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Flashcard 1428167200012

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
The most important variables for demand is [...].
Answer
the item’s own price


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We first analyze demand. The quantity consumers are willing to buy clearly depends on a number of different factors called variables. Perhaps the most important of those variables is the item’s own price.

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3.1. The Demand Function and the Demand Curve
We first analyze demand. The quantity consumers are willing to buy clearly depends on a number of different factors called variables. Perhaps the most important of those variables is the item’s own price. In general, economists believe that as the price of a good rises, buyers will choose to buy less of it, and as its price falls, they buy more. This is such a ubiquitous observation that







Flashcard 1428582960396

Tags
#algebra-baldor
Question
Entre factores literales o entre un factor numérico y uno literal el [...] suele omitirse.
Answer
signo de multiplicación


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Entre factores literales o entre un factor num érico y uno literal el signo de multiplicación suele omitirse. Así abe equivale a a x b x c ; 5xy equivale a 5 XxXy

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Flashcard 1429240941836

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Goods with negative income elasticity are called [...]
Answer


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le experience a rise in income, they buy absolutely less of some goods, and they buy more when their income falls. Hence, income elasticity of demand for those goods is negative. By definition, goods with negative income elasticity are called <span>inferior goods .<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
that the demand for that particular good rises when income increases and falls when income decreases. Hence, if we find that when income rises, people buy more meals at restaurants, then dining out is defined to be a normal good. <span>For some goods, there is an inverse relationship between quantity demanded and consumer income. That is, when people experience a rise in income, they buy absolutely less of some goods, and they buy more when their income falls. Hence, income elasticity of demand for those goods is negative. By definition, goods with negative income elasticity are called inferior goods . Again, the word inferior means nothing other than that the income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about t







Flashcard 1431643229452

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question
Willingness to give up one good to obtain a little more of the other is expressed as [...]
Answer
marginal rate of substitution

bread for wine
MRSBW


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We capture this willingness to give up one good to obtain a little more of the other in the phrase marginal rate of substitution of bread for wine, MRS BW . The MRS BW is the rate at which the consumer is willing to give up wine to obtain a small increment of bread, holding utility constant (i.e., movement along

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
in Exhibit 2 is characteristically drawn to be convex when viewed from the origin. This indicates that the willingness to give up wine to obtain a little more bread diminishes the more bread and the less wine the bundle contains. <span>We capture this willingness to give up one good to obtain a little more of the other in the phrase marginal rate of substitution of bread for wine, MRS BW . The MRS BW is the rate at which the consumer is willing to give up wine to obtain a small increment of bread, holding utility constant (i.e., movement along an indifference curve). Notice that the convexity implies that at a bundle like a′′, which contains rather a lot of wine and not much bread, the consumer would be willing to give up a considerable amount of wi







Flashcard 1433004805388

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question
When two consumers have different preferences, they will have different [...] when evaluated at identical bundles.
Answer
marginal rates of substitution


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When two consumers have different preferences, they will have different marginal rates of substitution when evaluated at identical bundles.

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
observe that Warren has a relatively stronger preference for bread compared to Smith, and Smith has a relatively stronger preference for wine than Warren. Exhibit 5. Two Consumers with Different Preferences Note: <span>When two consumers have different preferences, they will have different marginal rates of substitution when evaluated at identical bundles. Here, Warren has a relatively strong preference for bread because he is willing to give up more wine for another slice of bread than is Smith. Suppose that the slope of Warren’s indifference curve at point a is equal to −2, and the slope of Smith’s indifference curve at point a is equal to – 12 . Warren is willing







Flashcard 1433025776908

Tags
#algebra-baldor
Question
[...] es la rama de la Matemática que estudia la cantidad considerada del modo más general posible.
Answer
ALGEBRA


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ALGEBRA es la rama de la Matemática que estudia la cantidad considerada del modo más general posible.

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Flashcard 1434859736332



Tags
#4-3-the-investment-opportunity-set #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-5-consumer-equilibrium #study-session-4
Question
The Effect of an Increase in Income on a [...]
Answer
Normal Good, you buy more of both


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Flashcard 1436113046796

Tags
#algebra-baldor
Question
El exponente indica las veces que la base se toma como [...].
Answer
factor


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El Signo de la Elevación a Potencia es el exponente, que es un núm ero pequeño colocado arriba y a la derecha de una cantidad, el cual indica las veces que dicha , cantidad, llamada base, se toma como factor.

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Flashcard 1438159080716

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #introduction #reading-35-capital-budgeting
Question
In monitoring and post-auditing decision-makers can:​


Improve [...] thus making capital decisions well-implemented.

Answer

operations


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he post-audit is a follow-up of capital budgeting decisions. It is a key element of capital budgeting. By comparing actual results with predicted results and then determining why differences occurred, decision-makers can: <span>Improve forecasts (based on which good capital budgeting decisions can be made). Otherwise, you will have the GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) problem. Improve operations, thus making capital decisions well-implemented. <span><body><html>

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Subject 1. Capital Budgeting: Introduction
include in the capital budget. "Capital" refers to long-term assets. The "budget" is a plan which details projected cash inflows and outflows during a future period. <span>The typical steps in the capital budgeting process: Generating good investment ideas to consider. Analyzing individual proposals (forecasting cash flows, evaluating profitability, etc.). Planning the capital budget. How does the project fit within the company's overall strategies? What's the timeline and priority? Monitoring and post-auditing. The post-audit is a follow-up of capital budgeting decisions. It is a key element of capital budgeting. By comparing actual results with predicted results and then determining why differences occurred, decision-makers can: Improve forecasts (based on which good capital budgeting decisions can be made). Otherwise, you will have the GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) problem. Improve operations, thus making capital decisions well-implemented. Project classifications: Replacement projects. There are two types of replacement d







Flashcard 1439281319180

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economic-and-normal-profit #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
Some factors (monopoly, market barriers, trademarks etc.) may lead the firm to have [...]
Answer
positive net present value investment (NPV) opportunities.


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Some factors (monopoly, market barriers, trademarks etc.) may lead the firm to have positive net present value investment (NPV) opportunities. Access to positive NPV opportunities and therefore profit in excess of normal profits in the short run may or may not exist in the long run, depending on the potential strength of compe

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2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
00 – $48,000,000 = $2,000,000. Note that total accounting costs in either case include interest expense—which represents the return required by suppliers of debt capital—because interest expense is an explicit cost. <span>2.1.2. Economic Profit and Normal Profit Economic profit (also known as abnormal profit or supernormal profit ) may be defined broadly as accounting profit less the implicit opportunity costs not included in total accounting costs. Equation (3a)  Economic profit = Accounting profit – Total implicit opportunity costs We can define a term, economic cost , equal to the sum of total accounting costs and implicit opportunity costs. Economic profit is therefore equivalently defined as: Equation (3b)  Economic profit = Total revenue – Total economic costs For publicly traded corporations, the focus of investment analysts’ work, the cost of equity capital is the largest and most readily identified implicit opportunity cost omitted in calculating total accounting cost. Consequently, economic profit can be defined for publicly traded corporations as accounting profit less the required return on equity capital. Examples will make these concepts clearer. Consider the start-up company for which we calculated an accounting profit of €300,000 and suppose that the entrepreneurial executive who launched the start-up took a salary reduction of €100,000 per year relative to the job he left. That €100,000 is an opportunity cost of involving him in running the start-up. Besides labor, financial capital is a resource. Suppose that the executive, as sole owner, makes an investment of €1,500,000 to launch the enterprise and that he might otherwise expect to earn €200,000 per year on that amount in a similar risk investment. Total implicit opportunity costs are €100,000 + €200,000 = €300,000 per year and economic profit is zero: €300,000 – €300,000 = €0. For the publicly traded corporation, we consider the cost of equity capital as the only implicit opportunity cost identifiable. Suppose that equity investment is $18,750,000 and shareholders’ required rate of return is 8 percent so that the dollar cost of equity capital is $1,500,000. Economic profit for the publicly traded corporation is therefore $2,000,000 (accounting profit) less $1,500,000 (cost of equity capital) or $500,000. For the start-up company, economic profit was zero. Total economic costs were just covered by revenues and the company was not earning a euro more nor less than the amount that meets the opportunity costs of the resources used in the business. Economists would say the company was earning a normal profit (economic profit of zero). In simple terms, normal profit is the level of accounting profit needed to just cover the implicit opportunity costs ignored in accounting costs. For the publicly traded corporation, normal profit was $1,500,000: normal profit can be taken to be the cost of equity capital (in money terms) for such a company or the dollar return required on an equal investment by equity holders in an equivalently risky alternative investment opportunity. The publicly traded corporation actually earned $500,000 in excess of normal profit, which should be reflected in the common shares’ market price. Thus, the following expression links accounting profit to economic profit and normal profit: Equation (4)  Accounting profit = Economic profit + Normal profit When accounting profit equals normal profit, economic profit is zero. Further, when accounting profit is greater than normal profit, economic profit is positive; and when accounting profit is less than normal profit, economic profit is negative (the firm has an economic loss ). Economic profit for a firm can originate from sources such as: competitive advantage; exceptional managerial efficiency or skill; difficult to copy technology or innovation (e.g., patents, trademarks, and copyrights); exclusive access to less-expensive inputs; fixed supply of an output, commodity, or resource; preferential treatment under governmental policy; large increases in demand where supply is unable to respond fully over time; exertion of monopoly power (price control) in the market; and market barriers to entry that limit competition. Any of the above factors may lead the firm to have positive net present value investment (NPV) opportunities. Access to positive NPV opportunities and therefore profit in excess of normal profits in the short run may or may not exist in the long run, depending on the potential strength of competition. In highly competitive market situations, firms tend to earn the normal profit level over time because ease of market entry allows for other competing firms to compete away any economic profit over the long run. Economic profit that exists over the long run is usually found where competitive conditions persistently are less than perfect in the market. 2.1.3. Economic Rent The surplus value known as economic rent results when a particular resource or good is fixed in supply (with a vertical su







Flashcard 1439344758028

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-3-investment-criteria
Question
Financial managers should accept any projects with a profitability index ______.

A. > 0
B. > 1
C. <= cost of capital for the company
Answer
Correct Answer: B


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dy>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk.<body><html>

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Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
on that capital. If a firm takes on a project with a positive NPV, the position of the stockholders is improved. Decision rules: The higher the NPV, the better. Reject if NPV is less than or equal to 0. <span>NPV measures the dollar benefit of the project to shareholders. However, it does not measure the rate of return of the project, and thus cannot provide "safety margin" information. Safety margin refers to how much the project return could fall in percentage terms before the invested capital is at risk. Assuming the cost of capital for the firm is 10%, calculate each cash flow by dividing the cash flow by (1 + k) t where k is the cost of capital and t is the year number.







Flashcard 1450236841228

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm
Question
The rate of change in total costs mirrors [...]
Answer
the rate of change in total variable cost.


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ead><head> The rate of increase in total costs declines up to a certain output level and, thereafter, accelerates as the firm gets closer to full utilization of capacity. The rate of change in total costs mirrors the rate of change in total variable cost. In Exhibit 13, TC at 5 units is 400—of which 300 is variable cost and 100 is fixed cost. At 10 units, total costs are 1,650, which is the sum of 1,550 in variable cost and 10

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Costs
Total costs (TC) are the summation of all costs, where costs are classified according to fixed or variable. Total costs increase as the firm expands output and decrease when production is cut. The rate of increase in total costs declines up to a certain output level and, thereafter, accelerates as the firm gets closer to full utilization of capacity. The rate of change in total costs mirrors the rate of change in total variable cost. In Exhibit 13, TC at 5 units is 400—of which 300 is variable cost and 100 is fixed cost. At 10 units, total costs are 1,650, which is the sum of 1,550 in variable cost and 100 in fixed cost. Total fixed cost (TFC) is the summation of all expenses that do not change when production varies. It can be a sunk or unavoidable cost that a firm has to cover whether it







Flashcard 1450276687116

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm
Question
[...] cannot be cut down when production declines.
Answer
Fixed cost


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osts evolve primarily from investments in such fixed assets as real estate, production facilities, and equipment. As a firm grows in size, fixed asset expansion occurs along with a related increase in fixed cost. However, fixed cost cannot be <span>arbitrarily cut when production declines. Regardless of the volume of output, an investment in a given level of fixed assets locks the firm into a certain amount of fixed cost that is used to finance t

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Costs
rate of change in total variable cost. In Exhibit 13, TC at 5 units is 400—of which 300 is variable cost and 100 is fixed cost. At 10 units, total costs are 1,650, which is the sum of 1,550 in variable cost and 100 in fixed cost. <span>Total fixed cost (TFC) is the summation of all expenses that do not change when production varies. It can be a sunk or unavoidable cost that a firm has to cover whether it produces anything or not, or it can be a cost that stays the same over a range of production but can change to another constant level when production moves outside of that range. The latter is referred to as a quasi-fixed cost , although it remains categorized as part of TFC. Examples of fixed costs are debt service, real estate lease agreements, and rental contracts. Quasi-fixed cost examples would be certain utilities and administrative salaries that could be avoided or be lower when output is zero but would assume higher constant values over different production ranges. Normal profit is considered to be a fixed cost because it is a return required by investors on their equity capital regardless of output level. At zero output, total costs are always equal to the amount of total fixed cost that is incurred at this production point. In Exhibit 13, total fixed cost remains at 100 throughout the entire production range. Other fixed costs evolve primarily from investments in such fixed assets as real estate, production facilities, and equipment. As a firm grows in size, fixed asset expansion occurs along with a related increase in fixed cost. However, fixed cost cannot be arbitrarily cut when production declines. Regardless of the volume of output, an investment in a given level of fixed assets locks the firm into a certain amount of fixed cost that is used to finance the physical capital base, technology, and other capital assets. When a firm downsizes, the last expense to be cut is usually fixed cost. Total variable cost (TVC), which is the summation of all variable expenses, has a direct relationship with quantity. When quantity increases, total variable cost increases







Flashcard 1454826458380

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
Power’s crucial foundation is the ability to [...].
Answer
master your emotions


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The most important of these skills, and power’s crucial foundation, is the ability to master your emotions.

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Flashcard 1455147322636

Tags
#48-laws-of-power #keys-to-power #law-1-never-outshine-the-master
Question
This Law involves [...] rules that you must realize.
Answer
two


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This Law involves two rules that you must realize.

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Flashcard 1456756100364

Tags
#48-laws-of-power
Question
For the future, the motto is, “[...].”
Answer
No days unalert

Nothing should catch you by surprise because you are constantly imagining problems before they arise.


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For the future, the motto is, “No days unalert.” Nothing should catch you by surprise because you are constantly imagining problems before they arise.

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Maslo i 1 w a r i ' i y

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Flashcard 3623980764428

Question
What Do We Mean by “Control Strategy”?
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Flashcard 3623982337292

Question
[default - edit me]
Answer
A control strategy is a planned set of controls, derived from current product and process understanding, that assures process performance and product quality.


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We could use a float to sense the tank level.

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Flashcard 3623984958732

Question
We could use a float to [...] the tank level.
Answer
sense


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We could use a float to sense the tank level.

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Flashcard 3623986007308

Question
We [...] use a float to sense the tank level.
Answer
could


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We could use a float to sense the tank level.

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Flashcard 3623988628748

Question
£äº†ä¸‹ï¼šå±å¹•ã€ç³»ç»Ÿã€ä½“验、性能和待机。一切都很符合我的口味,主要是
Answer
[default - edit me]


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BOOX C67ML Carta2使用感受
C67ML Carta2ï¼Œåå­—å¾ˆé•¿æœ‰äº›éš¾è®°ï¼Œå› ä¸ºä¹‹å‰å…³æ³¨æ›´å¤šçš„æ˜¯æ–‡çŸ³13寸的电纸书,对这个产品系列知之甚少。上网查过,按照我关注的点按重要度排序了è§<span>£äº†ä¸‹ï¼šå±å¹•ã€ç³»ç»Ÿã€ä½“验、性能和待机。一切都很符合我的口味,主要是我压碎的电纸书用途一致:地铁上打发时间。 å°å¿ƒç¿¼ç¿¼åœ°å–å‡ºæœºå™¨ï¼Œäºšå…‰çš„å¡‘æ–™æœºèº«æ‘¸ä¸ŠåŽ»é¢‡æœ‰å‡ åˆ†è´¨æ„Ÿï¼Œå› ä¸ºæ˜¯ä¸ªäººä½¿ç”¨æ„Ÿå—æˆ‘ä¸æƒ³è·Ÿå…¶ä»







Border - Shorthand Property

As you can see from the examples above, there are many properties to consider when dealing with borders.

To shorten the code, it is also possible to specify all the individual border properties in one property.

The border property is a shorthand property for the following individual border properties:

  • border-width
  • border-style (required)
  • border-color

Example

p {
border : 5px solid red ;
}

Result:

Some text

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CSS Borders
tyle property has one value: border-style: dotted; all four borders are dotted The border-style property is used in the example above. However, it also works with border-width and border-color. <span>Border - Shorthand Property As you can see from the examples above, there are many properties to consider when dealing with borders. To shorten the code, it is also possible to specify all the individual border properties in one property. The border property is a shorthand property for the following individual border properties: border-width border-style (required) border-color Example p { border: 5px solid red; } Result: Some text Try it Yourself » You can also specify all the individual border properties for just one side: Left Border p { border-left: 6px solid red; background-color: lightgrey; } Result: Some te




Anna Atkins (1799–1871) was a pioneer in this technique [producing photograms], creating richly hued cya- notypes of botanical specimens (fig. 2.5). Atkins circulated her cyanotypes in volumes such as British Algae (1843–53), the first publication to be composed and printed photo- graphically.

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Contemporaries called Daguerre’s Paris a “city of the dead,” since the only human presence registered in images like Boulevard du Temple was that of a man who stood still long enough for his shoes to be shined and, coincidentally, for his picture to be taken.

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Flashcard 3624059407628

Question
Contemporaries called Daguerre’s Paris a “city of the dead,” since the only human presence registered in images like [...] was that of a man who stood still long enough for his shoes to be shined and, coincidentally, for his picture to be taken.
Answer
Boulevard du Temple


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Contemporaries called Daguerre’s Paris a “city of the dead,” since the only human presence registered in images like Boulevard du Temple was that of a man who stood still long enough for his shoes to be shined and, coincidentally, for his picture to be taken.

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Flashcard 3624060980492

Question
Contemporaries called Daguerre’s Paris a “city of the dead,” since the only human presence registered in images like Boulevard du Temple was that of a man who [...] for his shoes to be shined and, coincidentally, for his picture to be taken.
Answer
stood still long enough


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Contemporaries called Daguerre’s Paris a “city of the dead,” since the only human presence registered in images like Boulevard du Temple was that of a man who stood still long enough for his shoes to be shined and, coincidentally, for his picture to be taken.

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Flashcard 3624062553356

Question
[...] (1799–1871) was a pioneer in this technique, creating richly hued cya- notypes of botanical specimens (fig. 2.5). Atkins circulated her cyanotypes in volumes such as British Algae (1843–53), the first publication to be composed and printed photo- graphically.
Answer
Anna Atkins


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Anna Atkins (1799–1871) was a pioneer in this technique, creating richly hued cya- notypes of botanical specimens (fig. 2.5). Atkins circulated her cyanotypes in volumes such as British Algae (1843

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Flashcard 3624064912652

Question
Anna Atkins (1799–1871) was a pioneer in this technique [producing [...]], creating richly hued cya- notypes of botanical specimens (fig. 2.5). Atkins circulated her cyanotypes in volumes such as British Algae (1843–53), the first publication to be composed and printed photo- graphically.
Answer
photograms


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Anna Atkins (1799–1871) was a pioneer in this technique [producing photograms], creating richly hued cya- notypes of botanical specimens (fig. 2.5). Atkins circulated her cyanotypes in volumes such as British Algae (1843–53), the first publication to be composed

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 3624066485516

Question
Anna Atkins (1799–1871) was a pioneer in this technique [producing photograms], creating richly hued cya- notypes of botanical specimens (fig. 2.5). Atkins circulated her cyanotypes in volumes such as [...] to be composed and printed photo- graphically.
Answer
British Algae (1843–53), the first publication


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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kins (1799–1871) was a pioneer in this technique [producing photograms], creating richly hued cya- notypes of botanical specimens (fig. 2.5). Atkins circulated her cyanotypes in volumes such as <span>British Algae (1843–53), the first publication to be composed and printed photo- graphically. <span>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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