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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Osmotic diarrhoea The gut mucosa acts as a semipermeable membrane and fluid enters the bowel if there are large quantities of non- absorbed hypertonic substances in the lumen.
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Flashcard 3181426380044

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Question
Mechanisms of Osmotic diarrhea.
Answer
  • patient has ingested a non-absorbable substance (e.g. a purgative such as magnesium sulphate or magnesium-containing antacid)
  • The patient has generalized malabsorption so that high concentrations of solute (e.g. glucose) remain in the lumen
  • The patient has a specific absorptive defect (e.g. disaccharidase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption).

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
The volume of diarrhoea produced by these mechanisms is reduced by the absorption of fluid by the ileum and colon.
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Cholera toxin binds to its receptor (monosialoganglioside G i ) via fimbria (toxin co-regulated pilus) on its β-subunit. This activates the a s subunit (of the Gs protein), which in turn dissociates and activates cyclic AMP (cAMP).
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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
The increase in cAMP activates intermediates (e.g. protein kinase and Ca 2+ ) which then act on the apical membrane causing Cl − secretion (with water) and inhibition of Na + and Cl − absorption
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Flashcard 3181438438668

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Question
n this disorder, there is both active intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes as well as decreased absorption
Answer
n this disorder, there is both active intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes as well as decreased absorption

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Flashcard 3181439487244

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Question
Common causes of secretory diarrhoea are:
Answer
  • Enterotoxins (e.g. cholera, E. coli thermolabile or thermostable toxin, C. difficile)
  • Hormones (e.g. vasoactive intestinal peptide in the Verner–Morrison syndrome)
  • Bile salts (in the colon) following ileal resection Fatty acids (in the colon) following ileal resection
  • Some laxatives (e.g. docusate sodium)

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Diaabetic, post-vagotomy and hyperthyroid diarrhoea are all due to abnormal motility of the upper gut. Symptoms may be exacerbated by small bowel bacterial overgrowth.
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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
diarrhoea due to viral agents may also last 24–48 hours
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Flashcard 3181450235148

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Question
What are the infective causes of diarrhea?
Answer
Bacterial
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Shigella
  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcal enterocolitis
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Clostridium perfringens, botulinum, difficile
  • gastrointestinal tuberculosis

Viral,
  • rotavirus

Fungal,
  • histoplasmosis

Parasitic,
  • amoebic dysentery ( Entamoeba histolytica )
  • schistosomiasis
  • Giardia intestinalis

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Flashcard 3181452594444

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Question
What are the non-infective causes of diarrhoea?
Answer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Radiation proctitis or colitis
  • Behçet’s disease
  • Diverticular disease
  • Ischaemic colitis
  • Gastrointestinal lymphoma Carcinoma of the colon (change in bowel habit)
  • Malabsorption Gut resection
  • Bile acid malabsorption
  • Drugs – many, including laxatives metformin anticancer drugs statins proton pump inhibitors
  • Faecal impaction with overflow
  • Irritable bowel syndrome and functional diarrhoea

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Flashcard 3181454953740

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Question
What are the causes of bile acid diarrhoea?
Answer
  • Ileal resection
  • Ileal disease, e.g. active or inactive Crohn’s disease
  • Primary bile acid diarrhoea
  • Postinfective gastroenteritis
  • Rapid small bowel transit
  • Post-cholecystectomy

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Bile acid malabsorption is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic diarrhoea and many patients with this disorder are assumed to have irritable bowel syndrome.
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Bile acid diarrhoea occurs when the terminal ileum fails to reabsorb bile acids. Bile acids (particularly the dihydroxy bile acids: deoxy- cholate and chenodeoxycholate) when present in increased concentrations in the colon lead to diarrhoea by reducing absorption of water and electrolytes and, at higher concen- trations, inducing secretion as well as increasing colonic motility
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Flashcard 3181468323084

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Question
How is diagnosis made in bile acid malabsorption?
Answer
Diagnosis is made using the SeHCAT test in which a radiolabelled bile acid analogue is administered and percentage retention at 7 days calculated ( < 19% retention abnormal).

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#aristoteles #wiki
The Posterior Analytics is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge
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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
Athenians Rhetoric Poetics Rhetoric Rhetoric to Alexander Poetics Fragments Fragments* Aristotle Aristotelianism [*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spurious v t e <span>The Posterior Analytics (Greek: Ἀναλυτικὰ Ὕστερα; Latin: Analytica Posteriora) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge. The demonstration is distinguished as a syllogism productive of scientific knowledge, while the definition marked as the statement of a thing's nature, ... a statement of the meaning o




Flashcard 3181500828940

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Question
The [...] is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge
Answer
Posterior Analytics

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The Posterior Analytics is a text from Aristotle 's Organon that deals with demonstration , definition , and scientific knowledge

Original toplevel document

Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
Athenians Rhetoric Poetics Rhetoric Rhetoric to Alexander Poetics Fragments Fragments* Aristotle Aristotelianism [*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spurious v t e <span>The Posterior Analytics (Greek: Ἀναλυτικὰ Ὕστερα; Latin: Analytica Posteriora) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge. The demonstration is distinguished as a syllogism productive of scientific knowledge, while the definition marked as the statement of a thing's nature, ... a statement of the meaning o







#aristoteles #wiki
De acordo com Aristóteles:
When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical.
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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which




Flashcard 3182084099340

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
De acordo com Aristóteles:
When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called [...].
Answer
apodeictical

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When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called <span>apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical. </spa

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Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which







Flashcard 3182086458636

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
De acordo com Aristóteles:
When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called [...].
Answer
dialectical

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ly follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called <span>dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical. <span>

Original toplevel document

Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which







Flashcard 3182088817932

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#aristoteles #wiki
Question
De acordo com Aristóteles:
A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called [...].
Answer
sophistical

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ms are called apodeictical. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called <span>sophistical. <span>

Original toplevel document

Posterior Analytics - Wikipedia
ises and the conclusion. Even where there is no fault in the form, there may be in the matter, i.e. the propositions of which it is composed, which may be true or false, probable or improbable. <span>When the premises are certain, true, and primary, and the conclusion formally follows from them, this is demonstration, and produces scientific knowledge of a thing. Such syllogisms are called apodeictical, and are dealt with in the two books of the Posterior Analytics. When the premises are not certain, such a syllogism is called dialectical, and these are dealt with in the eight books of the Topics. A syllogism which seems to be perfect both in matter and form, but which is not, is called sophistical, and these are dealt with in the book On Sophistical Refutations. The contents of the Posterior Analytics may be summarised as follows: All demonstration must be founded on principles already known. The principles on which







Note: the structure is symmetrical in geometry not in mass.
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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Purgative abuse This is most commonly seen in females who surreptitiously take high-dose purgatives and are often extensively investi- gated for chronic diarrhoea. The diarrhoea is usually of high volume (> 1 L daily) and patients may have a low serum potassium. Biochemical analysis of the stool may help diag- nose laxative abuse. Management is difficult as most patients deny purgative ingestion. Purgative abuse often occurs in association with eating disorders and patients may need psychiatric help.
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Flashcard 3184171289868

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Question
What is Purgative abuse?
Answer
This is most commonly seen in females who surreptitiously take high-dose purgatives and are often extensively investi- gated for chronic diarrhoea. The diarrhoea is usually of high volume (> 1 L daily) and patients may have a low serum potassium.

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Purgative abuse This is most commonly seen in females who surreptitiously take high-dose purgatives and are often extensively investi- gated for chronic diarrhoea. The diarrhoea is usually of high volume (> 1 L daily) and patients may have a low serum potassium. Biochemical analysis of the stool may help diag- nose laxative abuse. Management is difficult as most patients deny purgative ingestion. Purgative abuse often occurs in association with

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Flashcard 3184173649164

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Question
Purgative abuse This is most commonly seen in females who surreptitiously take high-dose purgatives and are often extensively investigated for chronic diarrhoea. The diarrhoea is usually of high volume (> 1 L daily) and patients may have a low serum potassium. [...]. Management is difficult as most patients deny purgative ingestion. Purgative abuse often occurs in association with eating disorders and patients may need psychiatric help.
Answer
Biochemical analysis of the stool may help diag- nose laxative abuse

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y take high-dose purgatives and are often extensively investi- gated for chronic diarrhoea. The diarrhoea is usually of high volume (> 1 L daily) and patients may have a low serum potassium. <span>Biochemical analysis of the stool may help diag- nose laxative abuse. Management is difficult as most patients deny purgative ingestion. Purgative abuse often occurs in association with eating disorders and patients may need psychiatric help. </sp

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#Gastroenterology #diarrhea
Chronic diarrhoea is a common symptom in HIV infection, but HIV’s role in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is unclear. Cryptosporidium is the pathogen most commonly isolated. Isospora belli and microsporidia have also been found.
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Flashcard 3184182562060

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Question
Chronic diarrhoea is a common symptom in HIV infection, but HIV’s role in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is unclear. [...] is the pathogen most commonly isolated. Isospora belli and microsporidia have also been found.
Answer
Cryptosporidium

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Chronic diarrhoea is a common symptom in HIV infection, but HIV’s role in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is unclear. Cryptosporidium is the pathogen most commonly isolated. Isospora belli and microsporidia have also been found.

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Flashcard 3184184134924

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Question
Chronic diarrhoea is a common symptom in HIV infection, but HIV’s role in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is unclear. Cryptosporidium is the pathogen most commonly isolated. [...] have also been found.
Answer
Isospora belli and microsporidia

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Chronic diarrhoea is a common symptom in HIV infection, but HIV’s role in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is unclear. Cryptosporidium is the pathogen most commonly isolated. Isospora belli and microsporidia have also been found.

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Flashcard 3184187804940

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Question
Flow diagram for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea.
Answer
Note: All patients should have had
  • stoolcultures with toxin testing for C. difficile.
  • SBFT small bowel follow-through
VIP vasoactive intestinal polypeptide;
MRCP magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography;
SeHCAT 75 Se-homocholic acid taurine

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When we do Save As... , Gmsh saves a copy but does not switch to this newly created file, it keeps work- ing on the current file,
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We can notice some instructions about what can be done in the context displayed at the top center of the main window.
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The symmetry is defined by a vector, A, B, C being the 3 components (in X, Y, Z) of the vector normal to the plane and D the distance in space from the plane to the origin of the global axis, in short the 4 parameters of the plane equation in space
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In Gmsh groups are called Physical
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Code_Aster we must not use group names longer than 24 characters 1 .
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To select multiple items at once, we push ctrl and draw a bound- ing box with the mouse, any entity having a bit of itself within the bounding box is selected.
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Leave unchecked the box Save all (ignore physical groups) so as to save the groups created in the mesh
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To finish with, pushing ctrl + L displays the ’Message Console’ which is a log, and appears at the bottom of the main window, and can be re-sized.
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Code_Aster command files do not require any mandatory indent at all as long as we do not use conventional Python inside them, however a command must start at the beginning of a line without any indent. 2 Code_Aster is case sensitive: ’TRUE’, ’true’ and ’truE’ point to 3 different objects while ’True’ is a Python reserved word. And a concept can be named ’modele’, while ’MODELE’ is a Code_Aster reserved word. 3 More generally the .comm file follows the Python syntax. 4 The names created on the left hand side on the “=” sign.
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In Code_Aster the MAILLAGE contains only the topology of the mesh and nothing else
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the discrete element, ’massN’, is not assigned a material, this is not necessary, but Code_Aster does not complain if we assign one.
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Flashcard 3184210611468

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Question
What is the most commonly involved bacteria causing acute wartery diarrhoea?
Answer
Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC)

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I strongly advise not to mix fixations and loads in a boundary condition set and to split the loads in as many elementary AFFE_CHAR_MECA as is logical.
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Flashcard 3184216378636

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Question
Heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin shares a receptor with?
Answer
cholera toxin

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Code_Aster cannot yet calculate with more than one distributed load on beam elements!
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Flashcard 3184221883660

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Question
Investigations are necessary if the diarrhoea has lasted more than 1 week. What are they?
Answer
  • Stools (up to three) should be sent immediately to the laboratory for culture and examination for ova, cysts and parasites
  • Clostridium difficile toxin assay

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Viral and bacterial infective diarrhoeas do not last more than two weeks
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Flashcard 3184226077964

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Question
Viral and bacterial infective diarrhoeas do not last more than [...]
Answer
two weeks

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Viral and bacterial infective diarrhoeas do not last more than two weeks

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This is a very annoying limitation. The work around is to replace it with an equivalent nodal force applied to the GROUP_NO=(’topbeam’,) which we have created earlier with DEFI_GROUP and which contains all the nodes of GROUP_MA=(’topbeam’,). This equivalent nodal force is the distributed load multiplied by the length of the beam elements 2 .
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liste=DEFI_LIST_REEL ( DEBUT =2.0 , INTERVALLE=_F (JUSQU_A=6 ,PAS = 1 . 0 , ) , ) ; We must understand what is done just above. We perform the calcula- tion at five steps or instants, INST in the Code_Aster jargon, from 2 to 6, for every integer: • at INST 2, we have no load at all 2 ; 1 The word instant must be taken here with some restriction, it just only means step, it is not related to time (in time unit, seconds) but the same word, INST, is used by Code_Aster to specify the step in static analysis and a real instant, in seconds, in a dynamic analysis. 2 We start at 2 but we might have started at 0, -5 or 1.342! In linear static the choice is completely arbitrary and left to the user.
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For now the concept stat contains only the displacement at nodes, as well as the forces at Gauss points, we must enhance it with some useful results on elements. Enhance! that’s why we use the keyword reuse, which is curiously written in lower case.
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FORMAT_R=’1PE12.3’ prints the numbers with twelve characters, 3 digits after the decimal point and one digit to the left of the decimal point, for example −2.762E + 03 while FORMAT_R=’E12.3’ would print −0.276E + 04.
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I reckon that checking the calculated mass with the estimates made oth- erwise is the prime test of the model validity. In structures made of beams this calls for an increased mass density of the materials so as to cope with all the unmodeled bits and pieces which contribute nonetheless to the loading of the structure by their own weight.
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#Disorders #Functional #GI #Gastroenterology
People with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are characterized by having a greater gastrointestinal motility response to life events than normal subjects.
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#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Patients with Functional Gastro Intestinal Disorders have been shown to have abnormalities in visceral sensation and have a lower pain threshold when tested with balloon distension (visceral hyperalgesia).
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Flashcard 3184240233740

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Question
Visceral hypersensitivity in functional GI disorders possibly relates to
Answer
  • Altered receptor sensitivity at the viscus itself
  • Increased excitability of the spinal cord dorsal horn neurones
  • Altered central modulation of sensations

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Flashcard 3184241282316

Question
People with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are characterized by having a greater [...] response to life events than normal subjects.
Answer
gastrointestinal motility

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People with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are characterized by having a greater gastrointestinal motility response to life events than normal subjects.

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Flashcard 3184245476620

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Question
Patients with Functional Gastro Intestinal Disorders have been shown to have abnormalities in [...] and have a lower pain threshold when tested with balloon distension (visceral hyperalgesia).
Answer
visceral sensation

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Patients with Functional Gastro Intestinal Disorders have been shown to have abnormalities in visceral sensation and have a lower pain threshold when tested with balloon distension (visceral hyperalgesia).

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 3184246525196

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Question
Patients with Functional Gastro Intestinal Disorders have been shown to have abnormalities in visceral sensation and have a lower pain threshold when tested with balloon distension ([...].
Answer
visceral hyperalgesia)

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span> Patients with Functional Gastro Intestinal Disorders have been shown to have abnormalities in visceral sensation and have a lower pain threshold when tested with balloon distension (visceral hyperalgesia). <span>

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#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
A systematic review of published studies suggest that 10% of patients who experience an acute infective gastro- enteritis develop a degree of FGID
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Flashcard 3184252554508

Tags
#Gastroenterology #diarrhea #has-images
Question
What are the gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with AIDS?



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Flashcard 3184255962380

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Question
A systematic review of published studies suggest that 10% of patients who experience an [...] develop a degree of FGID
Answer
acute infective gastro- enteritis

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A systematic review of published studies suggest that 10% of patients who experience an acute infective gastro- enteritis develop a degree of FGID

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Flashcard 3184259108108

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology #has-images
Question
What are the chronic gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of functional gastrointestinal disorders?



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Flashcard 3184262515980

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Question
Functional dyspepsia subgroups...
Answer
  • Epigastric pain syndrome
    with pain centred in the upper abdomen as the predominant (most bothersome) symptom.
  • Postprandial distress syndrome
    with an unpleasant or troublesome non-painful sensation (discomfort) centred in the upper abdomen being the predominant symptom. This sensation may be associated with upper abdominal fullness, early satiety, bloating and nausea.

    There is considerable overlap between these two groups.

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#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
IBS co-exists with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and temperomandibular joint dysfunction.
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Flashcard 3184268021004

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Question
IBS co-exists with [...] and temperomandibular joint dysfunction.
Answer
chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia

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IBS co-exists with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and temperomandibular joint dysfunction.

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Flashcard 3184269069580

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology
Question
IBS co-exists with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and [...]
Answer
temperomandibular joint dysfunction.

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IBS co-exists with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and temperomandibular joint dysfunction.

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Flashcard 3184274574604

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology #has-images
Question
What are the non gastrointestinal features of Irritable bowel syndrome?



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Flashcard 3184276409612

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology #has-images
Question
What are the factors that can trigger onset of IBS symptoms?



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Flashcard 3184279817484

Tags
#Functional_GI_disorders #Gastroenterology #has-images
Question
What are the diagnostic criteria for Irritable bowel syndrome?



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Flashcard 3184289778956

Question
In git, when you want to first get code from a remote repository, what is the command?
Answer
git clone repo-url

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Flashcard 3184292400396

Question
In git, a [...] repository is an internet site that you get code from (and push code to)
Answer
remote

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Flashcard 3184295021836

Question
In git, how to you get info (i.e. url) of the repositories you push to/pull from
Answer
git remote -v

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Flashcard 3184300526860

Question
In git, what is the command to uplod your local code to remote repo?
Answer
git push <REMOTENAME> <TAGNAME>

e.g. git push origin master

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Flashcard 3184306818316

Question
git push < [...] > <TAGNAME>
Answer
<REMOTENAME>

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Flashcard 3184309439756

Question
git push <REMOTENAME> < [...] >
Answer
TAGNAME

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Flashcard 3184312061196

Question
In git, what is default name of remote repository?
Answer
origin

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Flashcard 3184314682636

Question
In git, the pull command is a combination of what two commands?
Answer
fetch and merge

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Flashcard 3184317304076

Question
In git, command to sync up your local repo with latest code on remote repo?
Answer
git pull <REMOTENAME> <TAGNAME/BRANCHNAME>

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Flashcard 3184319925516

Question
In github, what is first level of managing users/projects?
Answer
Organization

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Flashcard 3184322546956

Question
In GitHub, how can you control access of users in an Organization to different projects in that Organization
Answer
Through Teams

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