# on 19-Jan-2021 (Tue)

#### Annotation 6206154738956

 Buddhism ( / ˈ b ʊ d ɪ z əm / , US: / ˈ b uː d -/ )[1][2] is the world's fourth-largest religion[

Buddhism - Wikipedia
ayāna Tibetan Navayana Newar Buddhism by country[show] Bhutan Cambodia China India Japan Korea Laos Mongolia Myanmar Russia Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Outline Religion portal v t e <span>Buddhism (/ˈbʊdɪzəm/, US: /ˈbuːd-/)[1][2] is the world's fourth-largest religion[3][4] with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[5][6] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largel

#### Annotation 6206156836108

 born Siddhārtha Gautama in the 5th or 4th century BCE

Buddhism - Wikipedia
% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[5][6] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha (<span>born Siddhārtha Gautama in the 5th or 4th century BCE) and resulting interpreted philosophies. It originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major

#### Annotation 6206158408972

 Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle").

Buddhism - Wikipedia
tween the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and <span>Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). As expressed in the Buddha's Four Noble Truths, the goal of Buddhism is to overcome suffering (duḥkha) caused by desire, attachment to a static self, and ignorance of the true nature of

#### Annotation 6206159981836

 Buddha's Four Noble Truths, the goal of Buddhism is to overcome suffering (duḥkha) caused by desire, attachment to a static self, and ignorance of the true nature of reality (avidya).

Buddhism - Wikipedia
Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). As expressed in the <span>Buddha's Four Noble Truths, the goal of Buddhism is to overcome suffering (duḥkha) caused by desire, attachment to a static self, and ignorance of the true nature of reality (avidya).[7] Most Buddhist traditions emphasize transcending the individual self through the attainment of Nirvana or by following the path of Buddhahood, ending the cycle of death and rebirth.[8

#### Annotation 6206161554700

 Widely observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, Buddhist monasticism, Buddhist meditation, and the cultivation of the Paramitas (perfections, or virtues).

Buddhism - Wikipedia
chools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, and their specific teachings and practices.[11][12] <span>Widely observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, Buddhist monasticism, Buddhist meditation, and the cultivation of the Paramitas (perfections, or virtues). Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Ni

#### Annotation 6206163127564

 The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddharta Gautama was born in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavastu,[note 2] a town in the Ganges Plain, near the modern Nepal–India border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar[note 3] and Uttar Pradesh.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent. His social background and life details are difficult to prove, and the precise dates are uncertain.[19][note 1] <span>The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddharta Gautama was born in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavastu,[note 2] a town in the Ganges Plain, near the modern Nepal–India border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar[note 3] and Uttar Pradesh.[27][19] Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini.[28] However, scholars such as Richard Gombric

#### Annotation 6206164700428

 father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
town in the Ganges Plain, near the modern Nepal–India border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar[note 3] and Uttar Pradesh.[27][19] Some hagiographic legends state that his <span>father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini.[28] However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakya community, which was governed by a smal

#### Annotation 6206166273292

 According to early texts such as the Pali Ariyapariyesanā-sutta ("The discourse on the noble quest," MN 26) and its Chinese parallel at MĀ 204, Gautama was moved by the suffering (dukkha) of life and death, and its endless repetition due to rebirth.[

Buddhism - Wikipedia
4] Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, and claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a later time into the Buddhist texts.[32][33] <span>According to early texts such as the Pali Ariyapariyesanā-sutta ("The discourse on the noble quest," MN 26) and its Chinese parallel at MĀ 204, Gautama was moved by the suffering (dukkha) of life and death, and its endless repetition due to rebirth.[34] He thus set out on a quest to find liberation from suffering (also known as "nirvana").[35] Early texts and biographies state that Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditat

#### Annotation 6206167846156

 namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
h.[34] He thus set out on a quest to find liberation from suffering (also known as "nirvana").[35] Early texts and biographies state that Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditation, <span>namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter.[36][37][note 5] Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of severe asceticism, which included a strict fasting regime and various forms o

#### Annotation 6206169419020

 Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditation, namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter

Buddhism - Wikipedia
life and death, and its endless repetition due to rebirth.[34] He thus set out on a quest to find liberation from suffering (also known as "nirvana").[35] Early texts and biographies state that <span>Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditation, namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter.[36][37][note 5] Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of severe asceticism, which included a strict fasting regime and various forms

#### Annotation 6206170991884

 He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya and attained "Awakening" (Bodhi).[ citation needed ]

Buddhism - Wikipedia
e asceticism, which included a strict fasting regime and various forms of breath control.[40] This too fell short of attaining his goal, and then he turned to the meditative practice of dhyana. <span>He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya and attained "Awakening" (Bodhi).[citation needed] According to various early texts like the Mahāsaccaka-sutta, and the Samaññaphala Sutta, on awakening, the Buddha gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, as well

#### Annotation 6206172564748

 on awakening, the Buddha gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, as well as achieving the ending of the mental defilements (asavas), the ending of suffering, and the end of rebirth in saṃsāra.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
ee now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya and attained "Awakening" (Bodhi).[citation needed] According to various early texts like the Mahāsaccaka-sutta, and the Samaññaphala Sutta, <span>on awakening, the Buddha gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, as well as achieving the ending of the mental defilements (asavas), the ending of suffering, and the end of rebirth in saṃsāra.[40] This event also brought certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering.[41][42] As a fully enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and fo

#### Annotation 6206174137612

 He spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, and then died, achieving "final nirvana," at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India.[4

Buddhism - Wikipedia
certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering.[41][42] As a fully enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha (monastic order).[43] <span>He spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, and then died, achieving "final nirvana," at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India.[44][22] Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became various Buddhist schools of thought, each with its own basket of

#### Annotation 6206177021196

 dukkha (suffering, incapable of satisfying, painful) is an innate characteristic of existence in the realm of samsara;[web 2][3][4] samudaya (origin, arising) of this dukkha, which arises or "comes together" with taṇhā ("craving, desire or attachment");[web 3][5][6] nirodha (cessation, ending) of this dukkha can be attained by the renouncement or letting go of this taṇhā;[7][8][9][10] magga (path, Noble Eightfold Path) is the path leading to renouncement of tanha and cessation of dukkha.[11][12][13]

Four Noble Truths - Wikipedia
ariyasaccāni Sanskrit: catvāri āryasatyāni; , "The four Arya satyas") are "the truths of the Noble Ones", the truths or realities for the "spiritually worthy ones".[1][web 1][2] The truths are: <span>dukkha (suffering, incapable of satisfying, painful) is an innate characteristic of existence in the realm of samsara;[web 2][3][4] samudaya (origin, arising) of this dukkha, which arises or "comes together" with taṇhā ("craving, desire or attachment");[web 3][5][6] nirodha (cessation, ending) of this dukkha can be attained by the renouncement or letting go of this taṇhā;[7][8][9][10] magga (path, Noble Eightfold Path) is the path leading to renouncement of tanha and cessation of dukkha.[11][12][13] They are traditionally identified as the first teaching given by the Buddha,[note 1] and considered one of the most important teachings in Buddhism.[14] The four truths appear in many g

#### Annotation 6206181215500

 Many later Buddhist texts describe nirvana as identical with anatta with complete "emptiness, nothingness".[144][145][146][note 19] In some texts, the state is described with greater detail, such as passing through the gate of emptiness (sunyata) – realising that there is no soul or self in any living being, then passing through the gate of signlessness (animitta) – realising that nirvana cannot be perceived, and finally passing through the gate of wishlessness (apranihita) – realising that nirvana is the state of not even wishing for nirvana.[135][148][note 20]

Buddhism - Wikipedia
ly Buddhist texts, it is the state of restraint and self-control that leads to the "blowing out" and the ending of the cycles of sufferings associated with rebirths and redeaths.[141][142][143] <span>Many later Buddhist texts describe nirvana as identical with anatta with complete "emptiness, nothingness".[144][145][146][note 19] In some texts, the state is described with greater detail, such as passing through the gate of emptiness (sunyata) – realising that there is no soul or self in any living being, then passing through the gate of signlessness (animitta) – realising that nirvana cannot be perceived, and finally passing through the gate of wishlessness (apranihita) – realising that nirvana is the state of not even wishing for nirvana.[135][148][note 20] The nirvana state has been described in Buddhist texts partly in a manner similar to other Indian religions, as the state of complete liberation, enlightenment, highest happiness, bliss

#### Annotation 6206182788364

 Pratityasamutpada, also called "dependent arising, or dependent origination", is the Buddhist theory to explain the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. Buddhism asserts that there is nothing independent, except the state of nirvana.[158] All physical and mental states depend on and arise from other pre-existing states, and in turn from them arise other dependent states while they cease

Buddhism - Wikipedia
s, donations to monks and various Buddhist rituals in order to gain better rebirths rather than nirvana.[157][111][note 22] Dependent arising Main articles: Pratītyasamutpāda and Twelve Nidānas <span>Pratityasamutpada, also called "dependent arising, or dependent origination", is the Buddhist theory to explain the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. Buddhism asserts that there is nothing independent, except the state of nirvana.[158] All physical and mental states depend on and arise from other pre-existing states, and in turn from them arise other dependent states while they cease.[159] The 'dependent arisings' have a causal conditioning, and thus Pratityasamutpada is the Buddhist belief that causality is the basis of ontology, not a creator God nor the ontologic

#### Annotation 6206184361228

 It states that because Avidyā (ignorance) exists Saṃskāras (karmic formations) exists, because Saṃskāras exists therefore Vijñāna (consciousness) exists

Buddhism - Wikipedia
her lifetime.[164][165][166] Buddhism applies the dependent arising theory to explain origination of endless cycles of dukkha and rebirth, through its Twelve Nidānas or "twelve links" doctrine. <span>It states that because Avidyā (ignorance) exists Saṃskāras (karmic formations) exists, because Saṃskāras exists therefore Vijñāna (consciousness) exists, and in a similar manner it links Nāmarūpa (sentient body), Ṣaḍāyatana (six senses), Sparśa (sensory stimulation), Vedanā (feeling), Taṇhā (craving), Upādāna (grasping), Bhava (becoming

#### Annotation 6206203235596

 In Theravada Buddhism, a Buddha is someone who has become awake through their own efforts and insight. They have put an end to their cycle of rebirths and have ended all unwholesome mental states which lead to bad action and thus are morally perfected.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
ddhahood While all varieties of Buddhism revere "Buddha" and "buddhahood", they have different views on what these are. Whatever that may be, "Buddha" is still central to all forms of Buddhism. <span>In Theravada Buddhism, a Buddha is someone who has become awake through their own efforts and insight. They have put an end to their cycle of rebirths and have ended all unwholesome mental states which lead to bad action and thus are morally perfected.[176] While subject to the limitations of the human body in certain ways (for example, in the early texts, the Buddha suffers from backaches), a Buddha is said to be "deep, immeasurable,

#### Annotation 6206204808460

 Theravada generally sees Gautama Buddha (the historical Buddha Sakyamuni) as the only Buddha of the current era. While he is no longer in this world, he has left us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community)

Buddhism - Wikipedia
e, in the early texts, the Buddha suffers from backaches), a Buddha is said to be "deep, immeasurable, hard-to-fathom as is the great ocean," and also has immense psychic powers (abhijñā).[177] <span>Theravada generally sees Gautama Buddha (the historical Buddha Sakyamuni) as the only Buddha of the current era. While he is no longer in this world, he has left us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] Mahāyāna

#### Annotation 6206206381324

 sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others

Buddhism - Wikipedia
urrent era. While he is no longer in this world, he has left us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a <span>sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing i

#### Annotation 6206207954188

 while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[

Buddhism - Wikipedia
t us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, <span>while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing in different realms. Mahāyāna texts not only revere numerou

#### Annotation 6206209527052

 Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing in different realms. Mahāyāna texts not only revere numerous Buddhas besides Sakyamuni, such as Amitabha and Vairocana, but also see them as transcendental or supramundane (lokuttara) beings

Buddhism - Wikipedia
angha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] <span>Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing in different realms. Mahāyāna texts not only revere numerous Buddhas besides Sakyamuni, such as Amitabha and Vairocana, but also see them as transcendental or supramundane (lokuttara) beings.[179] Mahāyāna Buddhism holds that these other Buddhas in other realms can be contacted and are able to benefit beings in this world.[180] In Mahāyāna, a Buddha is a kind of "spiritual

#### Annotation 6206211099916

 In Mahāyāna, a Buddha is a kind of "spiritual king", a "protector of all creatures" with a lifetime that is countless of eons long, rather than just a human teacher who has transcended the world after death.[

Buddhism - Wikipedia
m as transcendental or supramundane (lokuttara) beings.[179] Mahāyāna Buddhism holds that these other Buddhas in other realms can be contacted and are able to benefit beings in this world.[180] <span>In Mahāyāna, a Buddha is a kind of "spiritual king", a "protector of all creatures" with a lifetime that is countless of eons long, rather than just a human teacher who has transcended the world after death.[181] Buddha Sakyamuni's life and death on earth is then usually understood as a "mere appearance" or "a manifestation skilfully projected into earthly life by a long-enlightened transcen

#### Annotation 6206212672780

 "Dharma" (Pali: Dhamma) in Buddhism refers to the Buddha's teaching, which includes all of the main ideas outlined above. While this teaching reflects the true nature of reality, it is not a belief to be clung to, but a pragmatic teaching to be put into practice.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
kilfully projected into earthly life by a long-enlightened transcendent being, who is still available to teach the faithful through visionary experiences."[181][182] Dharma Main article: Dharma <span>"Dharma" (Pali: Dhamma) in Buddhism refers to the Buddha's teaching, which includes all of the main ideas outlined above. While this teaching reflects the true nature of reality, it is not a belief to be clung to, but a pragmatic teaching to be put into practice. It is likened to a raft which is "for crossing over" (to nirvana) not for holding on to.[183] It also refers to the universal law and cosmic order which that teaching both reveals and r

#### Annotation 6206214245644

 In that sense it is also the ultimate truth and reality about the universe, it is thus "the way that things really are."

Buddhism - Wikipedia
ng on to.[183] It also refers to the universal law and cosmic order which that teaching both reveals and relies upon.[184] It is an everlasting principle which applies to all beings and worlds. <span>In that sense it is also the ultimate truth and reality about the universe, it is thus "the way that things really are." The Dharma is the second of the three jewels which all Buddhists take refuge in. All Buddhas in all worlds, in the past, present and in the future, are believed by Buddhists to understa

#### Annotation 6206215818508

 "Sangha", which refers to the monastic community of monks and nuns who follow Gautama Buddha's monastic discipline which was "designed to shape the Sangha as an ideal community, with the optimum conditions for spiritual growth."

Buddhism - Wikipedia
do so. Sangha Main articles: Sangha, Bodhisattva, and Arhat Buddhist monks and nuns praying in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple of Singapore The third "jewel" which Buddhists take refuge in is the <span>"Sangha", which refers to the monastic community of monks and nuns who follow Gautama Buddha's monastic discipline which was "designed to shape the Sangha as an ideal community, with the optimum conditions for spiritual growth."[185] The Sangha consists of those who have chosen to follow the Buddha's ideal way of life, which is one of celibate monastic renunciation with minimal material possessions (such as an

#### Annotation 6206217391372

 bodhicitta (the wish to become a Buddha that arises from a sense of compassion for all beings)

Buddhism - Wikipedia
is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisattva path as the highest and most worthwhile.[194] While in Mahāyāna, anyone who has given rise to <span>bodhicitta (the wish to become a Buddha that arises from a sense of compassion for all beings) is considered a bodhisattva,[195] some of these holy beings (such as Maitreya and Avalokiteshvara) have reached very high levels of spiritual attainment and are seen as being very power

#### Annotation 6206218964236

 Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the attainment of the arhat as an inferior one, since it is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisattva path as the highest and most worthwhile

Buddhism - Wikipedia
ved a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.[193] In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193] <span>Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the attainment of the arhat as an inferior one, since it is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisattva path as the highest and most worthwhile.[194] While in Mahāyāna, anyone who has given rise to bodhicitta (the wish to become a Buddha that arises from a sense of compassion for all beings) is considered a bodhisattva,[195] so

#### Annotation 6206220537100

 There is also a separate definition of Sangha, referring to those who have attained any stage of awakening, whether or not they are monastics. This sangha is called the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha".

Buddhism - Wikipedia
artha Gautama in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara. After making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood, he becomes a "bodhisatta". <span>There is also a separate definition of Sangha, referring to those who have attained any stage of awakening, whether or not they are monastics. This sangha is called the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha".[190] All forms of Buddhism generally reveres these āryas (Pali: ariya, "noble ones" or "holy ones") who are spiritually attained beings. Aryas have attained the fruits of the Buddhist p

#### Annotation 6206222109964

 these āryas (Pali: ariya, "noble ones" or "holy ones") who are spiritually attained beings. Aryas have attained the fruits of the Buddhist path.[191] Becoming an arya is a goal in most forms of Buddhism.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
referring to those who have attained any stage of awakening, whether or not they are monastics. This sangha is called the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha".[190] All forms of Buddhism generally reveres <span>these āryas (Pali: ariya, "noble ones" or "holy ones") who are spiritually attained beings. Aryas have attained the fruits of the Buddhist path.[191] Becoming an arya is a goal in most forms of Buddhism. The āryasaṅgha includes holy beings such as bodhisattvas, arhats and stream-enterers. Bodhisattva Maitreya, Pakistan (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art. In early Buddhism and in

#### Annotation 6206223682828

 In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193]

Buddhism - Wikipedia
schools as well as Theravada, to be considered a bodhisattva one has to have made a vow in front of a living Buddha and also has to have received a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.[193] <span>In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193] Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the attainment of the arhat as an inferior one, since it is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisat

#### Annotation 6206225255692

 In early Buddhism and in Theravada Buddhism, an arhat (literally meaning "worthy") is someone who reached the same awakening (bodhi) of a Buddha by following the teaching of a Buddha.[192] They are seen as having ended rebirth and all the mental defilements. A bodhisattva ("a being bound for awakening") meanwhile, is simply a name for someone who is working towards awakening (bodhi) as a Buddha. According to all the early buddhist schools as well as Theravada, to be considered a bodhisattva one has to have made a vow in front of a living Buddha and also has to have received a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.

Buddhism - Wikipedia
a goal in most forms of Buddhism. The āryasaṅgha includes holy beings such as bodhisattvas, arhats and stream-enterers. Bodhisattva Maitreya, Pakistan (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art. <span>In early Buddhism and in Theravada Buddhism, an arhat (literally meaning "worthy") is someone who reached the same awakening (bodhi) of a Buddha by following the teaching of a Buddha.[192] They are seen as having ended rebirth and all the mental defilements. A bodhisattva ("a being bound for awakening") meanwhile, is simply a name for someone who is working towards awakening (bodhi) as a Buddha. According to all the early buddhist schools as well as Theravada, to be considered a bodhisattva one has to have made a vow in front of a living Buddha and also has to have received a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.[193] In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193] Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the a

#### Annotation 6206247013644

 “As per IMF’s calculations, the total fiscal support in response to COVID-19 amounted to about 12% of global GDP by mid-September 2020,

Unknown title
too: Das Maintaining and improving the quality of expenditure would help address the objectives of fiscal sustainability while supporting growth, RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das said on Saturday. <span>“As per IMF’s calculations, the total fiscal support in response to COVID-19 amounted to about 12% of global GDP by mid-September 2020,” Mr. Das said while delivering the Nani Palkhivala Memorial Lecture online on the subject, ‘Towards a Stable Financial System’. “Global public debt is said to have reached 100% of GDP i

#### Annotation 6206249110796

 “Global public debt is said to have reached 100% of GDP in 2020. As a result, most economies are expected to emerge from the pandemic with higher deficits and debt vulnerabilities.”

Unknown title
VID-19 amounted to about 12% of global GDP by mid-September 2020,” Mr. Das said while delivering the Nani Palkhivala Memorial Lecture online on the subject, ‘Towards a Stable Financial System’. <span>“Global public debt is said to have reached 100% of GDP in 2020. As a result, most economies are expected to emerge from the pandemic with higher deficits and debt vulnerabilities.” He said although the scale of fiscal spending was expected to breach the quantitative targets of fiscal prudence across most economies in the short-run, it was crucial in the context of

#### Annotation 6206348463372

 Setting up a BIC as a holding company or a core investment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee in its report on ‘Governance of Boards of Banks in India’.

Unknown title
talisation of public sector banks (PSBs), the Finance Ministry is examining other avenues for affordable capital infusion, including setting up of a Bank Investment Company (BIC), sources said. <span>Setting up a BIC as a holding company or a core investment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee in its report on ‘Governance of Boards of Banks in India’. The report recommended transferring shares of the government in the banks to the BIC which would become the parent holding company of all these banks; as a result of this, all the PSBs

#### Annotation 6206350560524

 With the RBI raising concerns over the issuance of zero-coupon bonds for recapitalisation of public sector banks (PSBs),

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ment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Setting up a BIC as a holding company or a core investment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee. <span>With the RBI raising concerns over the issuance of zero-coupon bonds for recapitalisation of public sector banks (PSBs), the Finance Ministry is examining other avenues for affordable capital infusion, including setting up of a Bank Investment Company (BIC), sources said. Setting up a BIC as a holding com

#### Annotation 6206353444108

 “Financial stability is a public good and its resilience and robustness need to be preserved and nurtured by all stakeholders. We need to support economic revival and growth, we need to preserve financial stability,” he said.

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effective robust payments ecosystem. The regulated entities on their part need to strengthen their internal defences to identify emerging risks early and manage them effectively, Mr. Das added. <span>“Financial stability is a public good and its resilience and robustness need to be preserved and nurtured by all stakeholders. We need to support economic revival and growth, we need to preserve financial stability,” he said. ‘Easing COVID impact’ Mr. Das said the year 2020 could be marked as one of the toughest periods for human society caused by COVID-19 and the policies adopted by the central bank have he

#### Annotation 6206355541260

 “I would like to unambiguously reiterate that the Reserve Bank remains steadfast to take any further measures, as may be necessary, while at the same time remaining fully committed to maintain financial stability,” he added.

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ective during the pandemic to support economic activity, Mr. Das said, “looking back, it is evident that our policies have helped in easing the severity of the economic impact of the pandemic”. <span>“I would like to unambiguously reiterate that the Reserve Bank remains steadfast to take any further measures, as may be necessary, while at the same time remaining fully committed to maintain financial stability,” he added. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou

#### Annotation 6206358424844

 ndia’s exports rose marginally to $27.2 billion in December, while imports surged 7.6% to$42.6 billion, official data showed.

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#### Annotation 6206364978444

 On the positive side, the brokerage said credit demand is bottoming out and the real lending rates, adjusted for wholesale price inflation, are falling.

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. Krishnan Real lending rates are dropping, says U.S. brokerage American brokerage BofA Securities said the Indian economy continues to be ‘weak,’ pointing to activity indicators tracked by it. <span>On the positive side, the brokerage said credit demand is bottoming out and the real lending rates, adjusted for wholesale price inflation, are falling. It can be noted that there has been a slew of reports lately about a stronger recovery being underway after the jolt caused by the pandemic. The government expects the GDP to contract 7

#### Annotation 6206368386316

 China was “the world's only major economy to have registered positive growth in foreign trade in goods,” Li Kuiwen, spokesperson of the GAC, said, with China’s foreign trade and exports in the first 10 months of the year accounting for a record 12.8% and 14.2% of the global total.

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ntrol by the summer, the economy rebounded to grow 3.2% in the second quarter and 4.9% in the third, with China’s industries humming back to life with much of the rest of the world in lockdown. <span>China was “the world's only major economy to have registered positive growth in foreign trade in goods,” Li Kuiwen, spokesperson of the GAC, said, with China’s foreign trade and exports in the first 10 months of the year accounting for a record 12.8% and 14.2% of the global total. That was reflected in the annual export figures, recording a sharp rise with most of China’s major trading partners. Exports to ASEAN countries, China’s largest trading partner last yea

#### Annotation 6206370483468

 #has-images Economy India’s trade with China falls in 2020, deficit at five-year low Ananth Krishnan January 15, 2021 19:28 IST Updated: January 16, 2021 13:31 IST Ananth Krishnan January 15, 2021 19:28 IST Updated: January 16, 2021 13:31 IST The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. Share Article 3 PRINT A A A userIdentify.then(function() { if(isDeviceEnabled("[medium, small]") && isNonSubcribedUser()) { var slotName = 'div-gpt-ad-1552914402102-0'; var idStart = "content-body-"; var articleSize = document.getElementsByClassName("article").length - 1; var componentContainer = document.getElementsByClassName("article")[articleSize].getElementsByTagName("div"); for (var i = 0; i < componentContainer.length; i++) { var id = componentContainer[i].id; if ((id.length >= idStart.length) && (id.substring(0, idStart.length) == idStart)) { var pTagList = componentContainer[i].getElementsByTagName('P'); if (pTagList.length > 1) { var secondPTag = componentContainer[i].getElementsByTagName('p')[4]; if(typeof secondPTag !== "undefined"){ Element.prototype.appendAfter = function(element) { element.parentNode.insertBefore(this, element.nextSibling); }; var newElement = document.createElement('div'); newElement.id = slotName; newElement.setAttribute("class", "dfp-ad Inarticle"); newElement.appendAfter(secondPTag); break; } } } } googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1552914402102-0'); }); } }); File photo shows containers at the Yangshan Deep Water Port in Shanghai. | Photo Credit: Reuters The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of$45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015.

 The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. status not read Unknown title declined to a five year-low of$45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. Share Article 3 PRINT A A A File photo shows containers at the Yangshan Deep Water Port in Shanghai. | Photo Credit: Reuters <span>The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. India’s trade with China last year fell to the lowest since 2017, with the trade imbalance declining to a five-year low on the back of a slump in India’s imports from China. Two-way tra #### Annotation 6206376774924  India’s exports to China, however, rose to the highest figure on record, for the first time crossing the$20 billion-mark and growing 16% last year to $20.86 billion. status not read Unknown title ng to new figures from China’s General Administration of Customs (GAC). India’s imports from China accounted for$66.7 billion, declining by 10.8% year-on-year and the lowest figure since 2016. <span>India’s exports to China, however, rose to the highest figure on record, for the first time crossing the $20 billion-mark and growing 16% last year to$20.86 billion. The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. While there was no immediate break-up of the data i #### Annotation 6206378347788  India’s biggest import in 2019 was electrical machinery and equipment, worth$20.17 billion. Other major imports in 2019 were organic chemicals ($8.39 billion) and fertilisers ($1.67 billion), while India’s top exports were iron ore, organic chemicals, cotton and unfinished diamonds. The past 12 months saw a surge in demand for iron ore in China with a slew of new infrastructure projects aimed at reviving growth after the COVID-19 slump.

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The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. While there was no immediate break-up of the data in 2020, <span>India’s biggest import in 2019 was electrical machinery and equipment, worth$20.17 billion. Other major imports in 2019 were organic chemicals ($8.39 billion) and fertilisers ($1.67 billion), while India’s top exports were iron ore, organic chemicals, cotton and unfinished diamonds. The past 12 months saw a surge in demand for iron ore in China with a slew of new infrastructure projects aimed at reviving growth after the COVID-19 slump. China’s total iron ore imports were up 9.5 per cent in 2020. Whether 2020 is an exception or marks a turn away from the recent pattern of India’s trade with China remains to be seen. Wh

#### Annotation 6206379920652

 While India’s imports from China declined, so did India’s imports overall with a slump in domestic demand last year.

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-19 slump. China’s total iron ore imports were up 9.5 per cent in 2020. Whether 2020 is an exception or marks a turn away from the recent pattern of India’s trade with China remains to be seen. <span>While India’s imports from China declined, so did India’s imports overall with a slump in domestic demand last year. There is, as yet, no evidence to suggest India has replaced its import dependence on China by either sourcing those goods elsewhere or manufacturing them at home, and the trade pattern

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#### Annotation 6206436019468

 According to Assocham, the most definitive of the data is the record collection of Rs 1.15 lakh crore in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) during December.

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es, the accruals of the economic benefits would be significant, especially to sectors such as hospitality, transportation, entertainment, which were hit hard during the pandemic," Mr Sood said. <span>According to Assocham, the most definitive of the data is the record collection of Rs 1.15 lakh crore in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) during December. "The State-wise collection showed the fightback spirit in consumer confidence. Illustratively, the largest consumption State of Maharashtra, which was amongst the severely affected by t

#### Annotation 6206439427340

 The spokesperson further said that the update does not change WhatsApp's data sharing practices with Facebook and does not impact how people communicate privately with friends or family wherever they are in the world.

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ny Facebook to help manage their communications with their customers on WhatsApp.” "Though of course, it remains up to the user whether or not they want to message with a business on WhatsApp." <span>The spokesperson further said that the update does not change WhatsApp's data sharing practices with Facebook and does not impact how people communicate privately with friends or family wherever they are in the world. "WhatsApp remains deeply committed to protecting people's privacy. We are communicating directly with users through WhatsApp about these changes so they have time to review the new poli

#### Annotation 6206441524492

 The Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT) claimed that through the new privacy policy, "all kinds of personal data, payment transactions, contacts, location and other vital information of a person who is using WhatsApp will be acquired by it and can be used for any purpose by WhatsApp".

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ology Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad demanding that the government restrict WhatsApp from implementing its new privacy policy or impose a ban on the messaging app and its parent company Facebook. <span>The Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT) claimed that through the new privacy policy, "all kinds of personal data, payment transactions, contacts, location and other vital information of a person who is using WhatsApp will be acquired by it and can be used for any purpose by WhatsApp". In the communication to Mr. Prasad, CAIT has demanded that "government should immediately restrict WhatsApp from implementing the new policy or put a ban on WhatsApp and its parent comp

#### Annotation 6206443097356

 "WhatsApp remains deeply committed to protecting people's privacy. We are communicating directly with users through WhatsApp about these changes so they have time to review the new policy over the course of the next month," the spokesperson added.

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said that the update does not change WhatsApp's data sharing practices with Facebook and does not impact how people communicate privately with friends or family wherever they are in the world. <span>"WhatsApp remains deeply committed to protecting people's privacy. We are communicating directly with users through WhatsApp about these changes so they have time to review the new policy over the course of the next month," the spokesperson added. An email sent to Facebook seeking comment on the issue did not elicit a response. CAIT Secretary General Praveen Khandelwal said, "The changed privacy policy of WhatsApp is an encroachm

#### Annotation 6206447029516

 Bitumen, LPG But, consumption of bitumen, used in road construction, jumped by 20% to 7,61,000 tonnes.

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hut in most parts of the country. Demand for naphtha, which is used as an industrial fuel for generating electricity and producing petrochemicals, fell 2.67% to 1.23 million tonnes in December. <span>Bitumen, LPG But, consumption of bitumen, used in road construction, jumped by 20% to 7,61,000 tonnes. LPG — the only fuel that showed growth even during the lockdown period on the back of the government giving free cooking gas to the poor — was 7.4% higher at 2.53 million tonnes. Aviati

#### Annotation 6206449126668

 LPG — the only fuel that showed growth even during the lockdown period on the back of the government giving free cooking gas to the poor — was 7.4% higher at 2.53 million tonnes.

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g electricity and producing petrochemicals, fell 2.67% to 1.23 million tonnes in December. Bitumen, LPG But, consumption of bitumen, used in road construction, jumped by 20% to 7,61,000 tonnes. <span>LPG — the only fuel that showed growth even during the lockdown period on the back of the government giving free cooking gas to the poor — was 7.4% higher at 2.53 million tonnes. Aviation turbine fuel or ATF sales fell 41% to 4,28,000 tonnes as most airlines are yet to resume full operations. However, on a month-on-month basis, it improved by 13.5%. A letter fro

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