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on 25-Feb-2020 (Tue)

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[unknown IMAGE 5009388997900]
#dictionaries #has-images #immutable-key #python-for-data-science
A dictionary holds a combination of key value pairs. Here, the keys are fictitious student IDs and student names. This is something you might maintain for the students in a course. You can use this data structure to ask if a student ID is in the dictionary and you can look up a student by their student ID number. Speaking of lookup, dictionaries are also super fast at doing lookups, which is one of the many reasons people like using this data structure. In this example, we have a string key and a string value. The only restriction on types is that the key has to be immutable. Let's look at some more examples. Here we have a mapping of courses to the instructors who commonly teach that course at UCSD. Notice that the value here is actually a list. You could even have a value be another dictionary. Any object is fine as a value in a key value pair, and remember, everything in Python is an object.

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#grep #has-images #python-for-data-science #using-unix-in-jupyter
Now let's look for an occurrence of the word parchment in the file. As you might remember, the command they'll use for this is grep. Using the grep command will display all the lines that have the word parchment in it, at least once. So here we say !grep -i 'parchment' $filename so this should give us all the lines when I say shift enter in that line. So basically each of these lines have the word parchment somewhere in there.

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plaats


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rangschikking?


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vorm?


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oppervlak?


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HISTOPATHOLOGISCH ONDERZOEK

Afwijkingen in epidermis en basaalmembraan


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HISTOPATHOLOGISCH ONDERZOEK

Afwijkingen in de dermis 5


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HISTOPATHOLOGISCH ONDERZOEK

Afwijkingen in de subcutis 1


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URETHRITIS

Kliniek 3

Indeling 4

Verwekkers 3


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GONORROE

Eigenschappen

Kliniek 2

Diagnostiek 3

Behandeling 3

Complicaties 4


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CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS

Behandeling 3

Answer

▪ azitromycine 4x 250mg per os, eenmalig

▪ doxycycline 2dd 100mg per os, 7 dagen

▪ erythromycine 4dd 500mg per os, 7 dagen, in geval van verd. zwangerschap


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ULCUS MOLLE

Eigenschappen

Kliniek

Diagnostiek

Behandeling 4


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SYFILIS

Eigenschappen

Epidemiologie


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SYFILIS

Kliniek 7


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SYFILIS

Diagnostiek 3

Behandeling 2

Complicaties 1


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SCABIËS

Behandeling 6


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SCHAAMLUIS (PHTIRIASIS)

Eigenschappen

Etiologie/pathogenese


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SCHAAMLUIS (PHTIRIASIS)

Kliniek 4


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SCHAAMLUIS (PHTIRIASIS)

Diagnostiek 2

Behandeling 2


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HERPES GENITALIS

Eigenschappen


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BACTERIËLE VAGINOSE (GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS-VAGINITIS)

Eigenschappen

Epidemiologie


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BACTERIËLE VAGINOSE (GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS-VAGINITIS)

Kliniek 4


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BACTERIËLE VAGINOSE (GARDNERELLA VAGINALIS-VAGINITIS)

Diagnostiek 1

Behandeling 3


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CANDIDA VAGINITIS

Eigenschappen 5

Epidemiologie 2


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CANDIDA VAGINITIS

Kliniek 3

Diagnostiek 2


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CANDIDA VAGINITIS

Behandeling 3


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TRICHOMONIASIS

Eigenschappen

Epidemiologie


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ORTHO-ERGISCHE CONTACTDERMATITIS

Etiologie/Pathogenese 7


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ORTHO-ERGISCHE CONTACTDERMATITIS

Kliniek 2

Diagnostiek 2


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ORTHO-ERGISCHE CONTACTDERMATITIS

Behandeling 2


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ACROVESICULEUS ECZEEM

Epidemiologie 2


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ACROVESICULEUS ECZEEM

  • Kliniek 4
  • Diagnostiek 2


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ACROVESICULEUS ECZEEM

Behandeling 2


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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NUMMULAIR ECZEEM

  • Epidemiologie 1
  • Etiologie/Pathogenese 3


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NUMMULAIR ECZEEM

  • Kliniek 4


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NUMMULAIR ECZEEM

  • Diagnostiek 3
  • Behandeling 1


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SEBORROISCH ECZEEM

  • Epidemiologie 3
  • Etiologie/Pathogenese 3


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SEBORROISCH ECZEEM

  • Kliniek 2


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SEBORROISCH ECZEEM

  • Diagnostiek 2
  • Behandeling 3


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CONSTITUTIONEEL ECZEEM

  • Epidemiologie 2


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CONSTITUTIONEEL ECZEEM

  • Etiologie/Pathogenese
    • Familiair
    • Allergische factoren 5
    • Niet allergische factoren 4


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CONSTITUTIONEEL ECZEEM

  • Kliniek
    • Zuigelingen 2
    • Peuterleeftijd 6
    • Reactievormen 4


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CONSTITUTIONEEL ECZEEM

  • Diagnostiek 4


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CONSTITUTIONEEL ECZEEM

  • Behandeling 4


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HYPOSTATISCH ECZEEM

  • Kliniek 12


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HYPOSTATISCH ECZEEM

  • Diagnostiek 2


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HYPOSTATISCH ECZEEM

  • Behandeling 2


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PEMPHIGUS

  • Epidemiologie 2


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PEMPHIGUS

Etiologie/Pathogenese 5


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PEMPHIGUS

  • Diagnostiek 4


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PEMPHIGUS

  • Behandeling 2


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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BULLOUS PEMPHIGOID OF PARAPEMPHIGUS

  • Epidemiologie 3


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BULLOUS PEMPHIGOID OF PARAPEMPHIGUS

  • Etiologie/Pathogenese 3


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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BULLOUS PEMPHIGOID OF PARAPEMPHIGUS

  • Kliniek 5


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BULLOUS PEMPHIGOID OF PARAPEMPHIGUS

  • Diagnostiek 4


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BULLOUS PEMPHIGOID OF PARAPEMPHIGUS

  • Behandeling 5


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DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS

  • Epidemiologie 2
  • Etiologie/Pathogenese 3


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DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS

  • Epidemiologie 2
  • Etiologie/Pathogenese 3


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DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS

  • Kliniek 8


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Diagnostiek

  • Histopathologie: micro-abcessen in dermale papillen (neutrofielen granulocyten). Soms ook veel eos (moeilijk te diff met parapemphigus).
  • Immunohistochemie van huidbiopt: granulaire depositie IgA, met voorkeur in de dermale papillen. Ook C3 aantoonbaar.
  • Jodiumhoudend plakproef (KJ-plakproef)
  • Jejunumvlokkenatrofie 90% (zelden darmklachten)
  • Uitsluiten bij inactieve dermatitis herpetiformis: prurgo, scabies en constitutioneel eczeem.

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Diagnostiek

  • [...]
Answer
Histopathologie: micro-abcessen in dermale papillen (neutrofielen granulocyten). Soms ook veel eos (moeilijk te diff met parapemphigus).Immunohistochemie van huidbiopt: granulaire depositie IgA, met voorkeur in de dermale papillen. Ook C3 aantoonbaar. Jodiumhoudend plakproef (KJ-plakproef)Jejunumvlokkenatrofie 90% (zelden darmklachten)Uitsluiten bij inactieve dermatitis herpetiformis: prurgo, scabies en constitutioneel eczeem.


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Diagnostiek Histopathologie: micro-abcessen in dermale papillen (neutrofielen granulocyten). Soms ook veel eos (moeilijk te diff met parapemphigus). Immunohistochemie van huidbiopt: granulaire depositie IgA, met voorkeur in de dermale papillen. Ook C3 aantoonbaar. Jodiumhoudend plakproef (KJ-plakproef) Jejunumvlokkenatrofie 90% (zelden darmklachten) Uitsluiten bij inactieve dermatitis herpetiformis: prurgo, scabies en constitutioneel eczeem.

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DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS

  • Behandeling 2


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PITYRIASIS ROSEA

  • Eigenschappen
  • Etiologie
  • Epidemiologie


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PITYRIASIS ROSEA

  • Kliniek 4


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PITYRIASIS ROSEA

  • Behandeling 2


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ERYTHEMA EXSUDATIVUM MULTIFORME (MINOR)

  • Eigenschappen
  • Etiologie/pathogenese


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ERYTHEMA EXSUDATIVUM MULTIFORME (MINOR)

  • Kliniek 5


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ERYTHEMA EXSUDATIVUM MULTIFORME (MINOR)

DD Andere dermatosen:

Answer
  • Parapemphigus,
  • dermatitis herpetiformis,
  • lupus erythematoses, vasculitis,
  • syndroom van sweet,
  • M. Kawasaki,
  • toxicodermie en virale exanthemen,
  • daarnaast urticaria.


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Flashcard 5039405534476

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ERYTHEMA EXSUDATIVUM MULTIFORME (MINOR)

Diagnostische criteria: 7

Answer
  • Acuut,
  • self limited of episodisch
  • Duur episode max 4 weken
  • Efflorescenties symmetrisch en niet vluchtig
  • Minstens enkele schietscijflaesies
  • Slijmvliesafwijkingen afwezig of oraal
  • Geen aanwijzingen voor leukocytoelastische vasculitis


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ERYTHEMA EXSUDATIVUM MULTIFORME (MINOR)

  • behandeling 3
Answer
  • Symptomatisch met antihystaminica.
  • Bij ernstige gevallen valaciclovir of famciclovir, eventueel ook profylactisch.
  • Geen corticosteroiden, deze verhogen het aantal recidieven.


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MAJOR (STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROOM) (20%)

  • Epidemiologie 3
  • Etiologie/pathogenese 2


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MAJOR (STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROOM) (20%)

Kliniek 7

Answer
  • Prodromen BOLWI, koorts, hoesten, hoofdpijn, rhinitis en keelpijn, braken diaarre en algehele malaise.
    • Periode duurt 1-14 dagen.
  • Daarna abrupt efflorescenties zoals bij de minorvorm met snelle uitbreiding, blaasvorming en epidermale necrose.
    • Duurt 1-7 dagen. Tenminste 2 slijmvlieslocalisaties (mond, conjunctiva, genitalia en anus).
  • Andere symptomen en complicaties zijn artritis, blindheid, stricturen etc.
  • Soms secundaire infecties en sepsis.
  • Totaal aangedane lichaamsoppervlak: 10-30%


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DD bij MAJOR (STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROOM) (20%)

3

Answer
  • Toxische epidermale necrolyse (fulminanter begin),
  • staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (S. Aureus),
  • graft vs host ziekte


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MAJOR (STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROOM) (20%)

Behandeling 2

Answer
  • Hoge mortaliteit door sepsis, pneumonie en verstoorde electrolyten en vochtbalans.
  • Multidisciplinair behandelen, eventueel hoge dosis cortico’s.


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TOXISCHE EPIDERMALE NECROLYSIS (TEN)

  • Epidemiologie 1
  • Etiologie/Pathogenese 3


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TOXISCHE EPIDERMALE NECROLYSIS (TEN)

  • Kliniek 4


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TOXISCHE EPIDERMALE NECROLYSIS (TEN)

  • Diagnostiek 1
  • Behandeling 5


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PSORIASIS

  • Epidemiologie 3


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PSORIASIS

  • Etiologie/Pathogenese 5


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  • PSORIASIS Kliniek
  • ▪ Huidmanifestaties: scherp begrensde erythematosquameuze plaques
  • ▪ Verschillende vormen:
    • Plaquepsoriasis: beperkt tot enkele plaques Bij chronische plaquepsoriasis samenvloeien van suameuze papels waardoor plaques ontstaan met zilverkleurige schilfering die bij krabben vervloeid als kaarsvet. Voorkeurslocalisatie strekzijde ellebogen en knieën, behaarde hoofd en regio sacralis. Symmetrisch, meestal zonder jeuk. Remissieperioden tot vijf jaar of langer. -
    • Psoriasis guttata: gedissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. -
    • Erytrodermatische psoriasis: gehele huid aangetast Erytrodermie waarbij aantasting interne milieu met dehydratie en nierinsufficiëntie tot gevolg. - Pustuleuze psoriasis: Pustels waarna desquamatie. Pat. is ziek, heeft hoge koorts, herstellend na enkele weken en recidiverend in maanden.
  • ▪ 10-55% heeft nagelafwijkingen (putjes, olievlekfenomeen, distale onycholysis, subunguale hyperkeratose)
  • ▪ Ongeveer 7% heeft last van psoriasis arthropatica, serologisch onderzoek naar reuma moet negatief zijn

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Flashcard 5039440661772

Question
  • PSORIASIS Kliniek
  • ▪ Huidmanifestaties: scherp begrensde erythematosquameuze plaques
  • ▪ Verschillende vormen:
    • [...]: beperkt tot enkele plaques Bij chronische plaquepsoriasis samenvloeien van suameuze papels waardoor plaques ontstaan met zilverkleurige schilfering die bij krabben vervloeid als kaarsvet. Voorkeurslocalisatie strekzijde ellebogen en knieën, behaarde hoofd en regio sacralis. Symmetrisch, meestal zonder jeuk. Remissieperioden tot vijf jaar of langer. -
    • [...] : gedissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. -
    • [...] : gehele huid aangetast Erytrodermie waarbij aantasting interne milieu met dehydratie en nierinsufficiëntie tot gevolg. - Pustuleuze psoriasis: Pustels waarna desquamatie. Pat. is ziek, heeft hoge koorts, herstellend na enkele weken en recidiverend in maanden.
  • ▪ 10-55% heeft nagelafwijkingen (putjes, olievlekfenomeen, distale onycholysis, subunguale hyperkeratose)
  • ▪ Ongeveer 7% heeft last van psoriasis arthropatica, serologisch onderzoek naar reuma moet negatief zijn
Answer
Plaquepsoriasis


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PSORIASIS Kliniek ▪ Huidmanifestaties: scherp begrensde erythematosquameuze plaques ▪ Verschillende vormen: Plaquepsoriasis: beperkt tot enkele plaques Bij chronische plaquepsoriasis samenvloeien van suameuze papels waardoor plaques ontstaan met zilverkleurige schilfering die bij krabben vervloeid als kaarsv

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Flashcard 5039443021068

Question
  • PSORIASIS Kliniek
  • ▪ Huidmanifestaties: scherp begrensde erythematosquameuze plaques
  • ▪ Verschillende vormen:
    • Plaquepsoriasis: [...]
    • Psoriasis guttata: gedissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. -
    • Erytrodermatische psoriasis: gehele huid aangetast Erytrodermie waarbij aantasting interne milieu met dehydratie en nierinsufficiëntie tot gevolg. - Pustuleuze psoriasis: Pustels waarna desquamatie. Pat. is ziek, heeft hoge koorts, herstellend na enkele weken en recidiverend in maanden.
  • ▪ 10-55% heeft nagelafwijkingen (putjes, olievlekfenomeen, distale onycholysis, subunguale hyperkeratose)
  • ▪ Ongeveer 7% heeft last van psoriasis arthropatica, serologisch onderzoek naar reuma moet negatief zijn
Answer
beperkt tot enkele plaques Bij chronische plaquepsoriasis samenvloeien van suameuze papels waardoor plaques ontstaan met zilverkleurige schilfering die bij krabben vervloeid als kaarsvet. Voorkeurslocalisatie strekzijde ellebogen en knieën, behaarde hoofd en regio sacralis. Symmetrisch, meestal zonder jeuk. Remissieperioden tot vijf jaar of langer. -


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PSORIASIS Kliniek ▪ Huidmanifestaties: scherp begrensde erythematosquameuze plaques ▪ Verschillende vormen: Plaquepsoriasis: beperkt tot enkele plaques Bij chronische plaquepsoriasis samenvloeien van suameuze papels waardoor plaques ontstaan met zilverkleurige schilfering die bij krabben vervloeid als kaarsvet. Voorkeurslocalisatie strekzijde ellebogen en knieën, behaarde hoofd en regio sacralis. Symmetrisch, meestal zonder jeuk. Remissieperioden tot vijf jaar of langer. - Psoriasis guttata: gedissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. -

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Flashcard 5039444593932

Question
  • PSORIASIS Kliniek
  • ▪ Huidmanifestaties: scherp begrensde erythematosquameuze plaques
  • ▪ Verschillende vormen:
    • Plaquepsoriasis: beperkt tot enkele plaques Bij chronische plaquepsoriasis samenvloeien van suameuze papels waardoor plaques ontstaan met zilverkleurige schilfering die bij krabben vervloeid als kaarsvet. Voorkeurslocalisatie strekzijde ellebogen en knieën, behaarde hoofd en regio sacralis. Symmetrisch, meestal zonder jeuk. Remissieperioden tot vijf jaar of langer. -
    • Psoriasis guttata: [...]
    • Erytrodermatische psoriasis: gehele huid aangetast Erytrodermie waarbij aantasting interne milieu met dehydratie en nierinsufficiëntie tot gevolg. - Pustuleuze psoriasis: Pustels waarna desquamatie. Pat. is ziek, heeft hoge koorts, herstellend na enkele weken en recidiverend in maanden.
  • ▪ 10-55% heeft nagelafwijkingen (putjes, olievlekfenomeen, distale onycholysis, subunguale hyperkeratose)
  • ▪ Ongeveer 7% heeft last van psoriasis arthropatica, serologisch onderzoek naar reuma moet negatief zijn
Answer
gedissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. -


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kaarsvet. Voorkeurslocalisatie strekzijde ellebogen en knieën, behaarde hoofd en regio sacralis. Symmetrisch, meestal zonder jeuk. Remissieperioden tot vijf jaar of langer. - Psoriasis guttata: <span>gedissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. - Erytrodermatische psoriasis: gehele huid aangetast Erytrodermie waarbij aantasting interne milieu met dehydratie en nierinsufficiëntie tot gevolg. - Pustuleuze psoriasis: Pustels waarna

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Flashcard 5039446166796

Question
  • PSORIASIS Kliniek
  • ▪ Huidmanifestaties: scherp begrensde erythematosquameuze plaques
  • ▪ Verschillende vormen:
    • Plaquepsoriasis: beperkt tot enkele plaques Bij chronische plaquepsoriasis samenvloeien van suameuze papels waardoor plaques ontstaan met zilverkleurige schilfering die bij krabben vervloeid als kaarsvet. Voorkeurslocalisatie strekzijde ellebogen en knieën, behaarde hoofd en regio sacralis. Symmetrisch, meestal zonder jeuk. Remissieperioden tot vijf jaar of langer. -
    • Psoriasis guttata: gedissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. -
    • Erytrodermatische psoriasis: [...]
  • ▪ 10-55% heeft nagelafwijkingen (putjes, olievlekfenomeen, distale onycholysis, subunguale hyperkeratose)
  • ▪ Ongeveer 7% heeft last van psoriasis arthropatica, serologisch onderzoek naar reuma moet negatief zijn
Answer
gehele huid aangetast Erytrodermie waarbij aantasting interne milieu met dehydratie en nierinsufficiëntie tot gevolg. - Pustuleuze psoriasis: Pustels waarna desquamatie. Pat. is ziek, heeft hoge koorts, herstellend na enkele weken en recidiverend in maanden.


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edissemineerd met erythematosquameuze papels Is de vorm waarin psoriasis zich meestal presenteert, bij kinderen spontane remissie in weken, volwassenen chronisch. - Erytrodermatische psoriasis: <span>gehele huid aangetast Erytrodermie waarbij aantasting interne milieu met dehydratie en nierinsufficiëntie tot gevolg. - Pustuleuze psoriasis: Pustels waarna desquamatie. Pat. is ziek, heeft hoge koorts, herstellend na enkele weken en recidiverend in maanden. ▪ 10-55% heeft nagelafwijkingen (putjes, olievlekfenomeen, distale onycholysis, subunguale hyperkeratose) ▪ Ongeveer 7% heeft last van psoriasis arthropatica, serologisch onderzoek naar

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PSORIASIS DD


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PSORIASIS

  • Diagnostiek 2


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Behandeling PSORIASIS

  • Lokale behandeling:
    • - Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie
    • - Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw. bijniersuppressie
    • - Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies
    • - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week
  • PUVA-therapie (psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief
  • Systemische behandeling:
    • - Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/cholesterol, osteofytvorming, anticonceptie tot twee jaar na behandeling absoluut noodzakelijk
    • - Methotrexaat zeer effectief, gereserveerd voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod
    • - Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie
  • Experimenteel:
    • - Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen

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Flashcard 5039457701132

Question

Behandeling PSORIASIS

  • [...]:
    • - Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie
    • - Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw. bijniersuppressie
    • - Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies
    • - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week
  • [...] (psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief
  • [...] :
    • - Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/cholesterol, osteofytvorming, anticonceptie tot twee jaar na behandeling absoluut noodzakelijk
    • - Methotrexaat zeer effectief, gereserveerd voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod
    • - Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie
  • [...] :
    • - Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen
Answer
Lokale behandeling


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Behandeling PSORIASIS Lokale behandeling: - Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie - Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw.

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Behandeling PSORIASIS

  • Lokale behandeling:
    • [...]
  • PUVA-therapie (psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief
  • Systemische behandeling:
    • - Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/cholesterol, osteofytvorming, anticonceptie tot twee jaar na behandeling absoluut noodzakelijk
    • - Methotrexaat zeer effectief, gereserveerd voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod
    • - Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie
  • Experimenteel:
    • - Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen
Answer
- Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie- Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw. bijniersuppressie- Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies- Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week


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Behandeling PSORIASIS Lokale behandeling: - Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie - Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw. bijniersuppressie - Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week PUVA-therapie (psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief Systemische behandeling: - Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytroder

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Flashcard 5039461633292

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Behandeling PSORIASIS

  • Lokale behandeling:
    • - Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie
    • - Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw. bijniersuppressie
    • - Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies
    • - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week
  • PUVA-therapie [...]
  • Systemische behandeling:
    • - Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/cholesterol, osteofytvorming, anticonceptie tot twee jaar na behandeling absoluut noodzakelijk
    • - Methotrexaat zeer effectief, gereserveerd voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod
    • - Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie
  • Experimenteel:
    • - Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen
Answer
(psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief


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ie - Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week PUVA-therapie <span>(psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief Systemische behandeling: - Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/choles

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Behandeling PSORIASIS

  • Lokale behandeling:
    • - Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie
    • - Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw. bijniersuppressie
    • - Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies
    • - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week
  • PUVA-therapie (psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief
  • Systemische behandeling:
  • [...]xperimenteel:
    • - Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen
Answer
- Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/cholesterol, osteofytvorming, anticonceptie tot twee jaar na behandeling absoluut noodzakelijk- Methotrexaat zeer effectief, gereserveerd voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod- Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie


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vies - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week PUVA-therapie (psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief Systemische behandeling: <span>- Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/cholesterol, osteofytvorming, anticonceptie tot twee jaar na behandeling absoluut noodzakelijk - Methotrexaat zeer effectief, gereserveerd voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod - Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie Experimenteel: - Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen <span>

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Behandeling PSORIASIS

  • Lokale behandeling:
    • - Actief vitamine D3 (calcipotriolzalf), vergelijkbaar met corticosteroïden klasse III-IV, bijw. hypercalciëmie
    • - Lokale corticosteroïden (klasse III-IV), dagelijks of wekelijks, bijw. bijniersuppressie
    • - Teer (ditranol) lokale inductie van vrije radicalen, licht tintelend effect wordt nagestreefd, bijw. vies
    • - Fototherapie met UV-B 311 nm, kuren 2-3 maanden twee keer per week
  • PUVA-therapie (psoraleen + UV-A) bij hoge expositie verhoogd risico huidkanker, erg effectief
  • Systemische behandeling:
    • - Vitamine-A-zuurderivaten (acitretin) bij pustuleuze en erytrodermatische vorm of i.c.m. lichttherapie bij overige vormen, bijw. verhoogde leverfuncties/cholesterol, osteofytvorming, anticonceptie tot twee jaar na behandeling absoluut noodzakelijk
    • - Methotrexaat zeer effectief, gereserveerd voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod
    • - Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie
  • Experimenteel:
    • [...]
Answer
- Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen


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voor therapieresistente en ernstige vormen, alcoholverbod - Cyclosporine A bij pustuleuze en erytrothematosquameuze vormen, bijw. hypertensie, nefrotoxiciteit en immunosuppressie Experimenteel: <span>- Fumaarzuurderivaten, vit. D3 derivaten, cytochroom P450 remmers, immunomodulerende stoffen <span>

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LICHEN RUBER PLANUS

  • Epidemiologie 3
  • Etiologie 1


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LICHEN RUBER PLANUS

  • Pathogenese 2


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LICHEN RUBER PLANUS

  • Kliniek 5


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LICHEN RUBER PLANUS

  • Behandeling 3


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FOLLICULITIS

  • Pathogenese 2


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FOLLICULITIS

  • Kliniek 11


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FOLLICULITIS

  • Behandeling 2


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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES

  • Epidemiologie 2
  • Pathogenese 3


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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES Kliniek

  • ▪ remissies en exacerbaties
  • ▪ Chronische discoïde LE
    • - Rode, discusvormige scherp begrensde gebieden, perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken
    • - Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen
    • - Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangiëctasieën, hyper-/depigmentaties
  • ▪ Subacture cutane LE
    • - M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen
  • ▪ Acute LE
    • - Ontstaat in uren/dagen
    • - Soms duidelijke provocerende factor (licht, medicatie, infectie)
    • - Geneest vaak snel

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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES Kliniek

  • ▪ remissies en exacerbaties
  • [...]
    • - Rode, discusvormige scherp begrensde gebieden, perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken
    • - Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen
    • - Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangiëctasieën, hyper-/depigmentaties
  • [...]
    • - M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen
  • [...]
    • - Ontstaat in uren/dagen
    • - Soms duidelijke provocerende factor (licht, medicatie, infectie)
    • - Geneest vaak snel
Answer

▪ Chronische discoïde LE


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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES Kliniek ▪ remissies en exacerbaties ▪ Chronische discoïde LE - Rode, discusvormige scherp begrensde gebieden, perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken - Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen - Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangi

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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES Kliniek

  • ▪ remissies en exacerbaties
  • ▪ Chronische discoïde LE
    • [...]
  • ▪ Subacture cutane LE
    • - M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen
  • ▪ Acute LE
    • - Ontstaat in uren/dagen
    • - Soms duidelijke provocerende factor (licht, medicatie, infectie)
    • - Geneest vaak snel
Answer
- Rode, discusvormige scherp begrensde gebieden, perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken- Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen- Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangiëctasieën, hyper-/depigmentaties


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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES Kliniek ▪ remissies en exacerbaties ▪ Chronische discoïde LE - Rode, discusvormige scherp begrensde gebieden, perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken - Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen - Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangiëctasieën, hyper-/depigmentaties ▪ Subacture cutane LE - M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen ▪ Acute LE - Ont

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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES Kliniek

  • ▪ remissies en exacerbaties
  • ▪ Chronische discoïde LE
    • - Rode, discusvormige scherp begrensde gebieden, perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken
    • - Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen
    • - Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangiëctasieën, hyper-/depigmentaties
  • ▪ Subacture cutane LE
    • - [...]
  • ▪ Acute LE
    • - Ontstaat in uren/dagen
    • - Soms duidelijke provocerende factor (licht, medicatie, infectie)
    • - Geneest vaak snel
Answer
M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken - Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen - Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangiëctasieën, hyper-/depigmentaties ▪ Subacture cutane LE - <span>M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen ▪ Acute LE - Ontstaat in uren/dagen - Soms duidelijke provocerende factor (licht, medicatie, infectie) - Geneest vaak snel <span>

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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES Kliniek

  • ▪ remissies en exacerbaties
  • ▪ Chronische discoïde LE
    • - Rode, discusvormige scherp begrensde gebieden, perifeer verhevenheid en centraal ingezonken
    • - Met name op gelaat, behaarde hoofd, romp en armen
    • - Erytheem, keratose, atrofie, teleangiëctasieën, hyper-/depigmentaties
  • ▪ Subacture cutane LE
    • - M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen
  • ▪ Acute LE
    • [...]
Answer
- Ontstaat in uren/dagen- Soms duidelijke provocerende factor (licht, medicatie, infectie)- Geneest vaak snel


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epigmentaties ▪ Subacture cutane LE - M.n. op aan licht blootgestelde huiddelen (gelaat, romp, extemiteiten) scherp begrensde polycyclische erythemateuze schilferende huidafwijkingen ▪ Acute LE <span>- Ontstaat in uren/dagen - Soms duidelijke provocerende factor (licht, medicatie, infectie) - Geneest vaak snel <span>

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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES

  • Diagnostiek 3


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CUTANE LUPUS ERYTHEMATODES

  • Behandeling 3
  • Complicaties 1


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Diagnose SLE ?

  • Indien 4 manifestaties aanwezig zijn, niet noodzakelijkerwijs tegelijkertijd, is er sprake van SLE.
  • 9


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ULCUS CRURIS

  • Epidemiologie 3


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ULCUS CRURIS

  • kliniek 5


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ULCUS CRURIS

  • etoilogie 2
  • diagnostiek 4


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ULCUS CRURIS

  • behandeling 3


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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM

  • Epidemiologie 3
  • Etiologie/pathogenese 1


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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM Kliniek

  • ▪ Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques)
    • - Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten)
    • - Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken
    • - Later bruine verkleuring en verharding
  • ▪ Scleroderma linearis
    • - Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam)
    • - Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie
    • - Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken
  • ▪ Sclerodermie en coup de sabre
    • - Op het voorhoofd, met aantasting schedelbot
    • - Kan uitbreiden naar gelaat en mond

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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM Kliniek

  • [...]
    • - Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten)
    • - Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken
    • - Later bruine verkleuring en verharding
  • [...]
    • - Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam)
    • - Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie
    • - Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken
  • [...]
    • - Op het voorhoofd, met aantasting schedelbot
    • - Kan uitbreiden naar gelaat en mond
Answer
Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques)


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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM Kliniek ▪ Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques) - Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten) - Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken - Later bruine verkleuring en verharding ▪ Scleroderma linearis - Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over l

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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM Kliniek

  • ▪ Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques)
    • [...]
  • ▪ Scleroderma linearis
    • - Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam)
    • - Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie
    • - Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken
  • ▪ Sclerodermie en coup de sabre
    • - Op het voorhoofd, met aantasting schedelbot
    • - Kan uitbreiden naar gelaat en mond
Answer
- Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten)- Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken- Later bruine verkleuring en verharding


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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM Kliniek ▪ Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques) - Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten) - Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken - Later bruine verkleuring en verharding ▪ Scleroderma linearis - Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam) - Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie - Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken

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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM Kliniek

  • ▪ Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques)
    • - Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten)
    • - Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken
    • - Later bruine verkleuring en verharding
  • ▪ Scleroderma linearis
    • [...]
  • ▪ Sclerodermie en coup de sabre
    • - Op het voorhoofd, met aantasting schedelbot
    • - Kan uitbreiden naar gelaat en mond
Answer
- Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam)- Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie- Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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iek ▪ Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques) - Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten) - Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken - Later bruine verkleuring en verharding ▪ Scleroderma linearis <span>- Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam) - Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie - Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken ▪ Sclerodermie en coup de sabre - Op het voorhoofd, met aantasting schedelbot - Kan uitbreiden naar gelaat en mond <span>

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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM Kliniek

  • ▪ Scleroderma morphea (sclerodermie en plaques)
    • - Op romp (soms gezicht/extremiteiten)
    • - Begin met niet-jeukende rode plekken
    • - Later bruine verkleuring en verharding
  • ▪ Scleroderma linearis
    • - Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam)
    • - Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie
    • - Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken
  • ▪ Sclerodermie en coup de sabre
    • [...]
Answer
- Op het voorhoofd, met aantasting schedelbot- Kan uitbreiden naar gelaat en mond


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- Aan extremiteiten (soms halfzijdig over lichaam) - Langgerekte sclerotische gebieden, met veel hyper-/depigmentatie - Evt. ook fascie, spieren en bot betrokken ▪ Sclerodermie en coup de sabre <span>- Op het voorhoofd, met aantasting schedelbot - Kan uitbreiden naar gelaat en mond <span>

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SCLERODERMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM

  • Behandeling 2


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GRANULOMA ANNULARE

  • Epidemiologie 3
  • Etiologie 1


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GRANULOMA ANNULARE

  • Kliniek 4


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Flashcard 5039551548684



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GRANULOMA ANNULARE

  • Histologie 2
  • Behandeling 2


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Flashcard 5039554956556



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DERMATOMYOSITIS

  • Epidemiologie 3
  • Etiologie/pathogenese 1


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DERMATOMYOSITIS

  • Kliniek 7


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DERMATOMYOSITIS

  • Behandeling 2


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Flashcard 5039565180172



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ALOPECIA AREATA

  • Etiologie/pathogenese 2
  • Kliniek 4
  • Behandeling 3


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Flashcard 5039568588044



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FOTODERMATOSEN

  • Etiologie/pathogenese 3
  • Kliniek 8
  • Diagnostiek 2
  • Behandeling 4


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Flashcard 5039571995916



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TINEA MANUS

  • Etiologie/pathogenese 1
  • Kliniek 4
  • Diagnostiek 1
  • Behandeling 1
    • Systemische antimycotica, 12 weken lang


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VERRUCA SEBORRHOICA (BASALE CELPAPILLOOM)

  • Kliniek 2
  • Histopathologie 1
  • Behandeling 1


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Flashcard 5039578811660



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CYSTEN EN PSEUDOCYSTEN

  • Cyste
  • Pseudocyste
  • Atheroom cyste / Trichilemmale cyste: op de behaarde hoofdhuid van volwassenen.
  • Miliumcyste


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Flashcard 5039582743820



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KERATO-ACANTHOOM

  • Kliniek
  • Histologie
  • DD
  • Therapie


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Flashcard 5039586151692



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ZWEETKLIERTUMOREN

  • Kliniek
  • Therapie


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Flashcard 5039589559564



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TALGKLIERTUMOREN

  • Naevus sebaceus
  • Naevus sebaceus senilis
  • Fordyce-vlekjes


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Flashcard 5039592967436



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CHONDRODERMATITIS NODULARIS HELICIS

  • Kliniek 1
  • Therapie 3


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Flashcard 5039596375308



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TUMOREN UITGAANDE VAN MELANOCYTEN

  • Kliniek 5


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Flashcard 5039599783180



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TUMOREN UITGAANDE VAN HET BINDWEEFSEL

  • 4


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Flashcard 5039603191052



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LIPOOM

  • Kliniek
  • Therapie


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Flashcard 5039606598924



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HEMANGIOMEN

  • Tubereuze, tuberocaverneuze en caverneuze hemangiomen
  • Pathogenese
  • Kliniek 3
  • Therapie 2


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Flashcard 5039610006796



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Neavus flammeus/ wijnvlek

  • Kliniek 5
  • Therapie 1


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Flashcard 5039613414668



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Neavus teleangiectatius/ooievaarspik

  • Kliniek
  • Therapie


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Flashcard 5039615249676

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V ERWORVEN VASCULAIRE AFWIJKINGEN
Answer
  • Neavus araneus/ spider naevus
  • Angioma senile
  • Granuloma teleangiectaticum


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Neavus araneus/ spider naevus


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Angioma senile


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Flashcard 5039625997580



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Granuloma teleangiectaticum:


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PREMALIGNE TUMOREN > ACTINISCHE KERATOSEN

  • Epidemiologie 2
  • Kliniek 3


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Flashcard 5039632813324



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PREMALIGNE TUMOREN > ACTINISCHE KERATOSEN

  • Histopathologie 2
  • Behandeling 3


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Flashcard 5039636745484



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MALIGNE TUMOREN CARCINOMA SPINOCELLULARE

Intra-epitheliaal carcinoom

  • Klinisch beeld 2
  • Histopathologie 3
  • DD 2
  • Behandeling 3


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Flashcard 5039640153356



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MALIGNE TUMOREN CARCINOMA SPINOCELLULARE (PLAVEISELCELCARCINOOM)

  • Klinisch beeld 4
  • Behandeling 2


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Flashcard 5039643561228



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CARCINOMA BASOCELLULARE

  • Etiologie / Pathogenese 2
  • Kliniek 2


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  • Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën
  • Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen
  • Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur
  • Superficieel basalioom: zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën.

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Flashcard 5039647755532

Question
  • [...]: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën
  • [...] : ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen
  • [...] : weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur
  • [...] : zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën.
Answer
Nodulair basalioom


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Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën ▪ Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen ▪ Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd,

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Flashcard 5039650114828

Question
  • Nodulair basalioom: [...]
  • Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen
  • Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur
  • Superficieel basalioom: zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën.
Answer
0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën


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▪ Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën ▪ Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen ▪ Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur ▪ Superfic

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Flashcard 5039651687692

Question
  • Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën
  • Ulcus rodens: [...]
  • Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur
  • Superficieel basalioom: zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën.
Answer
ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen


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▪ Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën ▪ Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen ▪ Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur ▪ Superficieel basalioom: zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis

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Flashcard 5039653260556

Question
  • Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën
  • Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen
  • Cicatriserend basalioom: [...]
  • Superficieel basalioom: zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën.
Answer
weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur


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an> ▪ Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën ▪ Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen ▪ Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur ▪ Superficieel basalioom: zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën. <span>

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Flashcard 5039654833420

Question
  • Nodulair basalioom: 0,5-2 cm grote huidkleurige tumor met fijne teleangiëctasieën
  • Ulcus rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen
  • Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur
  • Superficieel basalioom: [...]
Answer
zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën.


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rodens: ulcererend basalioom, kan zeer grote afmetingen aannemen ▪ Cicatriserend basalioom: weinig geïnfiltreerd, groeit met vorming van keloïd, meestal witgele kleur ▪ Superficieel basalioom: <span>zeer oppervlakkig groeiend. Kan sterk lijken op psoriasis laesie, maar heeft een enigszins geïnfiltreerde rand met telangiëctasieën. <span>

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Flashcard 5039657979148



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CARCINOMA BASOCELLULARE

  • Histopathologie 2
  • Behandeling 5


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Flashcard 5039661911308



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MELANOMEN

  • Kliniek 4


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MELANOMEN

  • Risicofactoren 6


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MELANOMEN

  • Histopathologie 5


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Prognose MELANOMEN

  • ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden

  • ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%

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Flashcard 5039673707788

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Prognose MELANOMEN

  • ▪ Stadium I: [...]
  • ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden

  • ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%
Answer
beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving


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Prognose MELANOMEN ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverlev

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Flashcard 5039675280652

Question

Prognose MELANOMEN

  • ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium II: [...]
  • ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden

  • ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%
Answer
regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving


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Prognose MELANOMEN ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100% ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90% ▪ Bresl

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Flashcard 5039676853516

Question

Prognose MELANOMEN

  • ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium III: [...]

  • ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%
Answer
metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden


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Prognose MELANOMEN ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100% ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90% ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%

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Flashcard 5039678426380

Question

Prognose MELANOMEN

  • ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden

  • ▪ Breslow-dikte < [...]
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%
Answer
1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100%


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atie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden ▪ Breslow-dikte < <span>1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100% ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90% ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70% <span>

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Flashcard 5039679999244

Question

Prognose MELANOMEN

  • ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden

  • ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte [...]
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%
Answer
1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90%


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etastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100% ▪ Breslow-dikte <span>1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90% ▪ Breslow-dikte 2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70% <span>

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Prognose MELANOMEN

  • ▪ Stadium I: beperkt tot primaire lokalisatie; 80% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium II: regionale metastasen (lymfogeen); 25% 5-jaarsoverleving
  • ▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden

  • ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90%
  • ▪ Breslow-dikte [...]
Answer
2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70%


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▪ Stadium III: metastasen op afstand; infauste prognose van enkele maanden ▪ Breslow-dikte < 1 mm 5-jaarsoverleving ongeveer 100% ▪ Breslow-dikte 1-2 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 90% ▪ Breslow-dikte <span>2-4 mm 5-jaarsoverleving 70% <span>

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MELANOMEN

  • Behandeling 5


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Crème


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Zalf


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Pasta


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Koelpasta


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Lotion


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Schudmengsel


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Hydrogel


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CORTICOSTEROÏDEN

  • Eigenschappen 6


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CORTICOSTEROÏDEN

  • Classificatie 4


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stappenplan 8


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anamnese 6


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lichamelijk onderzoek 3


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anatomie huid

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anatomie huid


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dd erytheem 8


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papuleuze dermatozen 11


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dd purpera 2


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dd eczemen 4


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dd erythomatosquameuze dermatosen 4


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dd vesiculo-bulleuze dermatosen 6


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dd mondslijmvleesafwijken 3


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dd pusteleuze dermatosen 5


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dd noduleuze dermatosen 2


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dd ulcereuze dermatosen 2


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dd trichosen 4

dd keratosen 1


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dd

  • dyschromie 2
  • sclerose 1
  • onychose 2


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typen allergie 4


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plaats


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rangschikking

  • groepering 10
  • uitbreiding 5


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omvang 5


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vorm 21


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omtrek 4


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kleur 4


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Efflorescentie 23


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PROVOKE voorbeeld


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#alma #o-livro-dos-espíritos
Julgamos mais lógico tomá-lo na sua acepção vulgar e por isso chamamos ALMA ao ser imaterial e individual que em nós reside e sobrevive ao corpo. Mesmo quando esse ser não existisse, não passasse de produto da imaginação, ainda assim fora preciso um termo para designá-lo.

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#o-livro-dos-espiritos #princípio-vital
Princípio vital [é] o princípio da vida material e orgânica, qualquer que seja a fonte donde promane, princípio esse comum a todos os seres vivos, desde as plantas até o ho- mem. Pois que pode haver vida com exclusão da faculdade de pensar, o princípio vital é coisa distinta e independente.

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#fluido-vital #o-livro-dos-espíritos
Segundo outros, e esta é a idéia mais comum, ele [o princípio vital] reside em um fluido especial, universalmente espalhado e do qual cada ser absorve e assimila uma parcela durante a vida, tal como os corpos inertes absorvem a luz. Esse seria então o fluido vital que, na opinião de alguns, em nada difere do fluido elétrico animalizado, ao qual também se dão os nomes de fluido magnético, fluido nervoso, etc.

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#espécie-humana #inteligência #o-livro-dos-espíritos #pensamento #senso-moral
(...) entre as espécies orgânicas dotadas de inteligência e de pensamento há uma dotada também de um senso moral especial, que lhe dá incontestável superioridade sobre as outras: a espécie humana.

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Question

Syphilis

  • Manifestations ophtalmiques
    • À interpréter comme [...]

Answer

une neurosyphilis « précoce »


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érieure, papil- lite, névrite optique), d'où l'importance d'un bon interrogatoire à la recherche d'anomalies de la vision (baisse acuité visuelle, phosphènes, douleurs…) : – à interpréter comme <span>une neurosyphilis « précoce », – justifiant la pratique d'une ponction lombaire et, quel que soit le résultat de cette der- nière, un traitement par pénicilline G pendant 14 jours ; • atteinte d'une paire crânienne

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Question

Syphilis

  • Manifestations ophtalmiques
    • Justifiant la pratique d'une [...]

Answer

ponction lombaire


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bon interrogatoire à la recherche d'anomalies de la vision (baisse acuité visuelle, phosphènes, douleurs…) : – à interpréter comme une neurosyphilis « précoce », – justifiant la pratique d'une <span>ponction lombaire et, quel que soit le résultat de cette der- nière, un traitement par pénicilline G pendant 14 jours ; • atteinte d'une paire crânienne : hypoacousie ou acouphènes, paralysie faciale… qu

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Question
Quelles sont les 4 principales manifestations ophtalmiques de la syphilis ?
Answer

Surtout uvéite antérieure

Mais aussi :

  • Uvéite postérieure

  • Papillite

  • Névrite optique


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• manifestations ophtalmiques (surtout uvéite antérieure mais aussi uvéite postérieure, papil- lite, névrite optique), d'où l'importance d'un bon interrogatoire à la recherche d'anomalies de la vision (baisse acuité visuelle, phosphènes, douleurs…) : – à interpréter comme une neurosyphilis « précoce »

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Question

Syphilis

Le TPHA se positive entre le [...] et [...] jour du chancre

Answer

Entre le 7ème et 10ème jour du chancre


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Cinétique Le TPHA se positive entre le 7 e et 10 e jour du chancre. L'intensité de la réaction est cotée en dilution de 1/80 puis de 1/160, 1/320… Le titre du TPHA quantitatif n'est pas un bon marqueur de l'évolutivité de la mal

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Syphilis

Le titre du TPHA quantitatif est-il un bon marqueur de suivi de l'infection ?

Answer

NON

Le titre du TPHA quantitatif n'est pas un bon marqueur de l'évolutivité de la maladie ni de la réponse au traitement, car il varie de façon importante d'un examen à l'autre pour un même patient


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Cinétique Le TPHA se positive entre le 7 e et 10 e jour du chancre. L'intensité de la réaction est cotée en dilution de 1/80 puis de 1/160, 1/320… Le titre du TPHA quantitatif n'est pas un bon marqueur de l'évolutivité de la maladie ni de la réponse au traitement, car il varie de façon importante d'un examen à l'autre pour un même patient. Seul le TPHA qualitatif (« 0 » à « +++ ») est donc intéressant par sa positivité ou sa négativité

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Question

Syphilis

  • VDRL ( Venereal Disease Research Laboratory )
    • Il met en évidence, dans le sérum du patient, des anticorps [...].

Answer

anti-cardiolipidiques


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VDRL ( Venereal Disease Research Laboratory ) Il met en évidence, dans le sérum du patient, des anticorps anti-cardiolipidiques. Le VDRL n'est pas une réaction spécifique des tréponématoses (+++). Une sérologie syphilitique faussement positive (VDRL positif, TPHA négatif) s'observe au cours de maladies dysimmuni

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Question

Syphilis

Une sérologie syphilitique faussement positive (VDRL positif, TPHA négatif) peut s'observer au cours de certaines maladies infectieuses à [...] ou dans les [...]

Answer

Mycoplasma pneumoniae ou dans les borrélioses


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tif, TPHA négatif) s'observe au cours de maladies dysimmunitaires, notamment au cours du lupus et du syndrome des anticorps anti-phospholipides, ainsi que dans certaines maladies infectieuses à <span>Mycoplasma pneumo- niae ou dans les borrélioses <span>

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Question

Les partenaires sexuels sont systématiquement dépistés, puis traités :

  • Syphilis :
    • Traitement d’emblée si le dernier rapport sexuel date de moins de [...] semaines
    • Traitement selon les résultats de la sérologie s’il date de plus de [...] semaines

Answer

6 semaines


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dépistés, puis traités : Infection à gonocoque et Chlamydia : traitement d’emblée du/des partenaire(s) régulier(s). Syphilis : Traitement d’emblée si le dernier rapport sexuel date de moins de <span>6 semaines Traitement selon les résultats de la sérologie s’il date de plus de 6 semaines. Infection à HPV : pas de dépistage en dehors du frottis cervical et/ou de l'examen prodologique







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Question

Syphilis

On considère que le traitement est efficace quand le titre du VDRL est divisé par [...] (deux dilutions), 6 mois après le traitement

Answer

VDRL divisé par 4 après 6 mois


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La surveillance biologique de l'efficacité du traitement se fait sur le VDRL quantitatif (+++). On considère que le traitement est efficace quand le titre du VDRL est divisé par 4 (deux dilutions), 6 mois après le traitement

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Question

Syphilis

Le VDRL doit être négatif [...] après le traitement d'une syphilis primaire et dans un délai de [...] après traitement d'une syphilis secondaire

Answer

1 an pour syphilis primaire

2 ans pour syphilis secondaire


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Le VDRL doit être négatif 1 an après le traitement d'une syphilis primaire et dans un délai de 2 ans après traitement d'une syphilis secondaire

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Question

Syphilis

  • Evolution récente de la stratégie diagnostique :
    • Il est désormais recommandé que le dépistage initial soit fait par un test [...] automatisé qualitatif, confirmé en cas de positivité par un test [...] (VDRL ou RPR) quantitatif.

Answer

Dépistage initial par test tréponémique automatisé (EIA, ELISA) qualitatif

Confirmé en cas de positivité par un test non tréponémique (VDRL ou RPR) quantitatif


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Evolution récente de la stratégie diagnostique : il est désormais recommandé que le dépistage initial soit fait par un test tréponémique automatisé (EIA, ELISA) qualitatif, confirmé en cas de positivité par un test non tréponémique (VDRL ou RPR) quantitatif. Positivité en général 10 jours après le chancre (test tréponémi







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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge #has-images
Question
Marqueurs de sévérité de la dermo-hypodermite ?


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Flashcard 5042882612492

[unknown IMAGE 5042883136780]
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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge #has-images


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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge
Question

Erysipèle

Forme habituelle
• Plaque érythémateuse, œdémateuse, circonscrite et douloureuse à la palpation (bourrelet périphérique marqué observé uniquement au niveau [...])

Answer

Bourrelet au niveau du VISAGE


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rition du placard cutané inflammatoire. • Plaque érythémateuse, œdémateuse, circonscrite et douloureuse à la palpation (figure 345.1) (bourrelet périphérique marqué observé uniquement au niveau <span>du visage). • Parfois décollements bulleux superficiels, conséquence mécanique de l'œdème dermique, ou purpura sur le placard (figure 345.2). • Adénopathies inflammatoires homolatérales fréquemme

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Question

Erysipèle

Forme habituelle

• Amélioration des signes locaux plus lente, en [...].

Answer

1 semaine


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en 8 à 10 jours sous traitement antibiotique dans la plupart des cas. • Apyrexie obtenue en 48 à 72 heures qui signe l'efficacité du traitement. • Amélioration des signes locaux plus lente, en <span>1 semaine. • A noter qu'une extension sous traitement s'observe fréquemment dans les premières 24 heures <span>

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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge
Question
Que peut-on fréquemment observer dans les premières 24 heures de traitement d'un érysipèle ?
Answer

Une extension sous traitement


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aitement antibiotique dans la plupart des cas. • Apyrexie obtenue en 48 à 72 heures qui signe l'efficacité du traitement. • Amélioration des signes locaux plus lente, en 1 semaine. • A noter qu'<span>une extension sous traitement s'observe fréquemment dans les premières 24 heures <span>

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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge
Question

Erysipèle

• Évolution favorable en [...] à [...] jours sous traitement antibiotique dans la plupart des cas.

Answer

8 à 10 jours


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go inter-orteils, piqûre, érosion traumatique, ulcère de jambe • Devant un tableau typique et en l'absence de comorbidité, aucun examen complémentaire n'est nécessaire. • Évolution favorable en <span>8 à 10 jours sous traitement antibiotique dans la plupart des cas. • Apyrexie obtenue en 48 à 72 heures qui signe l'efficacité du traitement. • Amélioration des signes locaux plus lente,

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Question

Erysipèle

Chez les malades hospitalisés :

  • Traitement d'attaque : par amoxicilline par voie IV, jusqu'à l'obtention d'une apyrexie
    • Relais par forme orale jusqu'à disparition des signes locaux.
      • La durée totale de traitement est de [...] à [...] jours

Answer

Durée totale de 10 à 20 jours


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mg/kg/j, jusqu'à l'obtention d'une apyrexie ; • relais par forme orale (amoxicilline 3 à 4,5 g par jour en 3 prises) jusqu'à disparition des signes locaux. La durée totale de traitement est de <span>10 à 20 jours. En l'absence de signes de gravité locaux ou généraux : • traitement oral (amoxicilline : 3 à 4,5 g par jour, durée de 15 jours) à domicile (ce qui évite les contraintes et l

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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge
Question

Erysipèle

En cas d'intolérance ou d'allergie à la pénicilline : [...] ou [...]

Answer

Pristinamycine (après 6 ans) ou Clindamycine


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moxicilline : 3 à 4,5 g par jour, durée de 15 jours) à domicile (ce qui évite les contraintes et les effets indésirables du traitement IV). En cas d'intolérance ou d'allergie à la pénicilline : <span>pristinamycine (3 g par jour en 3 prises ) ou clindamycine. <span>

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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge
Question

Erysipèle

Prévention des récidives, d'autant que les facteurs favorisants sont difficilement contrôlables

  • Antibiothérapie préventive indiquée en cas de récidives multiples ([...] ou [...] ou [...]

Answer

Amoxicilline

OU

Pristinamycine

OU

Benzathine-pénicilline


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poids) ; – hygiène cutanée correcte ; • des récidives, d'autant que les facteurs favorisants sont difficilement contrôlables, antibiothérapie préventive indiquée en cas de récidives multiples (<span>amoxicilline 500 mg à 1 g par jour, pristinamycine 500 mg à 1 g par jour ; ou benzathine-pénicilline : 2,4 millions IM, toutes les 2–3 semaines) <span>

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Flashcard 5042902535436

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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge
Question

En cas de morsure animale :

[ATB ?] (3 g par jour per os ou IV)

Answer

AUGMENTIN


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En cas de morsure animale : • amoxicilline (3 g par jour per os ou IV), associée à l'acide clavulanique (antibiotique de référence) ; • macrolides ou pristinamycine en cas d'allergie aux β-lactamines

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Question

En cas de morsure animale :

[...] ou [...] en cas d'allergie aux β-lactamines

Answer

Macrolides ou Pristinamycine en cas d'allergie


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En cas de morsure animale : • amoxicilline (3 g par jour per os ou IV), associée à l'acide clavulanique (antibiotique de référence) ; • macrolides ou pristinamycine en cas d'allergie aux β-lactamines

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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge
Question

Impetigo

Complications :

  • Contrôle de la protéinurie [Temps ?] après l'épisode infectieux

Answer

3 semaines


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Complications Exceptionnelles : glomérulonéphrite post-streptococcique et rhumatisme articulaire aigu. Contrôle de la protéinurie 3 semaines après l'épisode infectieux

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Flashcard 5042909875468

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#345 #Cours #Dermatologie #Erysipele #Facultaires #Grosse #Jambe #Rouge #has-images


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Question

Impétigo bulleux

S. aureus toxines (exfoliatines A et B ; production locale) cible la [...] (desmosome, épiderme superficiel)

Answer

desmogléine 1


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Impétigo bulleux S. aureus toxines (exfoliatines A et B ; production locale) cible la desmogléine 1 (desmosome, épiderme superficiel : entraîne un décollement dans cette zone)

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Question

Furoncle

  • Lésion élémentaire/aspect clinique :
    • Papule ou nodule inflammatoire, douloureux, centrés par une pustule sur une zone pileuse
    • Évolution vers une zone nécrotique centrale ([...]) en quelques jours.

Answer

bourbillon


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nique : – papule ou nodule inflammatoire, douloureux, centrés par une pustule sur une zone pileuse (le poil ayant disparu du fait de la nécrose) ; – évolution vers une zone nécrotique centrale (<span>bourbillon) en quelques jours (figure 152.5) <span>

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Question

Complications

  • Staphylococcie maligne de la face :
    • Complication majeure : [...] (risque vital engagé)

Answer

thrombophlébite du sinus caverneux


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e du nez ; – altération de l'état général fébrile avec œdème du visage, possible cordon veineux induré palpable ; – mécanisme : thrombophlébite superficielle septique ; – complication majeure : <span>thrombophlébite du sinus caverneux (risque vital engagé) <span>

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Question

Traitement d'un abcès : chirurgical ++

  • Associer une antibiothérapie en complément de la chirurgie, entre autres si :
    • Volume important de l'abcès (> [...] cm) ou échec du drainage,

Answer

> 5 cm


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: chirurgical +++ – drainage de l'abcès. Pas d'indication à associer une antibiothérapie en complément de la chirurgie, sauf dans les situations suivantes : – volume important de l'abcès (> <span>5 cm) ; échec du drainage, – localisations « critiques » (visage) ; symptômes généraux, – immunodépression ; âges extrêmes. <span>

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Dix à 25 % des kératoses actiniques se transforment en carcinome in situ, puis en cancer infiltrant. La présence de kératose actinique est un facteur de risque de cancer cutané

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Les signes de cancérisation sont l’apparition d’un bourrelet induré, d’une ulcération, d’une rougeur exces - sive, ou d’une kératinisation en corne. Toute modification d’une kératose actinique impose une biopsie ou l’exé- rèse chirurgicale.

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
L’aspect est celui d’une tumeur bourgeonnante, indurée, saignant facilement, avec un centre ulcéré recouvert de croûtes (Figure 1). En cas de kératose ou de maladie de Bowen préexistante, la survenue d’un cancer épidermoïde est suspectée devant une ulcération, une surélévation, une induration ou un saignement

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Facteurs de risque

Le principal facteur de risque est la dose d’UV reçue au cours de la vie, avec comme facteur de risque un phototype cutané clair

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Les facteurs de risque d’évolution péjorative sont :

– les localisations péri-orificielles, les lésions multiples, la survenue sur cicatrice (radiodermite, brûlures), le développement sur ulcère (insuffisance veineuse des membres inférieurs) et l’inflammation chronique ; – la taille > 2 cm (> 1 cm pour les zones péri-orificielles) ; – l’infiltration en profondeur avec adhérence au plan profond ; – la présence de signes neurologiques d’invasion pour les carcinomes épidermoïdes cutanés de la face ; – la récidive locale d’un cancer déjà traité ; – l’immunodépression chronique (greffe d’organe) ;

– le sous-type histologique desmoplastique, muco-épidermoïde ou acantholytique ;

– le degré de différenciation cytologique ; – l’épaisseur de la tumeur et la profondeur ; – l’invasion péri-nerveuse

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

L’exérèse doit être complète avec des marges périphériques dépendant de la présence de facteurs de risque (4 à 6 mm en l’absence de facteur de risque, > 6 mm dans le cas contraire), et atteignant l’hypoderme en profondeur.

En cas de marges atteintes sur l’examen anatomo-pathologique, une reprise chirurgicale est indiquée.

Une radiothérapie post-opératoire est proposée lorsque la reprise chirurgicale est impossible, ou trop mutilante, ainsi qu'en cas de lésion récidivante

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Suivi et prévention

La majorité des patients traités pour un carcinome épidermoïde cutané localisé est guérie par le traitement. y Le suivi repose sur un examen clinique annuel pendant au moins 5 ans à la recherche de récidive ou de nouveau cancer cutané (risque > 50 %). Les patients immunodéprimés sont suivis à vie.

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Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Pour les patients traités ayant des facteurs de risque de récidive ganglionnaire, une échographie de la zone de drainage peut être recommandée (pas de consensus).

Les autres examens d’imagerie ne se feront que sur signes d’appel. y Chez les sujets à risque (phototype clair, exposition solaire cumulée élevée, sujets immunodéprimés, antécédent personnel de cancer cutané...), le dépistage, réalisable lors de toute consultation médicale, est recommandé après 50 ans, au moins sur un rythme annuel. L’auto-examen doit être enseigné

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[unknown IMAGE 5043005558028]
Carcinomes épidermoïdes ou spinocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs #has-images

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Épidémiologie

Le cancer basocellulaire de la peau est la tumeur humaine la plus fréquente dans les deux sexes. Il représente près de 30 % de l’ensemble des cancers. Il survient dans la plupart des cas après 50 ans

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Physiopathologie, histoire naturelle

À la différence des carcinomes épidermoïdes, il n’existe pas de précurseur ou lésion précancéreuse.

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Diagnostic

La lésion typique est un nodule cutané surélevé siégeant sur la face, le cou, le décolleté, c’est-à-dire les zones photo-exposées. Le carcinome basocellulaire n’atteint jamais les muqueuses

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Formes cliniques (suite)

– le carcinome basocellulaire sclérodermiforme a un aspect de cicatrice fibreuse blanchâtre indurée aux limites imprécises. L’extension profonde et en surface est plus importante que la partie visible, justifiant des marges chirurgicales et des volumes irradiés plus larges ;

– le carcinome basocellulaire superficiel est une plaque erythématosquameuse plane, bien limitée, bordée de perles en périphérie

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Facteurs de risque

  • L’exposition solaire courte, intense et répétée, plutôt que l’exposition chronique comme pour les carcinomes épidermoïdes cutanés.
  • Le phototype clair.
  • L’immunodépression (patients sous immunosuppresseurs, patients VIH, patients sous chimiothérapie…), avec un risque relatif évalué à 10

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Les facteurs de mauvais pronostic sont la localisation céphalique, la forme sclérodermiforme, la taille supérieure à 2 cm (1 cm dans les zones à haut risque de récidive) et le caractère récidivant

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Traitement

Au stade localisé

Il repose sur la chirurgie avec exérèse complète de la lésion avec des marges périphériques de 4 mm à 1 cm en fonction de la présence de facteurs de mauvais pronostic, et atteignant l’hypoderme en profondeur.

En cas de marges atteintes à l’examen anatomo-pathologique, une reprise chirurgicale est indiquée.

Les alternatives thérapeutiques à la chirurgie sont : – la cryochirurgie ou la photothérapie dynamique ou l’imiquimod pour les carcinomes basocellulaires superficiels ; – la radiothérapie (chirurgie ou reprise chirurgicale contre-indiquée ou trop mutilante, formes récidivantes, traitement palliatif) ; – les thérapies ciblées (formes très évoluées)

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Une surveillance cutanée rapprochée (annuelle) doit être réalisée chez les patients immunodéprimés (prévention primaire)

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs #has-images

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Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs #has-images

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[unknown IMAGE 5043048287500]
Carcinomes basocellulaires
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs #has-images

Colonne de gauche, épidermoide

Colonne de droite, basocellulaire

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Tumeurs mélaniques bénignes : nævus
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Facteurs de risque

Le phototype clair, l’exposition solaire et l’immunodépression sont les principaux facteurs de risque de présence de nævus

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Tumeurs mélaniques bénignes : nævus
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Diagnostics différentiels (en partie)

– les lentigos, improprement appelées « taches de vieillesse », qui sont des macules pigmentées sur les zones photoexposées et qui brunissent avec le temps

– les éphélides ou « taches de rousseur », macules millimétriques brun clair qui apparaissent sur les zones photoexposées chez les individus roux, qui s’accentuent avec le soleil et ont tendance à disparaître avec le temps

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Tumeurs mélaniques bénignes : nævus
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

En raison du très faible risque de transformation, il n’y a aucun intérêt à pratiquer l’exérèse systématique des nævus communs, hormis à visée esthétique à la demande du patient

Cette exérèse doit se faire avec des marges de 2 mm et la pièce envoyée pour analyse anatomo-pathologique

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Définition

Les mélanomes sont des tumeurs malignes développées aux dépens des mélanocytes.

L’évolution est, dans un premier temps, horizontale et intra-épidermique, puis, dans un second temps, verticale avec envahissement du derme superficiel (phase micro-invasive), enfin du derme profond et de l’hy- poderme (phase invasive)

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Épidémiologie

Le mélanome représente entre 2 et 3 % de l’ensemble des cancers et se situe au 11 e rang des cancers les plus fréquents chez l’homme et au 9 e rang chez la femme. y L’âge moyen au diagnostic est de 50-60 ans (en baisse). y L’incidence est en augmentation régulière de 10 % par an, depuis 50 ans.

C’est le premier des cancers en termes d’augmentation de fréquence.

L’incidence est directement corrélée au phototype et à l’exposition solaire, plus élevée chez les sujets à la peau claire (notamment en Australie), et plus faible dans les pays asiatiques ou dans les populations à la peau noire

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Les facteurs de risque principaux mis en évidence sont :

– les facteurs environnementaux et/ou comportementaux : le principal facteur de risque est représenté par les antécédents personnels de brûlures solaires surtout pendant l’enfance, moins fréquemment le bronzage par UV artificiels...

– les caractéristiques physiques : peau claire, cheveux roux ou blonds, yeux clairs, nombreuses éphélides (taches de rousseur) ;

– une sensibilité particulière au soleil : brûle toujours, bronze pas ou peu

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Facteurs de risque

L’exposition solaire est le principal facteur de risque, qu’elle soit intermittente et intense avec en particulier les brûlures reçues pendant l’enfance (mélanome superficiel extensif) ou prolongée et cumulative (mélanome de Dubreuilh strictement intra-épidermique). y Le phototype clair. y La prédisposition familiale, définie par au moins deux personnes atteintes de mélanome dans la famille, augmente de manière importante le risque de mélanome et serait impliquée dans 10 % des cas de mélanome. y La présence de nombreux nævus et le syndrome du nævus atypique. y L’immunodépression : patients greffés sous immunosuppresseurs, patients atteints du VIH, patients recevant de la chimiothérapie…

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Le pronostic est extrêmement différent en fonction de la présence ou non d’une atteinte métastatique. La probabilité de survie à 5 ans chute de 88 % pour les formes localisées à 18 % pour les formes métastatiques.

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

La classification anatomo-clinique des mélanomes au stade localisé permet de définir le profil évolutif en deux catégories :

– les tumeurs avec phase d’extension horizontale, après biopsies éventuellement répétées (cartographie) en cas de suspicion clinique pour exclure un foyer de micro-invasion.
Elles regroupent :
➢ le mélanome superficiel extensif (SSM), le plus fréquent (60-70 % des cas) ;
➢ le mélanome de Dubreuilh avec une phase d’extension horizontale pouvant durer plusieurs années (10 % des cas) ;
➢ le mélanome acral lentigineux des paumes, des plantes, des bords latéraux des doigts et des orteils, et sous les ongles (2 à 5 % des cas) (Figure 4) ;
➢ plus rarement, les mélanomes des muqueuses buccales et génitales (bouche, nez, fosses nasales et pharynx, vagin et anus) et le mélanome uvéal (cancer de l’œil le plus fréquent chez l’adulte) ;

– les tumeurs sans phase d’extension horizontale : il s’agit du mélanome nodulaire d’emblée, rapidement invasif (10 à 20 % des cas)

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Les facteurs cliniques de mauvais pronostic tels que le sexe masculin, l’âge avancé et l’atteinte du tronc, de la tête ou du cou, ont moins de valeur

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs

Les critères histo-pronostiques sont :

– l’indice de Breslow (épaisseur tumorale) principalement, qui fixe la classification par stades (cf. Tableau 4) ;
– la présence d’ulcération ;
– l’index mitotique ;
– le niveau anatomique d’invasion dans le derme ou l’hypoderme (niveau de Clark) est actuellement moins utilisé ;
– l’atteinte du ganglion sentinelle (bien qu’actuellement non recommandée en France)

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Au stade métastatique ganglionnaire, les facteurs pronostiques principaux sont le nombre de ganglions atteints, la présence de franchissement capsulaire et d’ulcération

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Au stade de métastases à distance, l’atteinte viscérale a longtemps été le principal facteur de mauvais pronostic. Avec l’émergence des médicaments inhibiteurs de BRAF, de MEK et de check-point immunitaires (anti PD-1, anti CTLA-4), la présence de mutation de BRAF et la réponse à l’immunothérapie ont été associées à des durées de survie prolongées

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Les schémas thérapeutiques sont fonction de l’extension de la maladie (Tableau 2), faisant distinguer les atteintes localisées (stades I/II), les atteintes métastatiques loco-régionales cutanées ou ganglionnaires (stades III) ou à distance (stades IV).

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Le bilan initial pour les stades I et II est avant tout clinique, comprenant un examen de l’ensemble du revêtement cutané (seconde localisation ?) et la palpation des aires ganglionnaires (échographie de l’aire de drainage à envi - sager pour les stades II). Aucune imagerie n’est indiquée à ce stade, hormis pour les mélanomes de plus de 4 mm ulcérés.

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs
Le traitement de la tumeur primitive consiste en une exérèse chirurgicale dont les marges sont conditionnées par l’épaisseur tumorale (Tableau 3). Les mélanomes superficiels de Dubreuilh nécessitent une marge de 1 cm. Un curage ganglionnaire est associé pour les stades III

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs #has-images

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs #has-images

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Oncologie #Tumeurs #has-images

TNM du mélanome

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Tumeurs mélaniques malignes : mélanomes
#299 #Cours #Cutanées #Dermatologie #Facultaires #Médecine #Mélanomes #Tumeurs

Indication des examens d’imagerie dans le bilan initial

► Stade I : aucun examen d’imagerie

► Stades IIA et B : envisager une échographie locorégionale de la zone de drainage sans autre examen si le patient est asymptomatique

► Stades IIC et III : échographie locorégionale de la zone de drainage et TDM thoraco-abdomino-pelvienne et cérébrale peuvent être proposées. +/- TEP-FDG au stade III

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A race condition or race hazard is the condition of an electronics, software, or other system where the system's substantive behavior is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when one or more of the possible behaviors is undesirable.

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Race condition - Wikipedia
Here, ∆t1 and ∆t2 represent the propagation delays of the logic elements. When the input value A changes from low to high, the circuit outputs a short spike of duration (∆t1 + ∆t2) − ∆t2 = ∆t1. <span>A race condition or race hazard is the condition of an electronics , software , or other system where the system's substantive behavior is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when one or more of the possible behaviors is undesirable. The term race condition was already in use by 1954, for example in David A. Huffman 's doctoral thesis "The synthesis of sequential switching circuits".[1] Race conditions can occur esp




#software-engineering

I think the most common misconception about OOP is that it's supposed to make writing software much easier. That's where some of the criticism comes from, because when writing software, OOP often means more and sometimes even less natural code. That's what makes it hard to see the benefits of OOP, as everyone who starts programming just writes new programs and never has to maintain existing ones.

However, the real benefit of OOP only shows when you have to maintain software over the years, while constantly changing parts of the program in ways nobody expected when they were first written.

You should see OOP as a way to make sure that local changes to the software stay local and don't affect the rest of the program. In this sense classes are sort of explicit placeholders for future changes. In a procedural program it is often hard to see where you have to change the code to add a completely new feature, without affecting anything else.

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object oriented - Employer appeal; OOP use in mainstream; solutions that blossom with OOP - Software Engineering Stack Exchange
swer is that Design Patterns reference. That is the type of literature I need to be reading. – cantide5ga Jan 8 '12 at 20:12 | show 1 more comment 7 Answers 7 active oldest votes 13 [emptylink] <span>I think the most common misconception about OOP is that it's supposed to make writing software much easier. That's where some of the criticism comes from, because when writing software, OOP often means more and sometimes even less natural code. That's what makes it hard to see the benefits of OOP, as everyone who starts programming just writes new programs and never has to maintain existing ones. However, the real benefit of OOP only shows when you have to maintain software over the years, while constantly changing parts of the program in ways nobody expected when they were first written. You should see OOP as a way to make sure that local changes to the software stay local and don't affect the rest of the program. In this sense classes are sort of explicit placeholders for future changes. In a procedural program it is often hard to see where you have to change the code to add a completely new feature, without affecting anything else. Surely you can write procedural programs that are also extensible, but you have to think about it and design it properly. OOP provides you with a general idea of how programs can be str




#software-engineering

I think the current mainstream definition of OOP is not a good solution for managing complexity.

If you go back to its roots, I believe Alan Kay was influenced by "lisp" a great deal.

Because Lisp hasn't been corrupted by mainstream adoption, it probably managed to conserve its core values. So I think looking at how lisp tackles this problem of complexity might gives us some insight, and we can use it as a basis to sort of judge how useful is OOP at dealing with complexity.

If you look at the end of the "Lecture 3a: Henderson Escher Example" of SICP, Hal Abelson proposes that complexity is managed not by breaking the task into smaller subtasks, but by creating layers of abstraction. At the highest level, you express the solution to the complicated problem in terms of the the solution to the lower level of abstraction.

I think OOP was originally intended as a mechanism to create these layers of abstractions.

Unfortunately nowadays, OOP is (ab)used to write spaghetti code/structures.

I will make up an example: an FPS multi-player game.

At the highest level, the game works by having a bunch of players running around a map and shooting at each other using weapons.

At the next lower level, we have to talk about maps and weapons and players. Perhaps we can talk about them as physical objects that interact within the world of the game.

At the next lower level, we can talk about how objects interact physically (movement, collisions, etc).

And so on and so forth.

What this means, (and I'm sort of quoting from SICP..), is that at each layer, we not only solve a particular specific problem, but a class of problems that sort of fall in the neighborhood of the problem we're trying to solve. So if there's a small change in the problem's description, it would likely require only a small change in the solution.

So, the wise way to use OOP is to create layers of abstractions, at each level of abstraction, you solve the problem at hand using the "objects" from the level that's directly below.

Here's the bit I was quoting from the lecture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CYtrfncMqHQ

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Is Object Oriented Programming a solution to complexity? - Software Engineering Stack Exchange
nt. – Fishtoaster Nov 3 '10 at 16:49 There is a really good discussion at programmers.stackexchange.com/questions/16189/… – Bill Michell Oct 20 '11 at 21:47 | show 1 more comment 15 [emptylink] <span>I think the current mainstream definition of OOP is not a good solution for managing complexity. If you go back to its roots, I believe Alan Kay was influenced by "lisp" a great deal. Because Lisp hasn't been corrupted by mainstream adoption, it probably managed to conserve its core values. So I think looking at how lisp tackles this problem of complexity might gives us some insight, and we can use it as a basis to sort of judge how useful is OOP at dealing with complexity. If you look at the end of the "Lecture 3a: Henderson Escher Example" of SICP , Hal Abelson proposes that complexity is managed not by breaking the task into smaller subtasks, but by creating layers of abstraction. At the highest level, you express the solution to the complicated problem in terms of the the solution to the lower level of abstraction. I think OOP was originally intended as a mechanism to create these layers of abstractions. Unfortunately nowadays, OOP is (ab)used to write spaghetti code/structures. I will make up an example: an FPS multi-player game. At the highest level, the game works by having a bunch of players running around a map and shooting at each other using weapons. At the next lower level, we have to talk about maps and weapons and players. Perhaps we can talk about them as physical objects that interact within the world of the game. At the next lower level, we can talk about how objects interact physically (movement, collisions, etc). And so on and so forth. What this means, (and I'm sort of quoting from SICP..), is that at each layer, we not only solve a particular specific problem, but a class of problems that sort of fall in the neighborhood of the problem we're trying to solve. So if there's a small change in the problem's description, it would likely require only a small change in the solution. So, the wise way to use OOP is to create layers of abstractions, at each level of abstraction, you solve the problem at hand using the "objects" from the level that's directly below. Here's the bit I was quoting from the lecture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CYtrfncMqHQ share |improve this answer edited Nov 3 '10 at 16:34 answered Nov 2 '10 at 8:58 [emptylink] [imagelink] hasen hasen 1,28911 gold badge1212 silver badges1515 bronze badges 5 Like many to




Flashcard 5043341102348

Tags
#arithmetic-mean #average #probability-random-variables-statistics-and-random-processes #sample-mean
Question
Discuss about the sample mean. Is it a random variable? Why?
Answer

An important measure of central tendency for a set of data is the sample mean, also known as the arithmetic mean, or commonly called the average. The sample mean summarizes the set of data values into one approximate value. The sample mean, however, may not be a data value in the set. The sample mean takes all of the data values into account, as all of the data values are added and then divided by the number of data values in the set. Assuming the data set consists of \(n \geq 1\) datavalues, \(X_1 , X_2 , \ldots , X_n\) , the sample mean is defined as follows:

\(\overline{X}_n = \left( \displaystyle \frac{1}{n} \right) \displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^n X_i \tag{8.1}\)

Note that the sum of the deviations of the individual observations of a sample about the sample mean is always zero. It is important to note that \(\overline{X}_n\) is a function of the data set, therefore when the data set changes, the value of the sample mean likely changes. The sample mean is thus a random variable, has a probability density function, and as such, has an expected value and a variance.


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An important measure of central tendency for a set of data is the sample mean, also known as the arithmetic mean, or commonly called the average. The sample mean summarizes the set of data values into one approximate value. The sample mean, however, may not be a data value in the set. The sample mean takes all of the data values into account, as all of the data values are added and then divided by the number of data values in the set. Assuming the data set consists of \(n \geq 1\) datavalues, \(X_1 , X_2 , \ldots , X_n\) , the sample mean is defined as follows: \(\overline{X}_n = \left( \displaystyle \frac{1}{n} \right) \displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^n X_i \tag{8.1}\) Note that the sum of the deviations of the individual observations of a sample about the sample mean is always zero. It is important to note that \(\overline{X}_n\) is a function of the data set, therefore when the data set changes, the value of the sample mean likely changes. The sample mean is thus a random variable, has a probability density function, and as such, has an expected value and a variance.

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Flashcard 5043345034508

[unknown IMAGE 5009457679628]
Tags
#discard #has-images #python-for-data-science #remove #sets
Question
Discuss about discard and remove methods.
Answer
Starting with that original list, we can remove items by using either the remove or discard method. Looking at discard, you simply want to pass at the element you want discarded in order to remove it. I generally prefer to use discard because if you try to discard an element which isn't in the set, it will just do nothing. If you try to use the remove method and the element isn't in the set, it will throw an error.


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Starting with that original list, we can remove items by using either the remove or discard method. Looking at discard, you simply want to pass at the element you want discarded in order to remove it. I generally prefer to use discard because if you try to discard an element which isn't in the set, it will just do nothing. If you try to use the remove method and the element isn't in the set, it will throw an error.

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Flashcard 5043348180236

[unknown IMAGE 5009403153676]
Tags
#adding #dictionaries #has-images #python-for-data-science #unordered
Question
Discuss about how to create and add to a dictionary in Python.
Answer
To add to the dictionary, we can just use a new key as an index, and then assign it a value. So, it's actually pretty easy to add to the dictionary. If Cars 2006 were already a key in the dictionary, you'd just reassign it. No errors were thrown. Now let's inspect the contents. We find that Cars was indeed added properly but if you're wondering why Cars is in the middle and not at the end, that's what is meant by dictionaries being an unordered collection. There is no inherent ordering of the items in a collection and you can't trust its internal ordering not to change at any time. The lack of ordering is part of the reason dictionaries offer such fast performance but if your problem requires preserving the order in some way, dictionaries may not be ideal for your problem.


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To add to the dictionary, we can just use a new key as an index, and then assign it a value. So, it's actually pretty easy to add to the dictionary. If Cars 2006 were already a key in the dictionary, you'd just reassign it. No errors were thrown. Now let's inspect the contents. We find that Cars was indeed added properly but if you're wondering why Cars is in the middle and not at the end, that's what is meant by dictionaries being an unordered collection. There is no inherent ordering of the items in a collection and you can't trust its internal ordering not to change at any time. The lack of ordering is part of the reason dictionaries offer such fast performance but if your problem requires preserving the order in some way, dictionaries may not be ideal for your problem.

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Flashcard 5043350539532

[unknown IMAGE 5038195477772]
Tags
#add #divide #exponent #has-images #multiply #numpy-ndarray-datatypes-and-operations #operations #python-for-data-science #square-root #subtract
Question
Discuss about some common operations over ndarrays in Python.
Answer
Next, let’s look at some of the common operations on ndarrays. Most of the arithmetic operations you might expect are here. Let’s start by creating a couple of arrays. Notice that the first is integer, and the second is floating point. For most of our arithmetic operations, the result will be upcast to floating point, to avoid losing precision. Also notice that these arrays have the same dimensions. For many of these operations to work, there needs to be an aligning of dimensions. In this case, the dimensions are the same, so we’ll be fine. But later we’ll see that there’s some flexibility about this constraint, when we learn about broadcasting. So let’s get started by adding. We can do this either by using the plus sign, or using the np function, add. They’ll both produce the same result, and the plus sign is better for code readability. With add, this is exactly what you’d expect: element zero zero of X is added to zero zero of Y, to produce the new zero zero value, and so forth. As I mentioned, the results here are floats to avoid losing precision. We can also subtract arrays; multiply arrays; divide arrays; we could perform square roots on the elements of an array; and we can also do E to the X for all the elements, using the exp(ar) function.


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Next, let’s look at some of the common operations on ndarrays. Most of the arithmetic operations you might expect are here. Let’s start by creating a couple of arrays. Notice that the first is integer, and the second is floating point. For most of our arithmetic operations, the result will be upcast to floating point, to avoid losing precision. Also notice that these arrays have the same dimensions. For many of these operations to work, there needs to be an aligning of dimensions. In this case, the dimensions are the same, so we’ll be fine. But later we’ll see that there’s some flexibility about this constraint, when we learn about broadcasting. So let’s get started by adding. We can do this either by using the plus sign, or using the np function, add. They’ll both produce the same result, and the plus sign is better for code readability. With add, this is exactly what you’d expect: element zero zero of X is added to zero zero of Y, to produce the new zero zero value, and so forth. As I mentioned, the results here are floats to avoid losing precision. We can also subtract arrays; multiply arrays; divide arrays; we could perform square roots on the elements of an array; and we can also do E to the X for all the elements, using the exp(ar) function.

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Flashcard 5043352898828

Tags
#multi-modal-data-set #probability-random-variables-statistics-and-random-processes #sample-mode
Question
The [...], which is also a measure of central tendency, is defined as the most frequently occurring data value in the data set. For instance, an election is generally determined by the mode, i.e. the candidate who receives the most votes is elected. The mode need not be unique, as a data set can have more than one mode, in which case it is called a multi-modal data set.
Answer
sample mode


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The sample mode, which is also a measure of central tendency, is defined as the most frequently occurring data value in the data set. For instance, an election is generally determined by the mode, i.e.

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Hypoglycémie
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Le diagnostic d'hypoglycémie repose sur :

• la constatation simultanée : – de signes de neuroglucopénie ; – et d'une glycémie veineuse (et non capillaire) basse ;

• ainsi que sur la correction des symptômes lors de la normalisation de la glycémie.

C'est la triade de Whipple

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Hypoglycémie
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

• les symptômes et la glycémie basse doivent être simultanés.
Ainsi, une glycémie basse isolée ne suffit pas à porter le diagnostic : la glycémie veineuse normale d'une femme après 72 heures de jeûne peut atteindre 0,40 g/l voire exceptionnellement 0,30 g/l. Le niveau seuil de glycémie habituellement retenu pour le diagnostic d'une hypoglycémie en dehors du diabète est de 0,50 g/l [2,75 mmol/l] (définition selon les recommandations de la Société française d'endo- crinologie, concernant l'hypoglycémie chez l'adulte, publiées en 2013).

Chez le diabétique, la valeur retenue est de 0,60 g/l [3,3 mmol/l]. Il faut cependant noter que pour certains patients, en raison de mécanismes adaptatifs, des valeurs basses de glycémie peuvent ne pas s'accom- pagner des signes habituellement rencontrés dans les hypoglycémies organiques

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Hypoglycémie
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

• la disparition rapide (environ 10–15 minutes) des signes cliniques d'hypoglycémie avec le resucrage ne fait pas partie de la triade de Whipple.

Ce type de réponse, en l'absence d'hypoglycémie veineuse documentée et de signes neuroglucopéniques, ne suffit pas évi- demment à porter un diagnostic d'hypoglycémie organique

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Flashcard 5043358403852

[unknown IMAGE 5009347841292]
Tags
#has-images #lists #python-for-data-science #zip #zipping
Question
Give an example of the zip function.
Answer
Often, you'll be working through two lists at the same time. To do that, you can use the function zip. So let's create our two lists again. Suppose I wanna print the first element in each list, then the second element in each, and so on. To do that, we can do this. When we use zip, that creates a pairing of two lists. When you ask for x comma y in zip list list two, you'll get back the following x, y pairs. We don't have to get into the details now, but just remember that if you want to work through multiple lists at the same time, zip can be pretty useful.


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Often, you'll be working through two lists at the same time. To do that, you can use the function zip. So let's create our two lists again. Suppose I wanna print the first element in each list, then the second element in each, and so on. To do that, we can do this. When we use zip, that creates a pairing of two lists. When you ask for x comma y in zip list list two, you'll get back the following x, y pairs. We don't have to get into the details now, but just remember that if you want to work through multiple lists at the same time, zip can be pretty useful.

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Hypoglycémie
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine
Plusieurs systèmes hormonaux participent au maintien de la glycémie entre 0,60 et 0,90 g/l [3,3 à 5,0 mmol/l] à jeun et 1,20 à 1,30 g/l [6,7 à 7,2 mmol/l] après les repas

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Hypoglycémie
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

• les hormones dites de contre-régulation, qui ont un effet hyperglycémiant :

– le glucagon ; – l'hormone de croissance (GH) ; – les catécholamines ; – le cortisol ; – plus accessoirement, la somatostatine

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Hypoglycémie
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Lors de la baisse de la glycémie induite par une injection d'insuline chez des témoins, on observe une graduation selon la profondeur de l'hypoglycémie, avec successivement :

• le glucagon, l'adrénaline et l'hormone de croissance sont sécrétés, puis enfin le cortisol ;

• les symptômes apparaissent lorsque la glycémie baisse en dessous de 0,55 g/l [3 mmol/l] ;

• les troubles cognitifs apparaissent en dessous de 0,35 g/l [2 mmol/l]

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Flashcard 5043363908876

Tags
#dices #discrete-sample-space #outcomes #probability #probability-random-variables-statistics-and-random-processes
Question
Suppose a pair of fair (ideal) dice is rolled. Determine the probability when the sum of the outcomes is three.
Answer

For mere clarity, it is assumed that one of the two dice is red and the other is green. There are six possible outcomes for the red die and six possible outcomes for the green die. The outcome of one die is independent of the outcome of the other die. In other words, for a specific outcome for the red die, there can be six different outcomes for the green die, and for a specific outcome for the green die, there can be 6 different outcomes for the red die. We therefore have 36 (= 6 × 6) possible outcomes in rolling a pair of dice, and as the dice are fair, we have a total of 36 equally likely outcomes. It is thus a discrete sample space. To have a sum of three, the outcomes must then be a 1 and a 2. But to get a sum of 3, there are two different possible scenarios that include the red die is a 1 and the green die is a 2 or the red die is a 2 and the green die is a 1. Hence, the probability that a sum of three comes up is \(\frac{2}{36} = \frac{1}{18}\) .


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Example 1.3 Suppose a pair of fair (ideal) dice is rolled. Determine the probability when the sum of the outcomes is three. Solution For mere clarity, it is assumed that one of the two dice is red and the other is green. There are six possible outcomes for the red die and six possible outcomes for the green die. The outcome of one die is independent of the outcome of the other die. In other words, for a specific outcome for the red die, there can be six different outcomes for the green die, and for a specific outcome for the green die, there can be 6 different outcomes for the red die. We therefore have 36 (= 6 × 6) possible outcomes in rolling a pair of dice, and as the dice are fair, we have a total of 36 equally likely outcomes. It is thus a discrete sample space. To have a sum of three, the outcomes must then be a 1 and a 2. But to get a sum of 3, there are two different possible scenarios that include the red die is a 1 and the green die is a 2 or the red die is a 2 and the green die is a 1. Hence, the probability that a sum of three comes up is \(\frac{2}{36} = \frac{1}{18}\) .

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Hypoglycémie
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Une hypoglycémie peut être la conséquence :

• d'une sécrétion inappropriée d'insuline ;

• ou, plus rarement et en particulier chez l'adulte : – d'un défaut de sécrétion d'une des hormones de contre-régulation, en particulier le cortisol ; – d'un déficit de néoglucogenèse (insuffisance hépatique ou rénale sévère) ; – d'un défaut de substrat (cachexie)

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Insulinomes

L'insulinome est la première cause tumorale d'hypoglycémie (+++)

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Avant d'envisager cette hypothèse et de discuter la réalisation éventuelle d'une épreuve de jeûne, par une approche systématique on évoquera et/ou éliminera des causes évidentes (figure 11.1) :

• causes médicamenteuses (analyse méticuleuse des traitements du patient, surtout en cas de polymédication), comme certaines quinolones, le pentamidine, la quinine, l'indométacine… ;

• insuffisances viscérales, en particulier hépatique ou rénale ;

• impérativement une insuffisance surrénalienne ou corticotrope méconnue (réalisation d'un test au Synacthène ® ) ;

• contexte de tumeur mésenchymateuse (généralement volumineuse) ;

• cause auto-immune (anticorps anti-insuline ou anti-récepteur de l'insuline), notamment s'il existe un terrain connu, les mécanismes supposés des hypoglycémies dans ce cas sont une liaison avec activation, parfois, de certains de ces anticorps avec le récepteur de l'insuline, ou un relargage imprévisible de l'insuline libre à partir des complexes circulants qu'elle forme avec les anticorps anti-insuline ; • après chirurgie bariatrique

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Flashcard 5043754503436

[unknown IMAGE 4730792578316]
Tags
#deep-learning #has-images #loss-function #objective-function
Question
Discuss about the loss function in the scope of neural networks.
Answer
To control something, first you need to be able to observe it. To control the output of a neural network, you need to be able to measure how far this output is from what you expected. This is the job of the loss function of the network, also called the objective function. The loss function takes the predictions of the network and the true target (what you wanted the network to output) and computes a distance score, capturing how well the network has done on this specific example (see figure 1.8)


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To control something, first you need to be able to observe it. To control the output of a neural network, you need to be able to measure how far this output is from what you expected. This is the job of the loss function of the network, also called the objective function. The loss function takes the predictions of the network and the true target (what you wanted the network to output) and computes a distance score, capturing how well the network has done on this specific example (see figure 1.8)

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine
Les épisodes d'hypoglycémie surviennent plus volontiers à jeun ou à l'effort, même s'il ne s'agit pas d'un critère absolu (possibilité de véritables insulinomes avec hypoglycémie déclenchée par la prise alimentaire) ; la répétition des épisodes peut s'accompagner d'une prise de poids chez 30 % des patients

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Clinique

L'insulinome entraîne des épisodes d'hypoglycémie, parfois très épisodiques, chez des adultes souvent jeunes et bien portants. La symptomatologie est souvent dominée par les manifestations adrénergiques. Les signes de neuroglucopénie sont rarement au premier plan et souvent mal rapportés par le patient

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Diagnostic positif

Le diagnostic positif d'insulinome repose uniquement sur la mise en évidence biologique d'une sécrétion inappropriée d'insuline et de peptide C en présence d'une glycémie veineuse basse (tableau 11.1).

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Flashcard 5046263745804

[unknown IMAGE 5038359055628]
Tags
#has-images #numpy-statistical-sorting-and-set-operations #numpy-union1d #python-for-data-science #union
Question
Discuss about the numpy method union1d.
Answer
The method union will give us all of the unique elements across both arrays, which is bulb, chair, desk, and lamp.


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The method union will give us all of the unique elements across both arrays, which is bulb, chair, desk, and lamp.

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Chez les patients qui ont des prises cachées de sulfonylurées ou de glinides, le tableau biologique est le suivant : hypoglycémie avec une insuline et un peptide C dosables, similaire au tableau de l'insulinome.

Il est de règle de doser les sulfonylurées et les glinides lors de l'hypo- glycémie à la moindre suspicion. Dans de rares cas, il faut savoir évoquer une cause auto-immune, une tumeur mésenchyma- teuse, parfois des maladies rares du métabolisme pouvant être diagnostiquées à l'âge adulte

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine
Deux examens dominent cette étape : le scanner en coupes fines du pancréas, avec coupes en phase artérielle précoce (figure 11.3), et l'écho-endoscopie, qui n'a de valeur que si elle est faite par un médecin habitué à ce diagnostic (figure 11.4).

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Traitement

Le traitement de l'insulinome repose sur l'exérèse chirurgicale de la tumeur.

En attendant la chirurgie, des traitements médicamenteux peuvent permettre de normaliser la glycémie. Le médicament le plus prescrit en première intention dans cette indication est le diazoxide. Ce médicament bloque la sécrétion d'insuline via l'ouverture des canaux potas- siques des cellules β-pancréatiques.

Les analogues de la somatostatine de première génération peuvent également être utilisés avec une efficacité chez environ 50 % des patients

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine

Recommandation de la Société française d'endocrinologie (2013)

Chez un patient ayant présenté une triade de Whipple, une glycémie ≤ 0,5 g/l (spontanément ou lors d'une épreuve de jeûne) concomitante d'une insulinémie ≥ 3 mUI/l et d'un peptide C ≥ 0,6 ng/ml avec absence de prise de sulfamide ou de glinide confirme le diagnostic d'hypoglycémie par sécrétion inap- propriée d'insuline

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine
• Le diagnostic positif d'insulinome est uniquement biologique : mise en évidence d'une glycémie vei- neuse basse associée à une sécrétion inadaptée d'insuline et de peptide C (sans prise de sulfamides hypoglycémiants)

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine
• On éliminera une insuffisance surrénalienne ou corticotrope avant toute épreuve de jeûne

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine #has-images

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine #has-images

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine #has-images

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Flashcard 5046290222348

Tags
#cdf #pdf #probability-random-variables-statistics-and-random-processes #relationship
Question

The cdf and pdf of a continuous random variable \(X\) are related as follows:

[...]

Answer
\(F_X (x) = \int_{−\infty}^x f_X (\tau) d\tau \qquad (4.8)\)


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The cdf and pdf of a continuous random variable \(X\) are related as follows: \(F_X (x) = \int_{−\infty}^x f_X (\tau) d\tau \qquad (4.8)\)

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Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine #has-images

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[unknown IMAGE 5046294940940]
Hypoglycémie - Insulinome
#238 #Cours #Endocrinologie #Facultaires #Hypoglycemies #Médecine #has-images

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Flashcard 5046309358860

[unknown IMAGE 5038329695500]
Tags
#has-images #numpy-statistical-sorting-and-set-operations #python-for-data-science #sorting
Question
Discuss about numpy sorting method.
Answer
Next, let’s look at the built-in functions for sorting. To get started, we’ll create an array of 10 random elements. Sometimes, we want to avoid changing array values themselves and just get back a copy of the array, which is sorted. To do that, we want to create a copy of it first, then sort that copy with the method sort. When we run this, we’ll find that the copy, find that the copy is sorted, but the original is untouched. If you had just wanted to sort the original array, you could have just done that calling the sort method and that would sort it in place.


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Next, let’s look at the built-in functions for sorting. To get started, we’ll create an array of 10 random elements. Sometimes, we want to avoid changing array values themselves and just get back a copy of the array, which is sorted. To do that, we want to create a copy of it first, then sort that copy with the method sort. When we run this, we’ll find that the copy, find that the copy is sorted, but the original is untouched. If you had just wanted to sort the original array, you could have just done that calling the sort method and that would sort it in place.

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Flashcard 5046311456012

[unknown IMAGE 5037908430092]
Tags
#grep #has-images #python-for-data-science #using-unix-in-jupyter
Question
Now let's look for an occurrence of the word parchment in the file. As you might remember, the command they'll use for this is grep. Using the grep command will display all the lines that have the word parchment in it, at least once. So here we say [...] so this should give us all the lines when I say shift enter in that line. So basically each of these lines have the word parchment somewhere in there.
Answer
!grep -i 'parchment' $filename


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in the file. As you might remember, the command they'll use for this is grep. Using the grep command will display all the lines that have the word parchment in it, at least once. So here we say <span>!grep -I 'parchment' $filename so this should give us all the lines when I say shift enter in that line. So basically each of these lines have the word parchment somewhere in there. <span>

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Flashcard 5046315388172

[unknown IMAGE 5009388997900]
Tags
#dictionaries #has-images #immutable-key #python-for-data-science
Question
A dictionary holds a combination of key value pairs. Here, the keys are fictitious student IDs and student names. This is something you might maintain for the students in a course. You can use this data structure to ask if a student ID is in the dictionary and you can look up a student by their student ID number. Speaking of lookup, dictionaries are also super fast at doing lookups, which is one of the many reasons people like using this data structure. In this example, we have a string key and a string value. The only restriction on types is that [...]. Let's look at some more examples. Here we have a mapping of courses to the instructors who commonly teach that course at UCSD. Notice that the value here is actually a list. You could even have a value be another dictionary. Any object is fine as a value in a key value pair, and remember, everything in Python is an object.
Answer
the key has to be immutable


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er fast at doing lookups, which is one of the many reasons people like using this data structure. In this example, we have a string key and a string value. The only restriction on types is that <span>the key has to be immutable. Let's look at some more examples. Here we have a mapping of courses to the instructors who commonly teach that course at UCSD. Notice that the value here is actually a list. You could

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Flashcard 5046319582476

Tags
#outlier #probability-random-variables-statistics-and-random-processes #sample-root-mean-square-deviation #sample-standard-deviation
Question
Discuss about the sample standard deviation and how it is generally related to outliers.
Answer
If we take the positive square root of the sample variance \(\sigma_n^2\) ,we then have the sample standard deviation, also known as the sample root mean square deviation. The standard deviation has the same unit as the data values have. Standard deviation describes the degree of variation from the mean. A low standard deviation reflects that data values are all similar and close to the mean, while a high standard deviation reflects that the data are more spread out. The standard deviation is used to provide bounds around the sample mean that describe data positions within multiples of standard deviations (i.e. \(\pm m \sigma_n, m=1, 2, \ldots\)). It is also common that any data value that lies below \(\overline{X}_n − 3\sigma_n\) or above \(\overline{X}_n + 3\sigma_n\) may be considered as an outlier.


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If we take the positive square root of the sample variance \(\sigma_n^2\) ,we then have the sample standard deviation, also known as the sample root mean square deviation. The standard deviation has the same unit as the data values have. Standard deviation describes the degree of variation from the mean. A low standard deviation reflects that data values are all similar and close to the mean, while a high standard deviation reflects that the data are more spread out. The standard deviation is used to provide bounds around the sample mean that describe data positions within multiples of standard deviations (i.e. \(\pm m \sigma_n, m=1, 2, \ldots\)). It is also common that any data value that lies below \(\overline{X}_n − 3\sigma_n\) or above \(\overline{X}_n + 3\sigma_n\) may be considered as an outlier.

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Flashcard 5046323776780

Tags
#pmf #probability-mass-function #probability-random-variables-statistics-and-random-processes #properties
Question

The pmf must satisfy the following important properties:

[...]

Answer

(i) \(p_X (x) \geq 0 \quad \forall x\)

(ii) \(\sum_{x \in S_X} p_X (x) = 1\)

(iii) \(P (X \in B) = \sum_{x \in B \subseteq S_X} p_X (x) \qquad (4.4)\)

Note that \(B\) is an event and the above summations have a finite or an infinite number of terms, depending on whether the range is finite or not. All three properties are consequences of the axioms of probability.


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The pmf must satisfy the following important properties: (i) \(p_X (x) \geq 0 \quad \forall x\) (ii) \(\sum_{x \in S_X} p_X (x) = 1\) (iii) \(P (X \in B) = \sum_{x \in B \subseteq S_X} p_X (x) \qquad (4.4)\) Note that \(B\) is an event and the above summations have a finite or an infinite number of terms, depending on whether the range is finite or not. All three properties are consequences of the axioms of probability.

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Flashcard 5046325611788

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#design-and-analysis-of-mechanisms-a-planar-approach #mechanism-design
Question
For mechanism design, the desired motion is known and the task is to [...].
Answer
determine the type of mechanism along with the required forces and torques to produce the desired motion


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For mechanism design, the desired motion is known and the task is to determine the type of mechanism along with the required forces and torques to produce the desired motion.

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Flashcard 5046332427532

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#UNIX #live-core #ls-a #python-for-data-science
Question
I can also say [...] which will show me the hidden files and folders in this directory.
Answer
ls minus a


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I can also say ls minus a which will show me the hidden files and folders in this directory.

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#numpy-speed-test-ndarray-vs-list #python-for-data-science
To do this test, we’ll be using Time It to measure the execution time of our code. We’ll plan arrays or lists with one million elements, and we’ll plan a repeating inoperation of summing all those elements 1,000 times. We’ll set up the ndarray to have the values from zero to size minus one. Again, this is class ndarray. Now we’ll do the timing. Let’s see how long this takes. This took about one millisecond. Remember that this is running a sum operation on an array with one million elements. Let’s see how that compares with using a list for the same computation. We’ve created a list with the same values. It has a class list, and now we’ll see how long it takes to run. Feels like it’s taking a little bit longer doesn’t it? In fact, this took an order of magnitude longer than it did with the ndarrays. Right? So for numpy, that was about one millisecond, and for the list it was roughly 13 milliseconds. That’s an order of magnitude. An order magnitude is a big deal. This is for a pretty small array. We’d actually see a bigger impact if we working with larger data sets.

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#has-images #python-for-data-science #rgb-images #satellite-image-example
In Python, RGB images are ndarrays of shape height times width times three for each RGB layer. Now that you have a basic background in how color images are stored in Python, we can look at WIFIRE data in more depth. Over the next video, we will go through a notebook in which we start by importing a high resolution image from the NASA satellite LANsat. We will mainly use numpy functions, filtering techniques, and some domain Earth science knowledge to analyze this image.

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