Filters cat displays the contents of its inputs. head displays the first few lines of its input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. <span>sort sorts its inputs. wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single chara







Flashcard 2977296420108

Tags
#shell
Question

[...] counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs.

Answer
wc


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
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wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
editor than Nano. Pipes and Filters cat displays the contents of its inputs. head displays the first few lines of its input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. sort sorts its inputs. <span>wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not a







Flashcard 2977298779404

Tags
#shell
Question

wc counts [...] in its inputs.

Answer
lines, words, and characters


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
editor than Nano. Pipes and Filters cat displays the contents of its inputs. head displays the first few lines of its input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. sort sorts its inputs. <span>wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not a







Flashcard 2977300352268

Tags
#shell
Question

[...] matches zero or more characters in a filename,

Answer
*

so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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* matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt .

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
cat displays the contents of its inputs. head displays the first few lines of its input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. sort sorts its inputs. wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. <span>* matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeli







Flashcard 2977303497996

Tags
#shell
Question

[...] matches any single character in a filename

Answer
?

so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt .

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
s input. tail displays the last few lines of its input. sort sorts its inputs. wc counts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . <span>? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. The best way to use t







Flashcard 2977305857292

Tags
#shell
Question

[...] redirects a command’s output to a file.

Answer
command > file


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
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command > file redirects a command’s output to a file.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
ts lines, words, and characters in its inputs. * matches zero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . <span>command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose pro







Flashcard 2977307430156

Tags
#shell
Question

[...] is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second.

Answer
first | second


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
ero or more characters in a filename, so *.txt matches all files ending in .txt . ? matches any single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. <span>first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose programs (filters). Loops A for loop repeats commands once for eve







Flashcard 2977309003020

Tags
#shell
Question
  • The best way to use the shell is to [...].

Answer
use pipes to combine filters

filters are simple single-purpose programs


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose programs (filters).

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
single character in a filename, so ?.txt matches a.txt but not any.txt . command > file redirects a command’s output to a file. first | second is a pipeline: the output of the first command is used as the input to the second. <span>The best way to use the shell is to use pipes to combine simple single-purpose programs (filters). Loops A for loop repeats commands once for every thing in a list. Every for loop needs a variable to refer to the thing it is currently operati







Flashcard 2977311362316

Tags
#shell
Question
  • Use history to display recent commands, and [...] to repeat a command by number.

Answer
!number


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Use history to display recent commands, and !number to repeat a command by number.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
at are easy to match with wildcard patterns to make it easy to select them for looping. Use the up-arrow key to scroll up through previous commands to edit and repeat them. Use Ctrl-R to search through the previously entered commands. <span>Use history to display recent commands, and !number to repeat a command by number. Shell Scripts Save commands in files (usually called shell scripts) for re-use. bash filename runs the commands saved in a file. $@ refers to a







Flashcard 2977312935180

Tags
#shell
Question
  • Use [...] to display recent commands, and !number to repeat a command by number.

Answer
history


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Open it
Use history to display recent commands, and !number to repeat a command by number.

Original toplevel document

The Unix Shell: Summary of Basic Commands
at are easy to match with wildcard patterns to make it easy to select them for looping. Use the up-arrow key to scroll up through previous commands to edit and repeat them. Use Ctrl-R to search through the previously entered commands. <span>Use history to display recent commands, and !number to repeat a command by number. Shell Scripts Save commands in files (usually called shell scripts) for re-use. bash filename runs the commands saved in a file. $@ refers to a







#semantic-versioning
Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH

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Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 | Semantic Versioning
2.0.0-rc.1 1.0.0 1.0.0-beta Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 Summary <span>Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, increment the: MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes, MINOR version when you add functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and PATCH version when you make backw




Flashcard 2977318702348

Tags
#semantic-versioning
Question
Given a version number [...]
Answer
MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH

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Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 | Semantic Versioning
2.0.0-rc.1 1.0.0 1.0.0-beta Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 Summary <span>Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, increment the: MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes, MINOR version when you add functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and PATCH version when you make backw







#git-annex
git-annex allows managing files with git, without checking the file contents into git.

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git-annex
body>git-annex git-annex Edit RecentChanges History Preferences Branchable install assistant walkthrough tips bugs todo forum comments contact thanks git-annex allows managing files with git, without checking the file contents into git. While that may seem paradoxical, it is useful when dealing with files larger than git can currently easily handle, whether due to limitations in memory, time, or disk space. [imageli




Flashcard 2977324469516

Tags
#git-annex
Question
git-annex allows managing files with git, without [...].
Answer
checking the file contents into git


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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git-annex allows managing files with git, without checking the file contents into git.

Original toplevel document

git-annex
body>git-annex git-annex Edit RecentChanges History Preferences Branchable install assistant walkthrough tips bugs todo forum comments contact thanks git-annex allows managing files with git, without checking the file contents into git. While that may seem paradoxical, it is useful when dealing with files larger than git can currently easily handle, whether due to limitations in memory, time, or disk space. [imageli







#git-annex
git-annex is a distributed file synchronization system written in Haskell. It aims to solve the problem of sharing and synchronizing collections of large files independent from a commercial service or even a central server.

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git-annex - Wikipedia
e release 6.20160318 / 18 March 2016; 2 years ago (2016-03-18) Written in Haskell Operating system Linux, FreeBSD, Android, OS X, Windows Size 44.2 MB Type File synchronization License GPL3+, AGPL3+ [1] Website git-annex.branchable.com <span>git-annex is a distributed file synchronization system written in Haskell. It aims to solve the problem of sharing and synchronizing collections of large files independent from a commercial service or even a central server. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Design 3 Availability 4 See also 5 References 6 External links History[edit source] git-annex development began in 2010. [2] In 2012/13 t




Flashcard 2977330236684

Tags
#git-annex
Question
git-annex is a [...] system
Answer
distributed file synchronization


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git-annex is a distributed file synchronization system written in Haskell. It aims to solve the problem of sharing and synchronizing collections of large files independent from a commercial service or even a central server. <

Original toplevel document

git-annex - Wikipedia
e release 6.20160318 / 18 March 2016; 2 years ago (2016-03-18) Written in Haskell Operating system Linux, FreeBSD, Android, OS X, Windows Size 44.2 MB Type File synchronization License GPL3+, AGPL3+ [1] Website git-annex.branchable.com <span>git-annex is a distributed file synchronization system written in Haskell. It aims to solve the problem of sharing and synchronizing collections of large files independent from a commercial service or even a central server. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Design 3 Availability 4 See also 5 References 6 External links History[edit source] git-annex development began in 2010. [2] In 2012/13 t







The Magic Lantern Shows that Influenced Modern Horror

Eighteenth and early nineteenth century audiences were delighted and horrified by these spectral apparitions conjured in dark rooms.

Hint: Look at title, fill in title

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The Magic Lantern Shows that Influenced Modern Horror | JSTOR Daily
ainability & The Environment Technology Education & Society Education Social Sciences Religion Lifestyle Contact The Editors About JSTOR Daily Arts & Culture <span>The Magic Lantern Shows that Influenced Modern Horror Eighteenth and early nineteenth century audiences were delighted and horrified by these spectral apparitions conjured in dark rooms. A "Phantasmagoria" startles the crowd via Wikimedia Commons




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Question
The [...] Shows that Influenced Modern Horror

Eighteenth and early nineteenth century audiences were delighted and horrified by these spectral apparitions conjured in dark rooms.

Hint: Look at title, fill in title

Answer
Magic Lantern


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The Magic Lantern Shows that Influenced Modern Horror Eighteenth and early nineteenth century audiences were delighted and horrified by these spectral apparitions conjured in dark rooms.

Original toplevel document

The Magic Lantern Shows that Influenced Modern Horror | JSTOR Daily
ainability & The Environment Technology Education & Society Education Social Sciences Religion Lifestyle Contact The Editors About JSTOR Daily Arts & Culture <span>The Magic Lantern Shows that Influenced Modern Horror Eighteenth and early nineteenth century audiences were delighted and horrified by these spectral apparitions conjured in dark rooms. A "Phantasmagoria" startles the crowd via Wikimedia Commons







Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines

America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in British prisons. It was banned as cruel and inhumane by 1900.

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Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
bility & The Environment Technology Education & Society Education Social Sciences Religion Lifestyle Contact The Editors About JSTOR Daily Politics & History <span>Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in British prisons. It was banned as cruel and inhumane by 1900. Getty Diane Peters May 2, 2018 May 17,




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Question
[...] Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines

America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in British prisons. It was banned as cruel and inhumane by 1900.

Answer
Treadmills


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in British prisons. It was banned as cruel and inhumane by

Original toplevel document

Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
bility & The Environment Technology Education & Society Education Social Sciences Religion Lifestyle Contact The Editors About JSTOR Daily Politics & History <span>Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in British prisons. It was banned as cruel and inhumane by 1900. Getty Diane Peters May 2, 2018 May 17,







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Question
Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines

America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in [...] It was banned as cruel and inhumane by 1900.

Answer
British prisons.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in British prisons. It was banned as cruel and inhumane by 1900.

Original toplevel document

Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
bility & The Environment Technology Education & Society Education Social Sciences Religion Lifestyle Contact The Editors About JSTOR Daily Politics & History <span>Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines America’s favorite piece of workout equipment was developed as a device for forced labor in British prisons. It was banned as cruel and inhumane by 1900. Getty Diane Peters May 2, 2018 May 17,







William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts

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Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
Sign up for the JSTOR Weekly Digest and get the week's best stories right in your inbox. Privacy Policy Contact Us You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message. <span>William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts. Cubitt’s early attempts at the treadmill’s design took many forms, including two wheels you walked on whose cogs interlocked. But his most popular edition, which was installed at Brixt




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Question
[...], a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts
Answer
William Cubitt


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the co

Original toplevel document

Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
Sign up for the JSTOR Weekly Digest and get the week's best stories right in your inbox. Privacy Policy Contact Us You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message. <span>William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts. Cubitt’s early attempts at the treadmill’s design took many forms, including two wheels you walked on whose cogs interlocked. But his most popular edition, which was installed at Brixt







Flashcard 2977348324620

Question
William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a [...] in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts
Answer
treadwheel


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Open it
William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts

Original toplevel document

Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
Sign up for the JSTOR Weekly Digest and get the week's best stories right in your inbox. Privacy Policy Contact Us You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message. <span>William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts. Cubitt’s early attempts at the treadmill’s design took many forms, including two wheels you walked on whose cogs interlocked. But his most popular edition, which was installed at Brixt







Flashcard 2977349897484

Question
William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The [...] in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts
Answer
Crystal Palace


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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<head>William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts <html>

Original toplevel document

Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
Sign up for the JSTOR Weekly Digest and get the week's best stories right in your inbox. Privacy Policy Contact Us You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message. <span>William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts. Cubitt’s early attempts at the treadmill’s design took many forms, including two wheels you walked on whose cogs interlocked. But his most popular edition, which was installed at Brixt







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Question
William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was [...] by Queen Victoria for his efforts
Answer
knighted


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civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was <span>knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
Sign up for the JSTOR Weekly Digest and get the week's best stories right in your inbox. Privacy Policy Contact Us You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message. <span>William Cubitt, a civil engineer raised in a family of millwrights, created the treadmill—which was also called a treadwheel in the early days—in 1818. Cubitt later became famous for overseeing the construction of The Crystal Palace in London in 1851, and was knighted by Queen Victoria for his efforts. Cubitt’s early attempts at the treadmill’s design took many forms, including two wheels you walked on whose cogs interlocked. But his most popular edition, which was installed at Brixt







This treadmill could busy as many as 24 prisoners, standing side-by-side along the wheel. Some devices at other prisons were smaller, and most treadmills soon included partitions so convicts could not socialize. They slogged for 10 hours a day in summer, and a mere seven in winter.

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Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
wheel, which moved it, presenting them with the next step. Picture it like the sport of log-rolling, only the log-like wheel was fixed in place. The Brixton treadmill was hooked up to subterranean machinery that ground corn. It wasn’t fun. <span>This treadmill could busy as many as 24 prisoners, standing side-by-side along the wheel. Some devices at other prisons were smaller, and most treadmills soon included partitions so convicts could not socialize. They slogged for 10 hours a day in summer, and a mere seven in winter. The invention arrived at an apt time. At the end of the eighteenth century, the British began reforming their prisons. According to the historian U. R. Q. Henriques’ 1972 article “The




Flashcard 2977354616076

Question
This treadmill could busy as many as 24 prisoners, standing side-by-side along the wheel. Some devices at other prisons were smaller, and most treadmills soon included partitions so convicts could not socialize. They slogged for [...]
Answer
10 hours a day in summer, and a mere seven in winter.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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y>This treadmill could busy as many as 24 prisoners, standing side-by-side along the wheel. Some devices at other prisons were smaller, and most treadmills soon included partitions so convicts could not socialize. They slogged for 10 hours a day in summer, and a mere seven in winter. <body><html>

Original toplevel document

Treadmills Were Meant to Be Atonement Machines | JSTOR Daily
wheel, which moved it, presenting them with the next step. Picture it like the sport of log-rolling, only the log-like wheel was fixed in place. The Brixton treadmill was hooked up to subterranean machinery that ground corn. It wasn’t fun. <span>This treadmill could busy as many as 24 prisoners, standing side-by-side along the wheel. Some devices at other prisons were smaller, and most treadmills soon included partitions so convicts could not socialize. They slogged for 10 hours a day in summer, and a mere seven in winter. The invention arrived at an apt time. At the end of the eighteenth century, the British began reforming their prisons. According to the historian U. R. Q. Henriques’ 1972 article “The