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Apple placed all fresh production orders on hold for its Taiwanese supplier Wistron. This embargo may affect all Wistron units, but the trigger was one of the biggest expressions of industrial unrest in India in recent years — at a new facility set up by the firm in Kolar, Karnataka, to manufacture iPhones, among other things. Violence broke out at the unit on December 12 after several workers raised slogans protesting against non-payment of their dues, a protest that escalated. In Kolar, Wistron claimed ₹437 crore of damages from the incident even as the Centre and the State government reacted with alacrity, given the importance of the project for India to establish its credentials as an alternative manufacturing base to China. The State said it was disturbed and around 160 people were arrested.
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ndia’s investment destination credo Share Article 6 PRINT A A A Inequitable labour-capital relations could hit India’s investment destination credo On Saturday, global personal technology major <span>Apple placed all fresh production orders on hold for its Taiwanese supplier Wistron. This embargo may affect all Wistron units, but the trigger was one of the biggest expressions of industrial unrest in India in recent years — at a new facility set up by the firm in Kolar, Karnataka, to manufacture iPhones, among other things. Violence broke out at the unit on December 12 after several workers raised slogans protesting against non-payment of their dues, a protest that escalated. In Kolar, Wistron claimed ₹437 crore of damages from the incident even as the Centre and the State government reacted with alacrity, given the importance of the project for India to establish its credentials as an alternative manufacturing base to China. The State said it was disturbed and around 160 people were arrested. The Centre asked the B.S. Yediyurappa administration for an expeditious inquiry to identify the culprits and ensure that investor sentiment is not affected due to the ‘one-off incident’




Flashcard 6082337049868

Question
If anything, enforcement of labour laws for employees’ benefit will make India an even more attractive and contrasting alternative to China where labour exploitation is rife. With global firms under pressure to exhibit higher standards in environmental, social and corporate governance, India also needs to up its game on enforcing compliance with the laws of the land and treating labour-employer disputes in an even-handed manner.
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ring labour grievances had reacted adequately when Wistron’s 1,300-odd regular staffers or its 8,000 odd contract workers at Kolar raised a red flag about wages, this may not have come to pass. <span>If anything, enforcement of labour laws for employees’ benefit will make India an even more attractive and contrasting alternative to China where labour exploitation is rife. With global firms under pressure to exhibit higher standards in environmental, social and corporate governance, India also needs to up its game on enforcing compliance with the laws of the land and treating labour-employer disputes in an even-handed manner. When a showcase project becomes an exemplary basket case within months, for whatever reasons, the repercussions are deeper and wider. With the country on the cusp of a new labour law re







The Teesta water dispute remains unresolved. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act and the proposed National Register of Citizens, which Ms. Hasina called “unnecessary”, have created a negative impression about India.
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hip remaining solid, the border has been sensitive — at least 25 Bangladeshis were killed in the first six months of this year along the border by Indian forces, according to a rights watchdog. <span>The Teesta water dispute remains unresolved. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act and the proposed National Register of Citizens, which Ms. Hasina called “unnecessary”, have created a negative impression about India. Above all, China is making deep inroads into Bangladesh by ramping up infrastructure investments and expanding economic cooperation. So, it is imperative for India to bolster ties with




China is making deep inroads into Bangladesh by ramping up infrastructure investments and expanding economic cooperation.
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ins unresolved. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act and the proposed National Register of Citizens, which Ms. Hasina called “unnecessary”, have created a negative impression about India. Above all, <span>China is making deep inroads into Bangladesh by ramping up infrastructure investments and expanding economic cooperation. So, it is imperative for India to bolster ties with this all-weather friend, and there may not be a better time to do so than when Bangladesh is to celebrate the golden jubilee of its i




Bangladesh, India’s largest trading partner in South Asia, has expanded its economy and improved social welfare.
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do so than when Bangladesh is to celebrate the golden jubilee of its independence. Ms. Hasina has done relatively well in steering Bangladesh through crises. Under the Awami League government, <span>Bangladesh, India’s largest trading partner in South Asia, has expanded its economy and improved social welfare. Despite the Awami League’s tight grip over the administration, Ms. Hasina has continued to face challenges from Islamist factions. War crimes and corruption trials have weakened the tra




he Bangladesh Nationalist Party and its ally, the pro-Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami. But another Islamist group, Hifazat-e-Islam, made headlines recently when it organised mass protests against French President Emmanuel Macron and opposed the Hasina government’s plan to build a statue of the country’s founding father, Bangabandhu Mujibur Rahman, in Dhaka’s suburbs.
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ami League’s tight grip over the administration, Ms. Hasina has continued to face challenges from Islamist factions. War crimes and corruption trials have weakened the traditional opposition — t<span>he Bangladesh Nationalist Party and its ally, the pro-Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami. But another Islamist group, Hifazat-e-Islam, made headlines recently when it organised mass protests against French President Emmanuel Macron and opposed the Hasina government’s plan to build a statue of the country’s founding father, Bangabandhu Mujibur Rahman, in Dhaka’s suburbs. The Hifazat has claimed that installing statues is prohibited in Islam and that they would be pulled down, but the government seems determined to go ahead with its plan. In a speech mar




Sharing the waters of the Teesta river, which originates in the Himalayas and flows through Sikkim and West Bengal to merge with the Brahmaputra in Assam and (Jamuna in Bangladesh), is perhaps the most contentious issue between two friendly neighbours, India and Bangladesh.
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s of the Teesta River following strong reservations expressed by India's West Bengal state Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, reports said. AFP PHOTO/Diptendu DUTTA | Photo Credit: AFP What is it? <span>Sharing the waters of the Teesta river, which originates in the Himalayas and flows through Sikkim and West Bengal to merge with the Brahmaputra in Assam and (Jamuna in Bangladesh), is perhaps the most contentious issue between two friendly neighbours, India and Bangladesh. The river covers nearly the entire floodplains of Sikkim, while draining 2,800 sq km of Bangladesh, governing the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. For West Bengal, Teesta is eq




or West Bengal, Teesta is equally important, considered the lifeline of half-a-dozen districts in North Bengal. Bangladesh has sought an “equitable” distribution of Teesta waters from India, on the lines of the Ganga Water Treaty of 1996, but to no avail. The failure to ink a deal had its fallout on the country’s politics, putting the ruling Awami League in a spot.
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ly neighbours, India and Bangladesh. The river covers nearly the entire floodplains of Sikkim, while draining 2,800 sq km of Bangladesh, governing the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. F<span>or West Bengal, Teesta is equally important, considered the lifeline of half-a-dozen districts in North Bengal. Bangladesh has sought an “equitable” distribution of Teesta waters from India, on the lines of the Ganga Water Treaty of 1996, but to no avail. The failure to ink a deal had its fallout on the country’s politics, putting the ruling Awami League in a spot. How did it come about? Following a half-hearted deal in 1983, when nearly equal division of water was proposed, the countries hit a roadblock. The transient agreement could not be imple




Strategic Foresight Group, a Mumbai-based think-tank. “Estimates suggested that the Teesta river has a mean annual flow of approximately 60 billion cubic metre (BCM).
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eholders — West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee — is yet to endorse the deal. Her objection is connected to “global warming.” Many of the glaciers on the Teesta basin have retreated, says <span>Strategic Foresight Group, a Mumbai-based think-tank. “Estimates suggested that the Teesta river has a mean annual flow of approximately 60 billion cubic metre (BCM). A significant amount of this water flows during the wet season, between June and September. The importance of the flow and the seasonal variation of this river is felt during the lean s




the Emissions Gap Report 2020 of the UNEP includes India among nine G20 members who are on track to achieve their unconditional commitments under the Paris pact, based on pre-COVID-19 projections.
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ated present reduction of emissions intensity by 21% over 2005 levels (the goal is between 33% and 35% of GDP by 2030), and the twin pillars of renewable energy and higher forest cover. Indeed, <span>the Emissions Gap Report 2020 of the UNEP includes India among nine G20 members who are on track to achieve their unconditional commitments under the Paris pact, based on pre-COVID-19 projections. Significantly, the G20 bloc as a whole, responsible for 78% of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), was not expected to meet its pledges, but some countries and the EU as a group announced h




the G20 bloc as a whole, responsible for 78% of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), was not expected to meet its pledges, but some countries and the EU as a group announced higher ambition at the summit.
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Report 2020 of the UNEP includes India among nine G20 members who are on track to achieve their unconditional commitments under the Paris pact, based on pre-COVID-19 projections. Significantly, <span>the G20 bloc as a whole, responsible for 78% of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), was not expected to meet its pledges, but some countries and the EU as a group announced higher ambition at the summit. The brief reduction in global GHG emissions brought about by the pandemic has given all countries an opportunity to review their development trajectories. The unprecedented event has en




India faces a particular challenge, in moving its pandemic rehabilitation spending away from traditional brown sector policies aligned with fossil fuel use to green territory.
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es. The unprecedented event has enabled them to deploy an extraordinary fiscal stimulus for rehabilitation of economies — estimated at $12 trillion globally — making green growth a possibility. <span>India faces a particular challenge, in moving its pandemic rehabilitation spending away from traditional brown sector policies aligned with fossil fuel use to green territory. At the recent summit, Mr. Modi took credit for expansion of forests, which, according to the national pledge under the Paris Agreement, will serve as a carbon sink of 2.5 bn to 3 bn ton




Mr. Modi took credit for expansion of forests, which, according to the national pledge under the Paris Agreement, will serve as a carbon sink of 2.5 bn to 3 bn tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030.
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a faces a particular challenge, in moving its pandemic rehabilitation spending away from traditional brown sector policies aligned with fossil fuel use to green territory. At the recent summit, <span>Mr. Modi took credit for expansion of forests, which, according to the national pledge under the Paris Agreement, will serve as a carbon sink of 2.5 bn to 3 bn tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030. This is a key goal, given that it has multiple benefits, protecting biodiversity, influencing the climate system and providing resources for communities. But it is fraught with uncertai




Mr. Modi took credit for expansion of forests, which, according to the national pledge under the Paris Agreement, will serve as a carbon sink of 2.5 bn to 3 bn tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030
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a faces a particular challenge, in moving its pandemic rehabilitation spending away from traditional brown sector policies aligned with fossil fuel use to green territory. At the recent summit, <span>Mr. Modi took credit for expansion of forests, which, according to the national pledge under the Paris Agreement, will serve as a carbon sink of 2.5 bn to 3 bn tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030. This is a key goal, given that it has multiple benefits, protecting biodiversity, influencing the climate system and providing resources for communities. But it is fraught with uncerta




The Centre has questioned the veracity of State afforestation data and said only a fourth of the claims they made were deemed credible.
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30. This is a key goal, given that it has multiple benefits, protecting biodiversity, influencing the climate system and providing resources for communities. But it is fraught with uncertainty. <span>The Centre has questioned the veracity of State afforestation data and said only a fourth of the claims they made were deemed credible. Clearly, without a cohesive policy on verifiable afforestation, the carbon sink approach may yield poor dividends, with questions hanging over the spending. Achieving 100 gigawatts of s




India was the only major G20 country that was on track towards keeping to its nationally determined commitments to halt runaway global warming.
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rlier announced that India was planning to increase its renewable energy capacity to 450 GW by 2030. Ahead of Mr. Modi’s address, Environment Minister, Prakash Javadekar had said on Friday that <span>India was the only major G20 country that was on track towards keeping to its nationally determined commitments to halt runaway global warming. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




India, however, didn't announce new goals on Saturday. Mr. Modi, as well as President Ramnath Kovind have earlier announced that India was planning to increase its renewable energy capacity to 450 GW by 2030.
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y and forest cover targets. However, Paris Agreement rules say that countries were expected to announce more ambitious targets by before the next UN conference in Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2021. <span>India, however, didn't announce new goals on Saturday. Mr. Modi, as well as President Ramnath Kovind have earlier announced that India was planning to increase its renewable energy capacity to 450 GW by 2030. Ahead of Mr. Modi’s address, Environment Minister, Prakash Javadekar had said on Friday that India was the only major G20 country that was on track towards keeping to its nationally det




India has announced its Nationally Determined Contribution of reducing emissions intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030 along with its renewable energy and forest cover targets. However, Paris Agreement rules say that countries were expected to announce more ambitious targets by before the next UN conference in Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2021.
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sight of the past. “We must not only revise our ambitions, but also review our achievements against targets already set. Only then can our voices be credible for future generations,” he added. <span>India has announced its Nationally Determined Contribution of reducing emissions intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030 along with its renewable energy and forest cover targets. However, Paris Agreement rules say that countries were expected to announce more ambitious targets by before the next UN conference in Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2021. India, however, didn't announce new goals on Saturday. Mr. Modi, as well as President Ramnath Kovind have earlier announced that India was planning to increase its renewable energy capa




India had pioneered the International Solar Alliance, the Prime Minister said as well as the Coalition for Disaster Relief.
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h largest in the world and would reach 175GW before 2022. “We have an even more ambitious target, 450GW of energy capacity by 2030. We have also succeeded in increasing forest cover,” he added. <span>India had pioneered the International Solar Alliance, the Prime Minister said as well as the Coalition for Disaster Relief. “In 2047 India will celebrate 100 years as independent modern nation. Centennial India will not only meet its own targets but also exceed expectations,” Mr. Modi said. He was among seve




The online event was organised to mark five years since the signing of the Paris Agreement, in which 190 countries committed to taking action to limit global temperature from rising beyond 2­°C.
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climate commitments but would go further, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said at the Climate Action Summit (CAS) on Saturday. However, he refrained from announcing enhanced ambitions or targets. <span>The online event was organised to mark five years since the signing of the Paris Agreement, in which 190 countries committed to taking action to limit global temperature from rising beyond 2­°C. In his five-minute address, Mr. Modi said India had reduced its emissions intensity by 21% since 2005. Installed solar capacity has grown to 36 gigawatt in 2020. The country’s renewable




wholesale price-based inflation declined 1.81% in June due to decline in prices of fuel and power,
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due to decline in prices of fuel and power, even as food articles remained expensive. | Photo Credit: Reuters Inflation in food articles during June stood at 2.04%, as against 1.13% in May. The <span>wholesale price-based inflation declined 1.81% in June due to decline in prices of fuel and power, even as food articles remained expensive. The rate of deflation in May was 3.21%. “The annual rate of inflation, based on monthly WPI (Wholesale Price Index), stood at -1.81% (provision




two consecutive months of positive IIP growth is a good sign, one must wait for few more months to believe that the economy is firmly in recovery mode.
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the shift in the festive calendar, as well as some slack after the satiation of pent-up demand,” she explained. India Ratings principal economist Sunil Kumar Sinha agreed, stressing that while <span>two consecutive months of positive IIP growth is a good sign, one must wait for few more months to believe that the economy is firmly in recovery mode. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




What Is a Carbon Credit?

A carbon credit is a permit that allows the company that holds it to emit a certain amount of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. One credit permits the emission of a mass equal to one ton of carbon dioxide.

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Carbon Credit Definition
-19 Financial Relief Guide 2020 Presidential Election Guide Guide to Antitrust Laws Economy Government & Policy Carbon Credit By Will Kenton Reviewed By Michael J Boyle Updated Nov 21, 2020 <span>What Is a Carbon Credit? A carbon credit is a permit that allows the company that holds it to emit a certain amount of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. One credit permits the emission of a mass equal to one ton of carbon dioxide. The carbon credit is one half of a so-called "cap-and-trade" program. Companies that pollute are awarded credits that allow them to continue to pollute up to a certain limit. That limit




Companies that pollute are awarded credits that allow them to continue to pollute up to a certain limit.
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Carbon Credit Definition
of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. One credit permits the emission of a mass equal to one ton of carbon dioxide. The carbon credit is one half of a so-called "cap-and-trade" program. <span>Companies that pollute are awarded credits that allow them to continue to pollute up to a certain limit. That limit is reduced periodically. Meanwhile, the company may sell any unneeded credits to another company that needs them. Private companies are thus doubly incentivized to reduce gre




Companies get a set number of credits, which decline over time. They can sell any excess to another company.
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Carbon Credit Definition
of carbon credits is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Key Takeaways Carbon credits were devised as a market-oriented mechanism to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. <span>Companies get a set number of credits, which decline over time. They can sell any excess to another company. Thus, "cap-and-trade" is an incentive to reduce emissions. As noted, a carbon credit is equal to one ton of carbon dioxide. According to the Environmental Defense Fund, that is the equi




As noted, a carbon credit is equal to one ton of carbon dioxide.
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Carbon Credit Definition
greenhouse gas emissions. Companies get a set number of credits, which decline over time. They can sell any excess to another company. Thus, "cap-and-trade" is an incentive to reduce emissions. <span>As noted, a carbon credit is equal to one ton of carbon dioxide. According to the Environmental Defense Fund, that is the equivalent of a 2,400-mile drive in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. Companies or nations are allotted a certain number of cre




The United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) developed a carbon credit proposal to reduce worldwide carbon emissions in a 1997 agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol. The agreement set binding emission reduction targets for the countries that signed it. Another agreement, known as the Marrakesh Accords, spelled out the rules for how the system would work.
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Carbon Credit Definition
nmental Defense Fund for substantially reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants, the cause of the notorious "acid rain" of the 1980s. The United Nations' Kyoto Protocol <span>The United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) developed a carbon credit proposal to reduce worldwide carbon emissions in a 1997 agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol. The agreement set binding emission reduction targets for the countries that signed it. Another agreement, known as the Marrakesh Accords, spelled out the rules for how the system would work. California has its own carbon credit program, which is reputed to be the world's fourth-largest. The Kyoto Protocol divided countries into industrialized and developing economies. Indus




The Kyoto Protocol divided countries into industrialized and developing economies. Industrialized countries, collectively called Annex 1, operated in their own emissions trading market. If a country emitted less than its target amount of hydrocarbons, it could sell its surplus credits to countries that did not achieve its Kyoto level goals, through an Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA).
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agreement, known as the Marrakesh Accords, spelled out the rules for how the system would work. California has its own carbon credit program, which is reputed to be the world's fourth-largest. <span>The Kyoto Protocol divided countries into industrialized and developing economies. Industrialized countries, collectively called Annex 1, operated in their own emissions trading market. If a country emitted less than its target amount of hydrocarbons, it could sell its surplus credits to countries that did not achieve its Kyoto level goals, through an Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA). The separate Clean Development Mechanism for developing countries issued carbon credits called a Certified Emission Reduction (CER). A developing nation could receive these credits for




The Paris Climate Agreement

The Kyoto protocol was revised in 2012 in an agreement known as the Doha Amendment, which has yet to be ratified. As of January 2020, the agreement was still about eight votes short of the 144 votes from member nations that it would need to be approved.

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Carbon Credit Definition
orting sustainable development initiatives. The trading of CERs took place in a separate market. The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ended in 2012. (The U.S. dropped out in 2001.) <span>The Paris Climate Agreement The Kyoto protocol was revised in 2012 in an agreement known as the Doha Amendment, which has yet to be ratified. As of January 2020, the agreement was still about eight votes short of the 144 votes from member nations that it would need to be approved. In the meantime, more than 170 nations signed on to the Paris Agreement of 2015, which also sets emission standards and allows for emissions trading. (The U.S. dropped out in 2017.) Spo




What Is the Kyoto Protocol?

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that aimed to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the presence of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. The essential tenet of the Kyoto Protocol was that industrialized nations needed to lessen the amount of their CO2 emissions.

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The Kyoto Protocol Definition
SZGS" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden"></iframe> Oil Guide to Investing in Oil Markets Commodities Oil The Kyoto Protocol By Carla Tardi Updated Sep 26, 2019 <span>What Is the Kyoto Protocol? The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that aimed to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the presence of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. The essential tenet of the Kyoto Protocol was that industrialized nations needed to lessen the amount of their CO2 emissions. The protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan in 1997, when greenhouse gases were rapidly threatening our climate, life on the earth, and the planet, itself. Today, the Kyoto Protocol lives




The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that called for industrialized nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions significantly.
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The Kyoto Protocol Definition
gases were rapidly threatening our climate, life on the earth, and the planet, itself. Today, the Kyoto Protocol lives on in other forms and its issues are still being discussed. Key Takeaways <span>The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that called for industrialized nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions significantly. Other accords, like the Doha Amendment and the Paris Climate Agreement, have also tried to curb the global-warming crisis. Today, talks begun by the Kyoto Protocol continue and are extr




This meant each nation had a different target to meet by that year. Members of the European Union (EU) pledged to cut emissions by 8% while the U.S. and Canada promised to reduce their emissions by 7% and 6% respectively by 2012
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The Kyoto Protocol Definition
arbon emissions by an average of 5.2% by the year 2012. This number would represent about 29% of the world's total greenhouse gas emissions. Targets, though, depended on the individual country. <span>This meant each nation had a different target to meet by that year. Members of the European Union (EU) pledged to cut emissions by 8% while the U.S. and Canada promised to reduce their emissions by 7% and 6% respectively by 2012.1 Responsibilities of Developed Versus Developing Nations The Kyoto Protocol recognized that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions




The Kyoto Protocol Today?

In 2016, when the Paris Climate Agreement went into force, the United States was one of the principal drivers of the agreement, and President Obama hailed it as “a tribute to American leadership.”

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The Kyoto Protocol Definition
way for developed nations to assist developing nations in their efforts to adapt climate control and it creates a framework for monitoring and reporting countries’ climate goals transparently.3 <span>The Kyoto Protocol Today? In 2016, when the Paris Climate Agreement went into force, the United States was one of the principal drivers of the agreement, and President Obama hailed it as “a tribute to American leadership.”4 The White House of President Barack Obama. "Statement by the President on the Paris Climate Agreement." Accessed Sept. 23, 2020. As a candidate for president at that time, Donald Trump




The Paris Climate Agreement

The Paris Climate Agreement is a landmark environmental pact that was adopted by nearly every nation in 2015 to address climate change and its negative effects.

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The Kyoto Protocol Definition
life. In 2015, at the sustainable development summit held in Paris, all UNFCCC participants signed yet another pact, the Paris Climate Agreement, which effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol. <span>The Paris Climate Agreement The Paris Climate Agreement is a landmark environmental pact that was adopted by nearly every nation in 2015 to address climate change and its negative effects. The agreement includes commitments from all major GHG-emitting countries to cut their climate-altering pollution and to strengthen those commitments over time. A major directive of the




The Kyoto Protocol recognized that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity. As such, the protocol placed a heavier burden on developed nations than less-developed nations.

The Kyoto Protocol mandated that 37 industrialized nations plus the EU cut their GHG emissions. Developing nations were asked to comply voluntarily, and more than 100 developing countries, including China and India, were exempted from the Kyoto agreement altogether.

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The Kyoto Protocol Definition
nion (EU) pledged to cut emissions by 8% while the U.S. and Canada promised to reduce their emissions by 7% and 6% respectively by 2012.1 Responsibilities of Developed Versus Developing Nations <span>The Kyoto Protocol recognized that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity. As such, the protocol placed a heavier burden on developed nations than less-developed nations. The Kyoto Protocol mandated that 37 industrialized nations plus the EU cut their GHG emissions. Developing nations were asked to comply voluntarily, and more than 100 developing countries, including China and India, were exempted from the Kyoto agreement altogether. A Particular Function for Developing Countries The protocol separated countries into two groups: Annex I contained developed nations, and Non-Annex I referred to developing countries. T




Crony capitalism refers to a capitalist society that is based on the close relationships between business people and the state. Instead of success being determined by a free market and the rule of law, the success of a business is dependent on the favoritism that is shown to it by the government in the form of tax breaks, government grants, and other incentives.
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Capitalism Definition
that is concerned with the social welfare of the worker, and includes such policies as state pensions, universal healthcare, collective bargaining, and industrial safety codes. Crony Capitalism <span>Crony capitalism refers to a capitalist society that is based on the close relationships between business people and the state. Instead of success being determined by a free market and the rule of law, the success of a business is dependent on the favoritism that is shown to it by the government in the form of tax breaks, government grants, and other incentives. In practice, this is the dominant form of capitalism worldwide due to the powerful incentives both faced by governments to extract resources by taxing, regulating, and fostering rent-se




Crony capitalism is widely blamed for a range of social and economic woes. Both socialists and capitalists blame each other for the rise of crony capitalism. Socialists believe that crony capitalism is the inevitable result of pure capitalism.
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Capitalism Definition
petition, and erecting barriers to entry. In effect, these forces represent a kind of supply and demand for government intervention in the economy, which arises from the economic system itself. <span>Crony capitalism is widely blamed for a range of social and economic woes. Both socialists and capitalists blame each other for the rise of crony capitalism. Socialists believe that crony capitalism is the inevitable result of pure capitalism. On the other hand, capitalists believe that crony capitalism arises from the need of socialist governments to control the economy. Sponsored Compete Risk Free with $100,000 in Virtual C




Capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals or businesses own capital goods. The production of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market—known as a market economy—rather than through central planning—known as a planned economy or command economy.
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Capitalism Definition
ism Growth of Industrial Capitalism Industrial Capitalism's Effects Capitalism and Economic Growth Capitalism vs. Socialism Mixed System vs. Pure Capitalism Crony Capitalism What Is Capitalism? <span>Capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals or businesses own capital goods. The production of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market—known as a market economy—rather than through central planning—known as a planned economy or command economy. The purest form of capitalism is free market or laissez-faire capitalism. Here, private individuals are unrestrained. They may determine where to invest, what to produce or sell, and at




The purest form of capitalism is free market or laissez-faire capitalism. Here, private individuals are unrestrained. They may determine where to invest, what to produce or sell, and at which prices to exchange goods and services.
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Capitalism Definition
roduction of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market—known as a market economy—rather than through central planning—known as a planned economy or command economy. <span>The purest form of capitalism is free market or laissez-faire capitalism. Here, private individuals are unrestrained. They may determine where to invest, what to produce or sell, and at which prices to exchange goods and services. The laissez-faire marketplace operates without checks or controls. Today, most countries practice a mixed capitalist system that includes some degree of government regulation of busines




  • Pure capitalism can be contrasted with pure socialism (where all means of production are collective or state-owned) and mixed economies (which lie on a continuum between pure capitalism and pure socialism).
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    Capitalism Definition
    veloped historically out of previous systems of feudalism and mercantilism in Europe, and dramatically expanded industrialization and the large-scale availability of mass-market consumer goods. <span>Pure capitalism can be contrasted with pure socialism (where all means of production are collective or state-owned) and mixed economies (which lie on a continuum between pure capitalism and pure socialism). The real-world practice of capitalism typically involves some degree of so-called “crony capitalism” due to demands from business for favorable government intervention and governments’




    The real-world practice of capitalism typically involves some degree of so-called “crony capitalism” due to demands from business for favorable government intervention and governments’ incentive to intervene in the economy.
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    sm can be contrasted with pure socialism (where all means of production are collective or state-owned) and mixed economies (which lie on a continuum between pure capitalism and pure socialism). <span>The real-world practice of capitalism typically involves some degree of so-called “crony capitalism” due to demands from business for favorable government intervention and governments’ incentive to intervene in the economy. Capitalism and Private Property Private property rights are fundamental to capitalism. Most modern concepts of private property stem from John Locke's theory of homesteading, in which h




    It is possible to have a capitalist economy without complete free enterprise, and possible to have a free market without capitalism.
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    ss valuable outputs. Free Enterprise or Capitalism? Capitalism and free enterprise are often seen as synonymous. In truth, they are closely related yet distinct terms with overlapping features. <span>It is possible to have a capitalist economy without complete free enterprise, and possible to have a free market without capitalism. Any economy is capitalist as long as private individuals control the factors of production. However, a capitalist system can still be regulated by government laws, and the profits of ca




    "Free enterprise" can roughly be understood to mean economic exchanges free of coercive government influence. Although unlikely, it is possible to conceive of a system where individuals choose to hold all property rights in common. Private property rights still exist in a free enterprise system, although the private property may be voluntarily treated as communal without a government mandate.
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    Capitalism Definition
    rivate individuals control the factors of production. However, a capitalist system can still be regulated by government laws, and the profits of capitalist endeavors can still be taxed heavily. <span>"Free enterprise" can roughly be understood to mean economic exchanges free of coercive government influence. Although unlikely, it is possible to conceive of a system where individuals choose to hold all property rights in common. Private property rights still exist in a free enterprise system, although the private property may be voluntarily treated as communal without a government mandate. Many Native American tribes existed with elements of these arrangements, and within a broader capitalist economic family, clubs, co-ops, and joint-stock business firms like partnerships




    When the government owns some but not all of the means of production, but government interests may legally circumvent, replace, limit, or otherwise regulate private economic interests, that is said to be a mixed economy or mixed economic system.
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    Capitalism Definition
    ist systems for workers who are injured or permanently disabled. Those who can no longer work have fewer options available to help them in capitalist societies. Mixed System vs. Pure Capitalism <span>When the government owns some but not all of the means of production, but government interests may legally circumvent, replace, limit, or otherwise regulate private economic interests, that is said to be a mixed economy or mixed economic system. A mixed economy respects property rights, but places limits on them. Property owners are restricted with regards to how they exchange with one another. These restrictions come in many f




    In contrast, pure capitalism, also known as laissez-faire capitalism or anarcho-capitalism, (such as professed by Murray N. Rothbard) all industries are left up to private ownership and operation, including public goods, and no central government authority provides regulation or supervision of economic activity in general.
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    partly own and operate certain industries, especially those considered public goods, often enforcing legally binding monopolies in those industries to prohibit competition by private entities. <span>In contrast, pure capitalism, also known as laissez-faire capitalism or anarcho-capitalism, (such as professed by Murray N. Rothbard) all industries are left up to private ownership and operation, including public goods, and no central government authority provides regulation or supervision of economic activity in general. The standard spectrum of economic systems places laissez-faire capitalism at one extreme and a complete planned economy—such as communism—at the other. Everything in the middle could be