Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 11-Jul-2018 (Wed)

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#incremental_learning #learning

Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention.

statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




#incremental_learning #learning #supermemo

The Supermemo algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention.

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last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


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e same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading <span>High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some p




#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts.
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u extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. <span>The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in n

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav




#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


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Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priori

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav




#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Incremental Learning: Lesser priority material may suffer if there are too many articles and be remembered less accurately.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


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Open it
information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. <span>While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatical

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav




#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Priority of articles can be edited manually.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
l also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. <span>Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav




Flashcard 3075313634572

Tags
#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Question
Priority of articles [can/can't] be edited manually.
Answer
can

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Priority of articles can be edited manually.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav







Flashcard 3075316780300

Tags
#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Question
Incremental Learning: [...] material may suffer if there are too many articles and be remembered less accurately.
Answer
Lesser priority

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Open it
Incremental Learning: Lesser priority material may suffer if there are too many articles and be remembered less accurately.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav







Flashcard 3075318353164

Tags
#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Question
Incremental Learning: Lesser priority material may suffer if [...] and be remembered less accurately.
Answer
there are too many articles

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Incremental Learning: Lesser priority material may suffer if there are too many articles and be remembered less accurately.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav







Flashcard 3075319926028

Tags
#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Question
Incremental Learning: Lesser priority material may suffer if there are too many articles and be remembered [...].
Answer
less accurately

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Incremental Learning: Lesser priority material may suffer if there are too many articles and be remembered less accurately.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav







Flashcard 3075321498892

Tags
#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Question
Prioritization tools will ensure that [...] pieces of information will receive better processing.
Answer
important

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav







Flashcard 3075323071756

Tags
#buboflash_improvement #incremental_learning #learning
Question
Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive [...].
Answer
better processing

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav







Flashcard 3075325168908

Question
What does prioritization in incremental learning ensure?
Answer
That material that currently interests you is processed better and faster.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






#incremental_learning #learning #supermemo
The Supermemo algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review).
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The Supermemo algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some p




#incremental_learning #learning #supermemo
In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention.
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The Supermemo algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. <span>In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some p




#has-images
Creativity formula

Understanding the creativity cycle is essential for high creativity, good learning, and a happy mind. The following picture explains how the natural creativity cycle works. For details see the Neural aspects of the creativity cycle.

[imagelink]

Figure: In the natural creativity cycle there is a regular interplay between the creative processes and the consolidation of knowledge. For high creativity and good learning, those processes must proceed unimpeded. Sleep must come naturally and should never be interrupted. Waking day should also have large blocks protected from interruption, multitasking, and stress. Starting with the creative morning explosion, seeds of activation (in red) get gradually converted into a big idea that emerges on the next morning. In the meantime, learning, reasoning, and creative activations reshuffle neuronal connections. New connections emerge, get strengthened, weakened, eliminated, or are consolidated for long term storage. All steps are essential for the emergence of the ultimate big idea. For details see: Neural aspects of the natural creativity cycle

Natural creativity cycle

The natural creativity cycle is an interplay of neurological processes that occur in waking and in sleep. This natural cycle does not come with much advice that will boost your specific creativity. You only need to know that all creative people must protect the cycle from interference with drugs, distractions, or designer schedules that disrupt individual stages. The most delicate and the most often disrupted component of the cycle is sleep. Typical cycle violations would include morning alarm clock, evening alcohol, medication, or suppressing creativity with multitasking, stress, and disruptions.

To live up to your intellectual and creative potential, you should respect and protect the natural creativity cycle.

Day

Waking

The cycle begins with natural waking after a full night of uninterrupted and unmedicated sleep. It is essential that sleep occur in the optimum circadian framework. In simplest terms, it means going to sleep when sleepy, waking up naturally, going to sleep daily in a similar time frame, and waking up at sunrise or after sunrise under the influence of natural sunlight.

Morning creativity

In the natural cycle, for biological reasons, the best brain performance occurs in the morning. This is the time when new ideas start germinating and when best creative learning takes place. Creative learning differs from your typical learning in that the creative process may interfere with the learning process. This may slow down learning while increasing its quality and outcomes. In creative learning, you learn the subject matter and supplement that learning with your own creative enhancement. In other words, while reading a book, in creative learning, you learn the content of the book and what you invent about the book!

Focus and creativity cycles

During the day, there will be two prime oscillati

...
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In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge.
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Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




#incremental_learning #learning
Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered.
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ual-tag="t">Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




#incremental_learning #learning
You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items.
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items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. <span>You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical lear

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




#incremental_learning #learning
You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems.
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nt material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. <span>You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




#incremental_learning #learning
This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention.
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ortions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. <span>This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




#incremental_learning #learning
Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items.
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Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




#incremental_learning #learning
Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension.
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Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly sk

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span>Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into Supe




#incremental_learning #learning
However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review.
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little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. <span>However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to p

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span>Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into Supe




#incremental_learning #learning
You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information.
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her, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. <span>You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span>Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into Supe




#incremental_learning #learning
Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process.
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vings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. <span>Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span>Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into Supe




#incremental_learning #learning
Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc.
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.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. <span>Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span>Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into Supe




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This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading.
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usion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. <span>This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span>Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into Supe




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Incremental reading is your speed-reading on steroids!

Dr Piotr Wozniak, November 2014

Most good readers rarely go beyond 400 words per minute even if they are practitioners of speed-reading. In addition, the faster they read, the less likely they are to fully comprehend the text, let alone retain the information for months and years. In incremental reading, on the other hand, there is virtually no speed limit. Moreover, incremental reading comes with a warranty of maximum comprehension and 95-98% retention for lifetime. This article explains how the seemingly impossible became part of life for an increasing number of users of SuperMemo.

What is incremental reading?

Incremental reading is a technique that helps you convert texts, e.g. from the web, into life-long knowledge. While reading incrementally, the student extracts the most important portions of texts and converts them with a click to questions that are later used to test student's memory along the spaced repetition scheme. This is how the acquired knowledge can be retained for life.

What is the fastest reading method?

To a casual observer, incremental reading looks like ordinary reading combined with lots of extra computer operations. In other words, it looks slow and cumbersome. To a newbie, the impression of sluggishness may be amplified by a never-ending battle with complexities of software (i.e. SuperMemo), difficult article selection choices, prioritization woes, and lack of experience in choosing the right materials for extracts or question keywords.

In this text, I want to prove that no reading can beat the speed of incremental reading. I also want to demonstrate that the speed does not need to come at the cost of comprehension or recall. Let's make it even more radical by saying bluntly:

Incremental reading is the fastest form of reading that ensures maximum comprehension and a near-perfect recall for lifetime!

Now that I got your attention, let me add some qualifiers that will explain that this claim is true but not as rosy as it seems at first. I would like to tell you a story in which incremental reading went into a contest with classical speed-reading. I will include some hard-earned data to illustrate my points.

Why can incremental reading be very fast?

Incremental reading can be very fast mostly due to the fact that you do not need to worry about neither thorough comprehension nor recall during your first pass through the text. This contrasts it with speed-reading where comprehension is a measure of reading quality and maximum focus is essential for speed-reading to make sense. In other words, incremental reading can be employed as skimming without a speed limit,

...
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Incremental reading is your speed-reading on steroids!
Incremental reading is your speed-reading on steroids! Incremental reading is your speed-reading on steroids! Dr Piotr Wozniak, November 2014 Most good readers rarely go beyond 400 words per minute even if they are practitioners of speed-reading. In addition, the faster they read, the less likely they are to fully comprehend the text, let alone retain the information for months and years. In incremental reading, on the other hand, there is virtually no speed limit. Moreover, incremental reading comes with a warranty of maximum comprehension and 95-98% retention for lifetime. This article explains how the seemingly impossible became part of life for an increasing number of users of SuperMemo. What is incremental reading? Incremental reading is a technique that helps you convert texts, e.g. from the web, into life-long knowledge. While reading incrementally, the student extracts the most important portions of texts and converts them with a click to questions that are later used to test student's memory along the spaced repetition scheme. This is how the acquired knowledge can be retained for life. What is the fastest reading method? To a casual observer, incremental reading looks like ordinary reading combined with lots of extra computer operations. In other words, it looks slow and cumbersome. To a newbie, the impression of sluggishness may be amplified by a never-ending battle with complexities of software (i.e. SuperMemo), difficult article selection choices, prioritization woes, and lack of experience in choosing the right materials for extracts or question keywords. In this text, I want to prove that no reading can beat the speed of incremental reading. I also want to demonstrate that the speed does not need to come at the cost of comprehension or recall. Let's make it even more radical by saying bluntly: Incremental reading is the fastest form of reading that ensures maximum comprehension and a near-perfect recall for lifetime! Now that I got your attention, let me add some qualifiers that will explain that this claim is true but not as rosy as it seems at first. I would like to tell you a story in which incremental reading went into a contest with classical speed-reading. I will include some hard-earned data to illustrate my points. Why can incremental reading be very fast? Incremental reading can be very fast mostly due to the fact that you do not need to worry about neither thorough comprehension nor recall during your first pass through the text. This contrasts it with speed-reading where comprehension is a measure of reading quality and maximum focus is essential for speed-reading to make sense. In other words, incremental reading can be employed as skimming without a speed limit , while comprehension and recall become a concern at later time. At the very extreme end of the reading speed, you can import a Wikipedia article, automatically split it into sections, fish for a few sections of maximum interest and set their priorities high for further processing in the incremental learning process. All that should take mere seconds even if the article is a megabyte long! Nothing can beat that speed. Naturally, your initial inflow of new knowledge to your memory will be microscopic. Perhaps just a few general ideas on the subject. For example, if you wanted to know what Biosphere 2 is, you might execute a speed-learning procedure that would take you just 2 minutes, give you a general understanding of the Biosphere project, help you illustrate it with 2-4 pictures, and prioritize the knowledge for future consumption. With hundreds of things to learn, very often, such a speedy rough outline is all that you need at the moment of first reading. In incremental learning, all well-prioritized pieces of information will compete for your attention. Their understanding and recall will depend on how you manage the learning process and how you shape your learning strategy. It is possible you will never go beyond the ABC of Biosphere 2. Perhaps you will even forget it. However, if the subject is important, you can incrementally dig into individual pieces of the imported text and ensure excellent recall for as long as you are ready to invest in repetitions with SuperMemo . Speed-reading contest When a friend from America, Matt, paid me a visit in January 2006, he boasted of his improving speed-reading skills and his 2000 words per minute record. He was ready to give me a demo. I pulled a book on American History from a shelf and picked a test chapter to process. He wheezed through the text fast enough for me to be pretty certain that his recall of facts would be rather superficial. However, his comprehension was remarkable. We did not do any measurement to confirm his 2000 wpm capability, but it was definitely the fastest reading performance I have ever witnessed personally. One detail needs to be mentioned though. Matt's knowledge of history is a bit too good to make for a reliable test. For example, he included Alabama when listing out a group of southern states, while Alabama was not actually mentioned in the text. Secondly, the book was a fun read that was not too rich in hard-to-recall or hard-to-process facts. I asked Matt to take on a harder text from my own SuperMemo collection, where we could measure the exact speed in a controlled environment. We found an exemplary article about sleep that included a dozen of sleep drug names. Slightly tired due to the late hour, Matt admitted that the text was much harder and his reading speed crawled down to 200 wpm, i.e. a tenth of his best achievement. His comprehension was also worse than in the case of American History, partly due to his lesser knowledge of the subject matter. Matt's story shows that speed-reading techniques can really help one devour books at the speed of light. However, when it comes to harder fact-rich texts, even the best speed-reading will slow down to make it possible to combat complexity and volleys of facts. Next day, I thought of giving the same text a test in SuperMemo with my own incremental reading skills. As mentioned earlier, there is virtually no limit on the speed of reading in incremental reading. You can skim and extract long portions of text without sacrificing comprehension in the long run. Those skimmed texts will simply come back in the learning process later. Perhaps in a day or in a week. Matt needed maximum focus and 7 min. 20 sec. to rush through the article. I knew that I can process it faster with no concern about focus and possible distraction by rambling thoughts. In other words, the first big advantage of incremental reading is that it is entirely stress free (at least for a pro). If you miss details today, you can recover them later. Reading without the pressure of focus is fun, and this, in turn, paradoxically, improves focus! I managed to rush through the text in 2.5 minutes. During that first reading pass, I generated 13 extracts and ignored little or no text. My comprehension was ok, but the recall of details was pretty poor. In other words, in a hurry, I can easily beat a speed-reader as long as I defer the actual acquisition of knowledge. The best part about fast reading with incremental reading is the freedom, lack of stress, and 100% guarantee that not a single detail will be missed unless I choose so with my own rational decision. Obviously, a good speed-reader will do better in incremental reading than a typical user of SuperMemo without speed-reading training. Many years of incremental reading experience are a form of a speed-reading training substitute. I am not sure how effective a substitute though. Fast reading in incremental reading is largely based on skimming and deferring knowledge acquisition. Its main advantages are speed freedom and stresslessness. The value of speed with limited comprehension Your question might be now "What's the point of speed without comprehension?". In your first pass, you usually focus on (1) prioritizing the material and (2) finding golden nuggets of knowledge. With good speed you can read a hundred articles in a day rather than just a few. On the next day, you can start slowly with the most important finds of your speed-reading blitz. More often than not, you will interleave high speed with slow reading depending on your needs: In incremental reading, you get to the speed of light when searching for golden nuggets of knowledge, and high value materials, however, you slow down to contemplate and ruminate once you strike the mother lode! Incremental reading: 8 years later After my speed test, I decided to repeat it on the same text on the same day. This time I had to read 13 extracts generated in the first pass. The total text size would be 35% larger due to the fact that extracts often include context that repeats between individual elements. This second pass took 5.6 minutes. This means that my two first passes of the article took only 11% more time than Matt needed to process the article in a single pass. The best news came from the fact that my comprehension and recall increased ten-fold. With an 8 minute investment, I did not employ any solid measure of comprehension. So my estimates were based on guesswork. My mastery of facts was pretty solid, almost certainly better than Matt's, however, sleep is one of my favorite subjects, so the battlefield was pretty uneven. After the two passes, we had double good news: (1) first pass was very fast, and (2) second pass delivered solid comprehension. Intrigued with the results I decided to keep repeating the reading test. However, for a good comparison with incremental reading, we need to involve the actual test of knowledge retention. In SuperMemo, this means the need to generate cloze deletions . For that reason, I decided to repeat the test in increasing intervals that would give active knowledge carried by SuperMemo items a chance to solidify for long-term retention (along the principles of spaced repetition). As the original goal of the test was to measure the speed of reading, I could not let the natural incremental learning process take care of the extracts generated from the article. The goal was to read all texts in a single pass on a single day for each review. For that reasons, I gave the article and all its extracts lowest priority possible to ensure minimum interference from my daily learning. I then returned to the whole body of generated knowledge yet five times in the years 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2014. At each pass, I would randomize the elements to eliminate the sequence effect. Naturally, items generated from a single article do interfere with each other and falsify the retention measurements. However, in SuperMemo, one can choose his or her own desired retention level and the retention was not part of the experiment. We can safely say that in SuperMemo, whatever the extent of the testing time, the retention is always excellent . My measurements also produced excellent retention (94%) that was lowered by an arbitrary choice of intervals and increased by item interference. All incremental readers know that the cost of processing long texts tends to increase over time once the student gets to the details of individual paragraphs and starts generating cloze deletions. However, because of the usual learning overload, the full processing cycle of a single article is not too visible and not too obvious to an average user. Overtime, the topics tend to disappear entirely from the process. The cost of topic processing has a bell-shaped nature over time . The height of the cost curve peak depends on one's meticulousness, size of the text, workload, text's factual richness, etc. The full processing time may extend to lifetime, but it can also take just days or weeks, esp. for high priority articles, short articles, sparse articles, easy articles, etc. Once topics disappear from the process, the decline in the cost of item review is theoretically exponential. In other words, the cost of knowledge acquisition in incremental reading, for a single text, is a superposition of a bell-shape and exponential curves with a short-lasting increase in workload and a gradual dissipation of costs over time. My little experiment was to plot the cost curve in terms of processing time. Naturally, the superposition of topics and items was pretty artificial as I had to focus on speed-reading and topic processing, while items were reviewed on the experimental schedule largely inconsistent with spaced repetition. My item review proceeded in arbitrary intervals that did not reflect the actual nature of learning with SuperMemo. Now that I consumed the entire text and deleted all topics, from November 2014 on, I will focus on proper item repetitions. I will report on the future progress, perhaps in a decade, however, anyone who knows SuperMemo knows that the outcome is pretty clear. I should be able to recall 95-98% of the information when tested at any time of the day in any moment of the future. Naturally, this will happen only if I opt to keep all the article information in high priority knowledge ranks, which I plan to do for the sake of the experiment. In the meantime, I asked Matt how much he remembered of the article we read together 8 years ago. I was not surprised that he even had problems with recalling the subject matter. He remembered reading American History though! This only shows that we can recall past events as long as they are prominent enough. Perhaps Matt remembered how impressed we all were with his performance? RESULTS Size of texts In incremental reading, the total size of texts in topics expresses the reading that still needs to be done for full comprehension. The total size of texts in items expresses the total size of knowledge acquired for life . Those two numbers keep changing in the learning process where items constantly feed on and consume the texts included in topics. The total size of texts in topics will keep increasing for a while. The increase is caused by retaining context carried by some paragraphs. It may take 3-6 reviews for that increase to plateau. After that, there is a rapid decline in the size of topics as they get converted to items and gradually deleted (with Done in incremental reading). The size of items keeps increasing as long as new items are generated. After that, the size of items will tend to shrink due to the simplification process in re-formulating items and ditching redundant information. [imagelink] Cost of reading and learning In incremental reading, the cost of learning in time is initially dominated by reading, however, after a few reviews, the time devoted to answering questions carried by items becomes dominant. What cannot be seen in the graph, however, is the fact that this cost drops exponentially for well-formulated items. Once the article is fully processed, the cost of review will drop to negligible levels after just a few months. The total 8-years cost of review in the presented experiment amounted to 60 minutes. That's much more than Matt's 7 minutes at 200 wpm. However, if you compare recall-to-cost ratio, the superiority of incremental reading becomes obvious. [imagelink] Element count The number of topics will increase at first, but will ultimately drop to zero. Items, on the other hand, are on an increase in the period of topic processing, however, their impact on the cost of review is mitigated by increasing review intervals in spaced repetition. [imagelink] What are the bottlenecks of speed-reading? My primary interest revolves around reading for creative purposes. It is not how fast you can read fiction without missing on the plot. I am more interested in the bottlenecks in the creative process where an individual uses reading as a source of information or creative inspiration to generate value: new ideas or long-term knowledge. This angle of interest undermines the significance of the speed of reading due to the fact that true bottlenecks in the creative reading process are: (1) processing information, and (2) long-term retention of knowledge. In creative reading, once you hit upon an insightful piece of information, you definitely do not want to rush ahead and load on more information that might interfere with the just soaked inspiration. Just the opposite, to let the mind wander is the key principle of creativity. Many parallel subconscious pathways are activated in the brain. Given sufficient freedom to roam, those pathways will bob up to consciousness with new ideas that can change the world. That subconscious creative information processing is hardly under our rational control. Its speed is roughly pre-set and rushing it might have the same effect as giving a chess player a short deadline for a complex move. Rushing in with more information is like blowing more wind into the clouds that are just forming a meaningful structure in the sky. The inflow of information must be carefully controlled. More speed on barren mind, less speed in a fertile moment. More speed on low-quality texts, less speed on high-quality texts. For more see: The 1000-Word Dash. The second bottleneck, the long-term retention of information requires spaced repetition, which in turn is executed best along the minimum information principle . This means that attentive and meticulous approach to formulating knowledge for active recall will dramatically cut the lifetime cost of retention. In speed-reading, there is a never-ending trade-off between speed, comprehension and retention. In incremental reading, you can rationally control all components of the creative reading process: speed, comprehension, creativity and long-term retention. In that light I must reiterate the original claim: If creative reading and long-term retention of knowledge are your main goals, there is no better way of reading than incremental reading. For more see: Incremental learning Conclusions incremental reading can be substantially faster than speed-reading, however, for an inexperienced reader, this is largely accomplished with skimming at the cost of comprehension and recall despite the high speed of reading, over time, the comprehension can quickly be brought up to 100% (or more precisely, to the maximum, which may depend on student's knowledge and article's quality) in the long run, the retention of knowledge will approach 96% by default (different levels can be programmed in SuperMemo in cost-vs-retention trade-off). This 96% level can be maintained for lifetime at low review cost the time cost of incremental reading increases initially due to the proliferation of topic extracts and due to the process of generating new cloze deletions. The cost curve over time is a superposition of a bell-shaped curve (topic proliferation), linear inflow of new items, and exponential decline in the cost of item review once all topics are fully processed, topic costs drop to zero. Depending on student's strategy, this may happen in just one review, or never. In the presented example, costs of topic processing dropped to zero after 7th pass through the text in the presented example, the cost of topic processing and the size of topic texts peaked in 5th review (15 min and 18 kB respectively, up from the original reading time of 2.5 min in the first review for 9 kB text) once topics are processed, cost of item review becomes negligible within a few months speed-reading training is a great introduction to fast reading with incremental reading, however, long-term incremental reading should also help develop natural speed-reading skills the lifetime cost of incremental reading may be ten times the cost of speed-reading, but the dismal recall record of speed-reading makes the difference in actual knowledge vast and growing with each month incremental reading may be difficult to master, however, it should be a dream tool for speed-readers who care about long-term retention of knowledge




Flashcard 3075367898380

Tags
#english #language
Question
Was heißt consolidation (EN)?
Answer
Vertiefung oder Solidifizierung/Zusammenschließung

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






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I’ve looked at some FAQs on Incremental Reading, and it seems that it is more advantageous to take your time when processing an article. Rather than reading the entire thing at once, you must take your time as the article and extracts are processed. This would not be useful for school if you had to take a test over learned material within a week or so. Unfortunately, because this is how the academic world is structured (Short-term retention), this means that unless you can study material many months ahead of time, incremental reading, while having advantages, will not reach its intended and full potential.

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I have thought about this for a while, and I have drawn a conclusion. I think the reason that I have not succeeded using the Incremental Reading feature is because the use of Incremental Reading requires a fundamental change in how I think of learning and study. When I think of studying or learning something, it is always for a specific purpose (Test, certain occasion, etc.). It is like a light switch that I turn ON and OFF. When I need to study, I turn study mode ON, learn what I need, insert information into Supermemo, then mode OFF. A quick but choppy process.

To me, this method of learning is considered “normal” because my concept of “study” has been influenced by traditions I learned, which is “study intensely for test, then forget about it.” Because the desired result of study (Passing a test) is very short-term, then the traditional method of studying and learning must also be very short-term. Therefore, if Supermemo is the method for near-perfect long-term memory, then Incremental Reading should be the method for near-perfect short-term memory (Acquisition or study).

As Drabz said, it is not useful for specific academic themes due to schedules, because these are short-term constraints. Such constraints limit the potential usefulness of Incremental Reading. This is all theoretical because I do not yet understand why Incremental Reading is so good, although the concept has always seemed sound.

Supermemo seems to be the superior method for long-term retention and has been one of my most rewarding pursuits, therefore I am naturally inclined to believe in the potential superiority of Incremental Reading. The only thing holding me back has been myself (Laziness, to be precise).

I am going to give incremental reading a try over the next few weeks, I’ll let you know how it turns out.
Also, I just hit 29,000 items. When I hit 30,000, I am going to have a party!

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Nice comments here. I was thinking somewhat like you. I have added a lot of articles to my database since starting to use SuperMemo (that was almost two years ago). I read a piece of info I need , extract this information and then most of the time, never use the rest of the article. This article might come later, but usually I don’t have time to read it just because I would like to know more.

There is information you need to learn, and some your would like to learn. Most of the time what you need to learn fills up my time. Every day I’m more convinced that perhaps the concept is good but wrongly implemented for the most frequent study needs.

So my conclusion has been that I’m not really incrementaly reading but just studying what I need, and revising past articles further in time, sometimes this have information I was searching for and then I pick this new information. This does not seem different from the way I’ve always learn. The best advantage I get from incremental reading now is telling if I already processed a piece of text (similar to highlighting a paper book)and also searching preprocessed text fast with out going to the web twice (in most cases).

This way of using incremental reading does not look for me as the way it was designed. Hence my search for incremental readers world wide. The answer though seem to be that they are not many or none at all.

A need for efficiency seems to be more important here, so I’ll probably just stick to my sort of incremental reading, after all so deep overload of repetitions does not let me do much more.

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Incremental Reading death | &quot;wanakumbuka&quot; TheSuperMemoryBlog
, I just hit 29,000 items. When I hit 30,000, I am going to have a party! Reply gersapa permalink* July 29, 2009 07:21 0 0 i Rate This <span>Nice comments here. I was thinking somewhat like you. I have added a lot of articles to my database since starting to use SuperMemo (that was almost two years ago). I read a piece of info I need , extract this information and then most of the time, never use the rest of the article. This article might come later, but usually I don’t have time to read it just because I would like to know more. There is information you need to learn, and some your would like to learn. Most of the time what you need to learn fills up my time. Every day I’m more convinced that perhaps the concept is good but wrongly implemented for the most frequent study needs. So my conclusion has been that I’m not really incrementaly reading but just studying what I need, and revising past articles further in time, sometimes this have information I was searching for and then I pick this new information. This does not seem different from the way I’ve always learn. The best advantage I get from incremental reading now is telling if I already processed a piece of text (similar to highlighting a paper book)and also searching preprocessed text fast with out going to the web twice (in most cases). This way of using incremental reading does not look for me as the way it was designed. Hence my search for incremental readers world wide. The answer though seem to be that they are not many or none at all. A need for efficiency seems to be more important here, so I’ll probably just stick to my sort of incremental reading, after all so deep overload of repetitions does not let me do much more. Nattan congrats on those 29,000 items. This week I went trough the 18,000 barrier and I can attest the joy of fulfillment that you acquired for making the effort on the SuperMemo Meth




I see visual metaphors as I think about things, and the only thing that comes to my mind is a concept called “Crowd Control.” In RPGs, Crowd Control is used to temporarily immobilize or otherwise hinder enemies from attacking you at their full potential, giving you the upper hand in killing them faster. Let’s say you have 20 enemies that want to chase you and kill your group. Rather than fight all 20 at once, if a member of your group could temporarily immobilize 10 of the enemies, you now have only 10 to fight. The job is now 50% easier than just a moment ago, and the tide of battle has changed drastically.
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Incremental Reading death | &quot;wanakumbuka&quot; TheSuperMemoryBlog
ust 4, 2009 22:53 0 0 i Rate This Incremental Reading (So far) I’ve only been using it for a few days, but after reading lots of FAQs and making an effort to use it, I am much more convinced of its effectiveness. <span>I see visual metaphors as I think about things, and the only thing that comes to my mind is a concept called “Crowd Control.” In RPGs, Crowd Control is used to temporarily immobilize or otherwise hinder enemies from attacking you at their full potential, giving you the upper hand in killing them faster. Let’s say you have 20 enemies that want to chase you and kill your group. Rather than fight all 20 at once, if a member of your group could temporarily immobilize 10 of the enemies, you now have only 10 to fight. The job is now 50% easier than just a moment ago, and the tide of battle has changed drastically. This seems to be what Incremental Reading is doing for my reading material. I have many things I want to read, and if I had to read through all of them at once it would be overwhelmin




However, I find the problem with SRS software is—one get’s to ambitious about remembering everything one reads. In my opinion there are 3 types of reading: 1.) Just to discover things worth remembering–chances are the entire reading session will be in vain in the long run—but it’s still worth reading broadly just in case you find something amazing 2.) knowledge to be added to your reference library–but not worth memorizing forever. For this purpose nothing beats actual books with dog ears and lines next to interesting passages. 3.) core knowledge that is actually worth the time to remember forever using SRS.

The problem I have is if I incrementally read i’m too tempted to try to memorize things which are not worth it.

A lot of creative ideas do come from memories which occur outside of our SRS training. At a certain point it’s impossible to know in advance what knowledge will be important and what will not so perhaps it is worth

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Incremental Reading death | &quot;wanakumbuka&quot; TheSuperMemoryBlog
emental reading. By the way Great blog! Reply lavedon permalink January 14, 2012 18:48 0 0 i Rate This I love incremental reading. <span>However, I find the problem with SRS software is—one get’s to ambitious about remembering everything one reads. In my opinion there are 3 types of reading: 1.) Just to discover things worth remembering–chances are the entire reading session will be in vain in the long run—but it’s still worth reading broadly just in case you find something amazing 2.) knowledge to be added to your reference library–but not worth memorizing forever. For this purpose nothing beats actual books with dog ears and lines next to interesting passages. 3.) core knowledge that is actually worth the time to remember forever using SRS. The problem I have is if I incrementally read i’m too tempted to try to memorize things which are not worth it. A lot of creative ideas do come from memories which occur outside of our SRS training. At a certain point it’s impossible to know in advance what knowledge will be important and what will not so perhaps it is worth I’m using Anki with the incremental reading plugin. The big problem is if I import a large book it crashes. To me the most interesting part of SRS is it shows how absurd the tradi




TEN RULES OF GOOD STUDYING

1. Use recall. After you read a page, look away and recall the main ideas. Highlight very little, and never highlight anything you haven’t put in your mind first by recalling. Try recalling main ideas when you are walking to class or in a different room from where you originally learned it. An ability to recall—to generate the ideas from inside yourself—is one of the key indicators of good learning.

2. Test yourself. On everything. All the time. Flash cards are your friend.

3. Chunk your problems. Chunking is understanding and practicing with a problem solution so that it can all come to mind in a flash. After you solve a problem, rehearse it. Make sure you can solve it cold—every step. Pretend it’s a song and learn to play it over and over again in your mind, so the information combines into one smooth chunk you can pull up whenever you want.

4. Space your repetition. Spread out your learning in any subject a little every day, just like an athlete. Your brain is like a muscle—it can handle only a limited amount of exercise on one subject at a time.

5. Alternate different problem-solving techniques during your practice. Never practice too long at any one session using only one problem-solving technique—after a while, you are just mimicking what you did on the previous problem. Mix it up and work on different types of problems. This teaches you both how and when to use a technique. (Books generally are not set up this way, so you’ll need to do this on your own.) After every assignment and test, go over your errors, make sure you understand why you made them, and then rework your solutions. To study most effectively, handwrite (don’t type) a problem on one side of a flash card and the solution on the other. (Handwriting builds stronger neural structures in memory than typing.) You might also photograph the card if you want to load it into a study app on your smartphone. Quiz yourself randomly on different types of problems. Another way to do this is to randomly flip through your book, pick out a problem, and see whether you can solve it cold.

6. Take breaks. It is common to be unable to solve problems or figure out concepts in math or science the first time you encounter them. This is why a little study every day is much better than a lot of studying all at once. When you get frustrated with a math or science problem, take a break so that another part of your mind can take over and work in the background.

7. Use explanatory questioning and simple analogies. Whenever you are struggling with a concept, think to yourself, How can I explain this so that a ten-year-old could understand it? Using an analogy really helps, like saying that the flow of electricity is like the flow of water. Don’t just think your explanation—say it out loud or put it in writing. The additional effort of speaking and writing allows you to more deeply encode (that is, convert into neural memory structures) what you are learning.

8. Focus. Turn off all interrupting beeps and alarms on your phone and computer, and then turn on a timer for twenty-five minutes. Focus intently for those twenty-five minutes and try to work as diligently as you can. After the timer goes off, give yourself a small, fun reward. A few of these sessions in a day can really move your studies forward. Try to set up times and places where studying—not glancing at your computer or phone—is just something you naturally do.

9. Eat your frogs first. Do the hardest thing earliest in the day, when you are fresh.

10. Make a mental contrast. Imagine where you’ve come from and contrast that with the dream of wher

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A mind for numbers — Summary | Karlbooklover
ning how to learn. The two best books (using my heuristic) I found were Make it Stick, and A mind for numbers. A mind for numbers has a nice summary of the most important learning rules which is why I will just quote them here directly. <span>TEN RULES OF GOOD STUDYING 1. Use recall. After you read a page, look away and recall the main ideas. Highlight very little, and never highlight anything you haven’t put in your mind first by recalling. Try recalling main ideas when you are walking to class or in a different room from where you originally learned it. An ability to recall—to generate the ideas from inside yourself—is one of the key indicators of good learning. 2. Test yourself. On everything. All the time. Flash cards are your friend. 3. Chunk your problems. Chunking is understanding and practicing with a problem solution so that it can all come to mind in a flash. After you solve a problem, rehearse it. Make sure you can solve it cold—every step. Pretend it’s a song and learn to play it over and over again in your mind, so the information combines into one smooth chunk you can pull up whenever you want. 4. Space your repetition. Spread out your learning in any subject a little every day, just like an athlete. Your brain is like a muscle—it can handle only a limited amount of exercise on one subject at a time. 5. Alternate different problem-solving techniques during your practice. Never practice too long at any one session using only one problem-solving technique—after a while, you are just mimicking what you did on the previous problem. Mix it up and work on different types of problems. This teaches you both how and when to use a technique. (Books generally are not set up this way, so you’ll need to do this on your own.) After every assignment and test, go over your errors, make sure you understand why you made them, and then rework your solutions. To study most effectively, handwrite (don’t type) a problem on one side of a flash card and the solution on the other. (Handwriting builds stronger neural structures in memory than typing.) You might also photograph the card if you want to load it into a study app on your smartphone. Quiz yourself randomly on different types of problems. Another way to do this is to randomly flip through your book, pick out a problem, and see whether you can solve it cold. 6. Take breaks. It is common to be unable to solve problems or figure out concepts in math or science the first time you encounter them. This is why a little study every day is much better than a lot of studying all at once. When you get frustrated with a math or science problem, take a break so that another part of your mind can take over and work in the background. 7. Use explanatory questioning and simple analogies. Whenever you are struggling with a concept, think to yourself, How can I explain this so that a ten-year-old could understand it? Using an analogy really helps, like saying that the flow of electricity is like the flow of water. Don’t just think your explanation—say it out loud or put it in writing. The additional effort of speaking and writing allows you to more deeply encode (that is, convert into neural memory structures) what you are learning. 8. Focus. Turn off all interrupting beeps and alarms on your phone and computer, and then turn on a timer for twenty-five minutes. Focus intently for those twenty-five minutes and try to work as diligently as you can. After the timer goes off, give yourself a small, fun reward. A few of these sessions in a day can really move your studies forward. Try to set up times and places where studying—not glancing at your computer or phone—is just something you naturally do. 9. Eat your frogs first. Do the hardest thing earliest in the day, when you are fresh. 10. Make a mental contrast. Imagine where you’ve come from and contrast that with the dream of where your studies will take you. Post a picture or words in your workspace to remind you of your dream. Look at that when you find your motivation lagging. This work will pay off both for you and those you love! Here are the ten rules of bad studying, I’m sure you have done some of them at some point. TEN RULES OF BAD STUDYING Avoid these techniques—they can waste your time even while they fool you into thinking you’re learning! 1. Passive rereading—sitting passively and running your eyes back over a page. Unless you can prove that the material is moving into your brain by recalling the main ideas without looking at the page, rereading is a waste of time. 2. Letting highlights overwhelm you. Highlighting your text can fool your mind into thinking you are putting something in your brain, when all you’re really doing is moving your hand. A little highlighting here and there is okay—sometimes it can be helpful in flagging important points. But if you are using highlighting as a memory tool, make sure that what you mark is also going into your brain. 3. Merely glancing at a problem’s solution and thinking you know how to do it. This is one of the worst errors students make while studying. You need to be able to solve a problem step-by-step, without looking at the solution. 4. Waiting until the last minute to study. Would you cram at the last minute if you were practicing for a track meet? Your brain is like a muscle—it can handle only a limited amount of exercise on one subject at a time. 5. Repeatedly solving problems of the same type that you already know how to solve. If you just sit around solving similar problems during your practice, you’re not actually preparing for a test—it’s like preparing for a big basketball game by just practicing your dribbling. 6. Letting study sessions with friends turn into chat sessions. Checking your problem solving with friends, and quizzing one another on what you know, can make learning more enjoyable, expose flaws in your thinking, and deepen your learning. But if your joint study sessions turn to fun before the work is done, you’re wasting your time and should find another study group. 7. Neglecting to read the textbook before you start working problems. Would you dive into a pool before you knew how to swim? The textbook is your swimming instructor—it guides you toward the answers. You will flounder and waste your time if you don’t bother to read it. Before you begin to read, however, take a quick glance over the chapter or section to get a sense of what it’s about. 8. Not checking with your instructors or classmates to clear up points of confusion. Professors are used to lost students coming in for guidance—it’s our job to help you. The students we worry about are the ones who don’t come in. Don’t be one of those students. 9. Thinking you can learn deeply when you are being constantly distracted. Every tiny pull toward an instant message or conversation means you have less brain power to devote to learning. Every tug of interrupted attention pulls out tiny neural roots before they can grow. 10. Not getting enough sleep. Your brain pieces together problem-solving techniques when you sleep, and it also practices and repeats whatever you put in mind before you go to sleep. Prolonged fatigue allows toxins to build up in the brain that disrupt the neural connections you need to think quickly and well. If you don’t get a good sleep before a test, NOTHING ELSE YOU HAVE DONE WILL MATTER. You can feel safe to reorganize your study strategy based on this book, it is based on a lot of research and has the latest insights into learning how to learn. I wish you all the b




Perfect for you if:

  • You want to learn almost anything more quickly and to make it stick.
  • You’re struggling to find or make time in your day for focused thought.
  • You wrestle with procrastination and/or distraction on a daily basis.

“A wonderful ‘crunch’… one of the best summaries of the key ideas that we’ve ever seen.”
Barbara Oakley, author of A Mind for Numbers

Though the title promises improvements in math and science, its lessons are applicable to all forms of learning and problem-solving.

Barbara explains that learning begins with creating and internalising small chunks of information (e.g., starting a car, pressing the accelerator, changing gear). As we learn we add to and connect these chunks and use them to solve problems in the world around us (e.g., driving). This is especially useful in analytical problem solving where chunks allow our limited working memory to greatly increase the information we consciously process at once.

She shows that to efficiently add to and apply these chunks requires learning to use and balance two modes of thought (focussed and diffuse thinking) effectively.

What follows is an excellent summary of practical tips to improve learning and problem solving as well as some of the common pitfalls we face on the way (and how to overcome them).

Effective learning needs both Focussed and Diffuse thinking

Chunking is at the cornerstone of learning and problem-solving…

  • Learning = linking information together to create and slowly add to conceptual chunks
  • Problem-solving = Identifying what chunks to use when (and how) to tackle a specific problem

… and we tackle it with two types of thinking.

  • Focused thinking (requiring active attention) is conscious, analytical and serial in nature.
  • Diffuse thinking (requiring passive attention) is subconscious, creative and parallel in nature.

(Diffuse thinking is what’s going on when you have that “Aha” moment whilst doing something totally different like sleeping, running errands or enjoying a shower)

Both types of thinking are involved in learning…

  • Focussed: Gathering information and forming new chunks
  • Diffused: Connecting different chunks together

… and both are required in using that learning effectively.

  • Focussed: Identifying and loading chunks into working memory for analytical problem solving
  • Diffused: Big picture and lateral thinking, sense-checking, creative out of the box thinking

The Medici Effect is the name given to creatively linking seemingly totally separate chunks together to create a new and creative solution

We often learn sub-optimally because we fail to set up and/or alternate effectively between both modes.

  • We are too distracted or engaged in attentional multitasking to think deeply (focused)
  • We fool ourselves into thinking following is the same as understanding
  • We over champion analytical (focused) thought and fail to leverage the power of diffuse thinking

Meanwhile, almost every single successful scientist, author and artist in recent history used a daily routine that effectively set up and then alternated between focussed and diffuse thinking (see the popular book, Daily Rituals).

So, how can we learn effectively?

1. Create the best conditions for focused and diffuse thinking

Focused thinking needs meaningful stretches of undisturbed time to focus and think.

  • Prioritise making distraction-free time and space to think deep
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Book Summary: &quot;A Mind For Numbers&quot;, Barbara Oakley
mary: “A Mind For Numbers”, Barbara Oakley [imagelink] 25 Jun Share Pin Tweet Share 6 MINUTE READ | LEAVE A COMMENT [imagelink] “A Mind For Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science”, Barbara Oakley Print length: 332 pages. Buy on Amazon. <span>Perfect for you if: You want to learn almost anything more quickly and to make it stick. You’re struggling to find or make time in your day for focused thought. You wrestle with procrastination and/or distraction on a daily basis. “A wonderful ‘crunch’… one of the best summaries of the key ideas that we’ve ever seen.” Barbara Oakley, author of A Mind for Numbers Though the title promises improvements in math and science, its lessons are applicable to all forms of learning and problem-solving. Barbara explains that learning begins with creating and internalising small chunks of information (e.g., starting a car, pressing the accelerator, changing gear). As we learn we add to and connect these chunks and use them to solve problems in the world around us (e.g., driving). This is especially useful in analytical problem solving where chunks allow our limited working memory to greatly increase the information we consciously process at once. She shows that to efficiently add to and apply these chunks requires learning to use and balance two modes of thought (focussed and diffuse thinking) effectively . What follows is an excellent summary of practical tips to improve learning and problem solving as well as some of the common pitfalls we face on the way (and how to overcome them). Effective learning needs both Focussed and Diffuse thinking Chunking is at the cornerstone of learning and problem-solving… Learning = linking information together to create and slowly add to conceptual chunks Problem-solving = Identifying what chunks to use when (and how) to tackle a specific problem … and we tackle it with two types of thinking. Focused thinking (requiring active attention) is conscious, analytical and serial in nature. Diffuse thinking (requiring passive attention) is subconscious, creative and parallel in nature. (Diffuse thinking is what’s going on when you have that “Aha” moment whilst doing something totally different like sleeping, running errands or enjoying a shower) Both types of thinking are involved in learning… Focussed: Gathering information and forming new chunks Diffused: Connecting different chunks together … and both are required in using that learning effectively. Focussed: Identifying and loading chunks into working memory for analytical problem solving Diffused: Big picture and lateral thinking, sense-checking, creative out of the box thinking The Medici Effect is the name given to creatively linking seemingly totally separate chunks together to create a new and creative solution We often learn sub-optimally because we fail to set up and/or alternate effectively between both modes. We are too distracted or engaged in attentional multitasking to think deeply (focused) We fool ourselves into thinking following is the same as understanding We over champion analytical (focused) thought and fail to leverage the power of diffuse thinking Meanwhile, almost every single successful scientist, author and artist in recent history used a daily routine that effectively set up and then alternated between focussed and diffuse thinking (see the popular book, Daily Rituals). So, how can we learn effectively? 1. Create the best conditions for focused and diffuse thinking Focused thinking needs meaningful stretches of undisturbed time to focus and think. Prioritise making distraction-free time and space to think deeply Read effectively (SQ3R: Survey, Question, Read, Recall, Review) Practice purposefully (Work the hardest bits, generalise through variation) Think on paper, there’s magic between the hand and the brain Diffuse thinking occurs subconsciously by temporarily loosening attention. Relax/disengage attention: Sleep, walk, drive, blink, exercise Keep information fresh: Recall and test frequently (e.g., spaced repetition techniques) Both Dali and Eddison used a form of napping in which objects dropping from their hands would wake them up just as they were falling asleep to trigger diffuse thinking. 2 . Actively build time into each day to alternate between both modes There are a couple of unavoidable learning barriers that everyone encounters You can’t do anything about these and you’re not alone so don’t worry! Robust learning takes a long time (quickly learned = quickly forgotten) Learning has a similar gain profile and risks as physical training Long-term learning needs long-term physical changes in brain structure Be very wary of short-term cramming and illusions of confidence Occasional knowledge collapse is inevitable, natural and temporary Information often outgrows initial organising structures and mental models we have built for them At this point, the brain needs a bit of time to break down and reshuffle chunk/model reshuffle the information we have learned This process can last as long as one or two weeks depending on the rate of learning Think of it a little like defragmenting an old hard drive, or knocking down a house that’s been patched together over time to build a new and improved one from the materials. However many common pitfalls are easily avoidable The difference between great and average thinkers is the way in which they frame and approach many of the following avoidable pitfalls. Procrastination (stress also further inhibits learning) Focus on process instead of product (Pomodoro technique) Use to-do lists (weekly into daily, only add if urgent and important) Get organised in advance (make productivity the course of least resistance: layout clothes, tidy workspace etc…) Eat your frogs first (do the hardest task of the day first) Set a quitting time (work backwards, avoid Parkinson’s law) Distraction (including multitasking – has big switching costs and depletes limited willpower resources) Eliminate cues (disable phone notifications, delete apps, block websites) Find a quiet space (early) / buy noise cancelling headphones Learn to note and then ignore cues (mindfulness / meditation) Getting stuck (see Einstellung effect often as a result of too much focused thinking) Consciously alternate diffuse and focused thinking within your day Work with others who are honest and aligned with your best interests Set a quitting time each day (also good for your health!) Confirmation bias (overconfidence in your own solution without checking) Again, find and work with others who are honest and aligned with your best interests Illusions of confidence (following as opposed to understanding) Work the problem yourself first (avoid solution viewing) Recall frequently (at the end of each chapter, how would you teach this) Avoid passive re-reading Avoid excessive over-learning (working same problem type over and over) Test yourself frequently Fatigue (increasingly proven to be caused by build up of toxins in brain) Refuel (short-term, the brain consumes 25% of glucose in our body at rest) Exercise (short-term, increases blood flow, promotes diffuse thinking) Sleep (mid-term, flushes toxins from brain, promotes diffuse thinking) Take holidays (long-term, allows recovery, time for big-picture thinking) Related Reading “Deep Thinking: What Mathematics Can Teach Us About the Mind”, William Byers : A great use of an experience we all remember (learning basic math) to show the importance




#a-fe-explicada #leo-trese #teologia
as na Quarta-feira de Cinzas e na Sexta-feira Santa fica de pé a obrigação de fazer jejum e abstinência. Nesses dias, só se pode fazer uma refeição completa, podendo tomar-se alimento duas vezes mais no dia desde que, juntas, não formem uma refeição completa. Nenhuma dessas refeições pode incluir carne. Tomar deliberadamente carne ou caldo de carne num dia de abstinência é pecado grave, se envolve desprezo do preceito e a quan tidade que se toma é considerável. Mesmo uma quantidade pequena, tomada de modo deliberado, seria um pecado venial.
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pdf

cannot see any pdfs




#jordan_normal_form #linear_algebra
then its Jordan normal form is also called the Jordan normal form of M
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Jordan normal form - Wikipedia
l entries of the normal form are the eigenvalues (of the operator), and the number of times each eigenvalue occurs is called the algebraic multiplicity of the eigenvalue. [2] [3] [4] If the operator is originally given by a square matrix M, <span>then its Jordan normal form is also called the Jordan normal form of M. Any square matrix has a Jordan normal form if the field of coefficients is extended to one containing all the eigenvalues of the matrix. In spite of its name, the normal form for a giv