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Question

For PCA/SVD, the scale/*** of the data matters

Answer

For PCA/SVD, the scale/units of the data matters

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

For PCA/SVD, the ***/units of the data matters

Answer

For PCA/SVD, the scale/units of the data matters

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

PC’s/SV’s may *** real patterns

Answer

PC’s/SV’s may mix real patterns

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

SVD can be *** intensive for very large matrices

Answer

SVD can be computationally intensive for very large matrices

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

To quote from Hadley Wickham’s book on ggplot2, we want to “shorten the distance from mind to ***”.

Answer

To quote from Hadley Wickham’s book on ggplot2, we want to “shorten the distance from mind to page”.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

”…the grammar tells us that a statistical graphic is a *** from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from ggplot2 book

Answer

”…the grammar tells us that a statistical graphic is a mapping from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from ggplot2 book

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

”…the *** tells us that a statistical graphic is a mapping from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from ggplot2 book

Answer

”…the grammar tells us that a statistical graphic is a mapping from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from ggplot2 book

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

”…the grammar tells us that a statistical graphic is a mapping from *** to *** attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from ggplot2 book

Answer

”…the grammar tells us that a statistical graphic is a mapping from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from ggplot2 book

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

”…the grammar tells us that a statistical graphic is a mapping from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of *** objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from ggplot2 book

Answer

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

”…the grammar tells us that a statistical graphic is a mapping from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars). The plot may also contain statistical transformations of the data and is drawn on a specific coordinate system” – from *** book

Answer

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

The grammar allows for a more compact summary of the base *** of a language

Answer

The grammar allows for a more compact summary of the base components of a language

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 in R, qplot() plots are made up of *** (size, shape, color) and *** (points, lines).

Answer

in ggplot2 in R, qplot() plots are made up of aesthetics (size, shape, color) and geoms (points, lines).

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 in R, qplot() plots are made up of aesthetics (***, ***, ***) and geoms (points, lines).

Answer

in ggplot2 in R, qplot() plots are made up of aesthetics (size, shape, color) and geoms (points, lines).

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 in R, qplot() plots are made up of aesthetics (size, shape, color) and geoms (***, ***).

Answer

in ggplot2 in R, qplot() plots are made up of aesthetics (size, shape, color) and geoms (points, lines).

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

***() is very flexible for doing things qplot() cannot do.

Answer

ggplot() is very flexible for doing things qplot() cannot do.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

your data should have appropriate **[...]** so that you can quickly look at a dataset and know

• what the variables are

• what the values of each variable mean

Answer

your data should have appropriate metadata so that you can quickly look at a dataset and know

• what the variables are

• what the values of each variable mean

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

your data should have appropriate metadata so that you can quickly look at a dataset and know

• what the **[...]** are

• what the **[...]** of each variable mean

Answer

your data should have appropriate metadata so that you can quickly look at a dataset and know

• what the variables are

• what the values of each variable mean

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as *** variables and have meaningful labels for each level of the factor.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as factor variables and have meaningful labels for each level of the factor.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as factor variables and have meaningful *** for each level of the factor.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as factor variables and have meaningful labels for each level of the factor.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as factor variables and have meaningful labels for each level of the ***.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as factor variables and have meaningful labels for each level of the factor.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

for ggplot2 in R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as factor variables and have meaningful labels for each level of the factor. If a variable represents temperature categories, it might be better to use “cold”, “mild”, and “hot” rather than “ **[...]** ”, “ **[...]** ”, and “ **[...]** ”

Answer

for ggplot2 in R, non-numeric or categorical variables should be coded as factor variables and have meaningful labels for each level of the factor. If a variable represents temperature categories, it might be better to use “cold”, “mild”, and “hot” rather than “1”, “2”, and “3”

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

including the proper *** can make your exploratory plots essentially self-documenting

Answer

including the proper metadata can make your exploratory plots essentially self-documenting

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

including the proper metadata can make your exploratory plots essentially self-***

Answer

including the proper metadata can make your exploratory plots essentially self-documenting

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

for ggplot2 in R, in the call to qplot() you must specify the '***' argument so that qplot() knows where to look up the variables.

Answer

for ggplot2 in R, in the call to qplot() you must specify the 'data' argument so that qplot() knows where to look up the variables.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, color is an *** and the color of each point can be mapped to a ***.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, color is an aesthetic and the color of each point can be mapped to a variable.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, a smooth is a “***” that you can add along with your data points.

qplot(displ, hwy, data = mpg, *** = c("point", "smooth"))

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, a smooth is a “geom” that you can add along with your data points.

qplot(displ, hwy, data = mpg, geom = c("point", "smooth"))

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, specify geom = "***" if you want the smoother overlayed with the points.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, specify geom = "point" if you want the smoother overlayed with the points.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

a way to create multiple panels of plots based on the levels of categorical variable in ggplot2 for R is ***.

Answer

a way to create multiple panels of plots based on the levels of categorical variable in ggplot2 for R is facets.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

An alternative to histograms is a density smoother, which sometimes can be easier to visualize when there are multiple groups.

Here is a density smooth of an entire study population.

qplot(log(eno), data = maacs, geom = "***")

Answer

An alternative to histograms is a density smoother, which sometimes can be easier to visualize when there are multiple groups.

Here is a density smooth of an entire study population.

qplot(log(eno), data = maacs, geom = "density")

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

An alternative to histograms is a density ***, which sometimes can be easier to visualize when there are multiple groups.

Here is a density *** of an entire study population.

qplot(log(eno), data = maacs, geom = "density")

Answer

An alternative to histograms is a density smoother, which sometimes can be easier to visualize when there are multiple groups.

Here is a density smooth of an entire study population.

qplot(log(eno), data = maacs, geom = "density")

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

aesthetic mappings: describe how data are mapped to ***, ***, ***, ***

Answer

aesthetic mappings: describe how data are mapped to color, size, shape, location

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

these mappings describe how data are mapped to color, size, shape, location : *** mappings

Answer

these mappings describe how data are mapped to color, size, shape, location : aesthetic mappings

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, *** are geometric objects like points, lines, shapes

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, geoms are geometric objects like points, lines, shapes

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, geoms are *** objects like ***, ***, ***

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, geoms are geometric objects like points, lines, shapes

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, *** describe how conditional/panel plots should be constructed

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, facets describe how conditional/panel plots should be constructed

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, facets describe how ***/*** plots should be constructed

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, facets describe how conditional/panel plots should be constructed

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, *** are statistical transformations like binning, quantiles, smoothing.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, stats are statistical transformations like binning, quantiles, smoothing.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, stats are *** transformations like ***, ***, ***.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, stats are statistical transformations like binning, quantiles, smoothing.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, stats are statistical *** like binning, quantiles, smoothing.

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, stats are statistical transformations like binning, quantiles, smoothing.

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, *** are what scale an aesthetic map uses (example: male = red, female = blue).

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, scales are what scale an aesthetic map uses (example: male = red, female = blue).

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, scales are what *** an aesthetic map uses (example: male = red, female = blue).

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, scales are what scale an aesthetic map uses (example: male = red, female = blue).

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R, scales are what scale an *** uses (example: male = red, female = blue).

Answer

in ggplot2 for R, scales are what scale an aesthetic map uses (example: male = red, female = blue).

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R *** describes the system in which the locations of the geoms will be drawn

Answer

in ggplot2 for R coordinate system describes the system in which the locations of the geoms will be drawn

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R coordinate system describes the system in which the locations of the *** will be drawn

Answer

in ggplot2 for R coordinate system describes the system in which the locations of the geoms will be drawn

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Question

in ggplot2 for R coordinate system describes the system in which the *** of the geoms will be ***

Answer

in ggplot2 for R coordinate system describes the system in which the locations of the geoms will be drawn

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |