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Buddhism - Wikipedia
ayāna Tibetan Navayana Newar Buddhism by country[show] Bhutan Cambodia China India Japan Korea Laos Mongolia Myanmar Russia Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Outline Religion portal v t e <span>Buddhism (/ˈbʊdɪzəm/, US: /ˈbuːd-/)[1][2] is the world's fourth-largest religion[3][4] with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[5][6] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largel




born Siddhārtha Gautama in the 5th or 4th century BCE
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[5][6] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha (<span>born Siddhārtha Gautama in the 5th or 4th century BCE) and resulting interpreted philosophies. It originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major




Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle").
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tween the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and <span>Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). As expressed in the Buddha's Four Noble Truths, the goal of Buddhism is to overcome suffering (duḥkha) caused by desire, attachment to a static self, and ignorance of the true nature of




Buddha's Four Noble Truths, the goal of Buddhism is to overcome suffering (duḥkha) caused by desire, attachment to a static self, and ignorance of the true nature of reality (avidya).
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). As expressed in the <span>Buddha's Four Noble Truths, the goal of Buddhism is to overcome suffering (duḥkha) caused by desire, attachment to a static self, and ignorance of the true nature of reality (avidya).[7] Most Buddhist traditions emphasize transcending the individual self through the attainment of Nirvana or by following the path of Buddhahood, ending the cycle of death and rebirth.[8




Widely observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, Buddhist monasticism, Buddhist meditation, and the cultivation of the Paramitas (perfections, or virtues).
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chools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, and their specific teachings and practices.[11][12] <span>Widely observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, Buddhist monasticism, Buddhist meditation, and the cultivation of the Paramitas (perfections, or virtues). Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Ni




The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddharta Gautama was born in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavastu,[note 2] a town in the Ganges Plain, near the modern Nepal–India border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar[note 3] and Uttar Pradesh.
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent. His social background and life details are difficult to prove, and the precise dates are uncertain.[19][note 1] <span>The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddharta Gautama was born in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavastu,[note 2] a town in the Ganges Plain, near the modern Nepal–India border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar[note 3] and Uttar Pradesh.[27][19] Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini.[28] However, scholars such as Richard Gombric




father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini.
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
town in the Ganges Plain, near the modern Nepal–India border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar[note 3] and Uttar Pradesh.[27][19] Some hagiographic legends state that his <span>father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini.[28] However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakya community, which was governed by a smal




According to early texts such as the Pali Ariyapariyesanā-sutta ("The discourse on the noble quest," MN 26) and its Chinese parallel at 204, Gautama was moved by the suffering (dukkha) of life and death, and its endless repetition due to rebirth.[
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
4] Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, and claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a later time into the Buddhist texts.[32][33] <span>According to early texts such as the Pali Ariyapariyesanā-sutta ("The discourse on the noble quest," MN 26) and its Chinese parallel at MĀ 204, Gautama was moved by the suffering (dukkha) of life and death, and its endless repetition due to rebirth.[34] He thus set out on a quest to find liberation from suffering (also known as "nirvana").[35] Early texts and biographies state that Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditat




namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter.
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
h.[34] He thus set out on a quest to find liberation from suffering (also known as "nirvana").[35] Early texts and biographies state that Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditation, <span>namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter.[36][37][note 5] Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of severe asceticism, which included a strict fasting regime and various forms o




Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditation, namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
life and death, and its endless repetition due to rebirth.[34] He thus set out on a quest to find liberation from suffering (also known as "nirvana").[35] Early texts and biographies state that <span>Gautama first studied under two teachers of meditation, namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and philosophy, particularly the meditative attainment of "the sphere of nothingness" from the former, and "the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" from the latter.[36][37][note 5] Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of severe asceticism, which included a strict fasting regime and various forms




He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya and attained "Awakening" (Bodhi).[ citation needed ]
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
e asceticism, which included a strict fasting regime and various forms of breath control.[40] This too fell short of attaining his goal, and then he turned to the meditative practice of dhyana. <span>He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya and attained "Awakening" (Bodhi).[citation needed] According to various early texts like the Mahāsaccaka-sutta, and the Samaññaphala Sutta, on awakening, the Buddha gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, as well




on awakening, the Buddha gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, as well as achieving the ending of the mental defilements (asavas), the ending of suffering, and the end of rebirth in saṃsāra.
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Buddhism - Wikipedia
ee now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya and attained "Awakening" (Bodhi).[citation needed] According to various early texts like the Mahāsaccaka-sutta, and the Samaññaphala Sutta, <span>on awakening, the Buddha gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, as well as achieving the ending of the mental defilements (asavas), the ending of suffering, and the end of rebirth in saṃsāra.[40] This event also brought certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering.[41][42] As a fully enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and fo




He spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, and then died, achieving "final nirvana," at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India.[4
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certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering.[41][42] As a fully enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha (monastic order).[43] <span>He spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, and then died, achieving "final nirvana," at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India.[44][22] Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became various Buddhist schools of thought, each with its own basket of




  • dukkha (suffering, incapable of satisfying, painful) is an innate characteristic of existence in the realm of samsara;[web 2][3][4]
  • samudaya (origin, arising) of this dukkha, which arises or "comes together" with taṇhā ("craving, desire or attachment");[web 3][5][6]
  • nirodha (cessation, ending) of this dukkha can be attained by the renouncement or letting go of this taṇhā;[7][8][9][10]
  • magga (path, Noble Eightfold Path) is the path leading to renouncement of tanha and cessation of dukkha.[11][12][13]
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    Four Noble Truths - Wikipedia
    ariyasaccāni Sanskrit: catvāri āryasatyāni; , "The four Arya satyas") are "the truths of the Noble Ones", the truths or realities for the "spiritually worthy ones".[1][web 1][2] The truths are: <span>dukkha (suffering, incapable of satisfying, painful) is an innate characteristic of existence in the realm of samsara;[web 2][3][4] samudaya (origin, arising) of this dukkha, which arises or "comes together" with taṇhā ("craving, desire or attachment");[web 3][5][6] nirodha (cessation, ending) of this dukkha can be attained by the renouncement or letting go of this taṇhā;[7][8][9][10] magga (path, Noble Eightfold Path) is the path leading to renouncement of tanha and cessation of dukkha.[11][12][13] They are traditionally identified as the first teaching given by the Buddha,[note 1] and considered one of the most important teachings in Buddhism.[14] The four truths appear in many g




    Many later Buddhist texts describe nirvana as identical with anatta with complete "emptiness, nothingness".[144][145][146][note 19] In some texts, the state is described with greater detail, such as passing through the gate of emptiness (sunyata) – realising that there is no soul or self in any living being, then passing through the gate of signlessness (animitta) – realising that nirvana cannot be perceived, and finally passing through the gate of wishlessness (apranihita) – realising that nirvana is the state of not even wishing for nirvana.[135][148][note 20]
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    Buddhism - Wikipedia
    ly Buddhist texts, it is the state of restraint and self-control that leads to the "blowing out" and the ending of the cycles of sufferings associated with rebirths and redeaths.[141][142][143] <span>Many later Buddhist texts describe nirvana as identical with anatta with complete "emptiness, nothingness".[144][145][146][note 19] In some texts, the state is described with greater detail, such as passing through the gate of emptiness (sunyata) – realising that there is no soul or self in any living being, then passing through the gate of signlessness (animitta) – realising that nirvana cannot be perceived, and finally passing through the gate of wishlessness (apranihita) – realising that nirvana is the state of not even wishing for nirvana.[135][148][note 20] The nirvana state has been described in Buddhist texts partly in a manner similar to other Indian religions, as the state of complete liberation, enlightenment, highest happiness, bliss




    Pratityasamutpada, also called "dependent arising, or dependent origination", is the Buddhist theory to explain the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. Buddhism asserts that there is nothing independent, except the state of nirvana.[158] All physical and mental states depend on and arise from other pre-existing states, and in turn from them arise other dependent states while they cease
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    Buddhism - Wikipedia
    s, donations to monks and various Buddhist rituals in order to gain better rebirths rather than nirvana.[157][111][note 22] Dependent arising Main articles: Pratītyasamutpāda and Twelve Nidānas <span>Pratityasamutpada, also called "dependent arising, or dependent origination", is the Buddhist theory to explain the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. Buddhism asserts that there is nothing independent, except the state of nirvana.[158] All physical and mental states depend on and arise from other pre-existing states, and in turn from them arise other dependent states while they cease.[159] The 'dependent arisings' have a causal conditioning, and thus Pratityasamutpada is the Buddhist belief that causality is the basis of ontology, not a creator God nor the ontologic




    It states that because Avidyā (ignorance) exists Saṃskāras (karmic formations) exists, because Saṃskāras exists therefore Vijñāna (consciousness) exists
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    her lifetime.[164][165][166] Buddhism applies the dependent arising theory to explain origination of endless cycles of dukkha and rebirth, through its Twelve Nidānas or "twelve links" doctrine. <span>It states that because Avidyā (ignorance) exists Saṃskāras (karmic formations) exists, because Saṃskāras exists therefore Vijñāna (consciousness) exists, and in a similar manner it links Nāmarūpa (sentient body), Ṣaḍāyatana (six senses), Sparśa (sensory stimulation), Vedanā (feeling), Taṇhā (craving), Upādāna (grasping), Bhava (becoming




    In Theravada Buddhism, a Buddha is someone who has become awake through their own efforts and insight. They have put an end to their cycle of rebirths and have ended all unwholesome mental states which lead to bad action and thus are morally perfected.
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    Buddhism - Wikipedia
    ddhahood While all varieties of Buddhism revere "Buddha" and "buddhahood", they have different views on what these are. Whatever that may be, "Buddha" is still central to all forms of Buddhism. <span>In Theravada Buddhism, a Buddha is someone who has become awake through their own efforts and insight. They have put an end to their cycle of rebirths and have ended all unwholesome mental states which lead to bad action and thus are morally perfected.[176] While subject to the limitations of the human body in certain ways (for example, in the early texts, the Buddha suffers from backaches), a Buddha is said to be "deep, immeasurable,




    Theravada generally sees Gautama Buddha (the historical Buddha Sakyamuni) as the only Buddha of the current era. While he is no longer in this world, he has left us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community)
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    Buddhism - Wikipedia
    e, in the early texts, the Buddha suffers from backaches), a Buddha is said to be "deep, immeasurable, hard-to-fathom as is the great ocean," and also has immense psychic powers (abhijñā).[177] <span>Theravada generally sees Gautama Buddha (the historical Buddha Sakyamuni) as the only Buddha of the current era. While he is no longer in this world, he has left us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] Mahāyāna




    sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others
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    urrent era. While he is no longer in this world, he has left us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a <span>sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing i




    while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[
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    t us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, <span>while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing in different realms. Mahāyāna texts not only revere numerou




    Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing in different realms. Mahāyāna texts not only revere numerous Buddhas besides Sakyamuni, such as Amitabha and Vairocana, but also see them as transcendental or supramundane (lokuttara) beings
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    angha (Community).[178] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[176] <span>Mahāyāna Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing in different realms. Mahāyāna texts not only revere numerous Buddhas besides Sakyamuni, such as Amitabha and Vairocana, but also see them as transcendental or supramundane (lokuttara) beings.[179] Mahāyāna Buddhism holds that these other Buddhas in other realms can be contacted and are able to benefit beings in this world.[180] In Mahāyāna, a Buddha is a kind of "spiritual




    In Mahāyāna, a Buddha is a kind of "spiritual king", a "protector of all creatures" with a lifetime that is countless of eons long, rather than just a human teacher who has transcended the world after death.[
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    m as transcendental or supramundane (lokuttara) beings.[179] Mahāyāna Buddhism holds that these other Buddhas in other realms can be contacted and are able to benefit beings in this world.[180] <span>In Mahāyāna, a Buddha is a kind of "spiritual king", a "protector of all creatures" with a lifetime that is countless of eons long, rather than just a human teacher who has transcended the world after death.[181] Buddha Sakyamuni's life and death on earth is then usually understood as a "mere appearance" or "a manifestation skilfully projected into earthly life by a long-enlightened transcen




    "Dharma" (Pali: Dhamma) in Buddhism refers to the Buddha's teaching, which includes all of the main ideas outlined above. While this teaching reflects the true nature of reality, it is not a belief to be clung to, but a pragmatic teaching to be put into practice.
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    kilfully projected into earthly life by a long-enlightened transcendent being, who is still available to teach the faithful through visionary experiences."[181][182] Dharma Main article: Dharma <span>"Dharma" (Pali: Dhamma) in Buddhism refers to the Buddha's teaching, which includes all of the main ideas outlined above. While this teaching reflects the true nature of reality, it is not a belief to be clung to, but a pragmatic teaching to be put into practice. It is likened to a raft which is "for crossing over" (to nirvana) not for holding on to.[183] It also refers to the universal law and cosmic order which that teaching both reveals and r




    In that sense it is also the ultimate truth and reality about the universe, it is thus "the way that things really are."
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    ng on to.[183] It also refers to the universal law and cosmic order which that teaching both reveals and relies upon.[184] It is an everlasting principle which applies to all beings and worlds. <span>In that sense it is also the ultimate truth and reality about the universe, it is thus "the way that things really are." The Dharma is the second of the three jewels which all Buddhists take refuge in. All Buddhas in all worlds, in the past, present and in the future, are believed by Buddhists to understa




    "Sangha", which refers to the monastic community of monks and nuns who follow Gautama Buddha's monastic discipline which was "designed to shape the Sangha as an ideal community, with the optimum conditions for spiritual growth."
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    do so. Sangha Main articles: Sangha, Bodhisattva, and Arhat Buddhist monks and nuns praying in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple of Singapore The third "jewel" which Buddhists take refuge in is the <span>"Sangha", which refers to the monastic community of monks and nuns who follow Gautama Buddha's monastic discipline which was "designed to shape the Sangha as an ideal community, with the optimum conditions for spiritual growth."[185] The Sangha consists of those who have chosen to follow the Buddha's ideal way of life, which is one of celibate monastic renunciation with minimal material possessions (such as an




    bodhicitta (the wish to become a Buddha that arises from a sense of compassion for all beings)
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    is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisattva path as the highest and most worthwhile.[194] While in Mahāyāna, anyone who has given rise to <span>bodhicitta (the wish to become a Buddha that arises from a sense of compassion for all beings) is considered a bodhisattva,[195] some of these holy beings (such as Maitreya and Avalokiteshvara) have reached very high levels of spiritual attainment and are seen as being very power




    Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the attainment of the arhat as an inferior one, since it is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisattva path as the highest and most worthwhile
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    ved a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.[193] In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193] <span>Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the attainment of the arhat as an inferior one, since it is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisattva path as the highest and most worthwhile.[194] While in Mahāyāna, anyone who has given rise to bodhicitta (the wish to become a Buddha that arises from a sense of compassion for all beings) is considered a bodhisattva,[195] so




    There is also a separate definition of Sangha, referring to those who have attained any stage of awakening, whether or not they are monastics. This sangha is called the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha".
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    Buddhism - Wikipedia
    artha Gautama in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara. After making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood, he becomes a "bodhisatta". <span>There is also a separate definition of Sangha, referring to those who have attained any stage of awakening, whether or not they are monastics. This sangha is called the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha".[190] All forms of Buddhism generally reveres these āryas (Pali: ariya, "noble ones" or "holy ones") who are spiritually attained beings. Aryas have attained the fruits of the Buddhist p




    these āryas (Pali: ariya, "noble ones" or "holy ones") who are spiritually attained beings. Aryas have attained the fruits of the Buddhist path.[191] Becoming an arya is a goal in most forms of Buddhism.
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    Buddhism - Wikipedia
    referring to those who have attained any stage of awakening, whether or not they are monastics. This sangha is called the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha".[190] All forms of Buddhism generally reveres <span>these āryas (Pali: ariya, "noble ones" or "holy ones") who are spiritually attained beings. Aryas have attained the fruits of the Buddhist path.[191] Becoming an arya is a goal in most forms of Buddhism. The āryasaṅgha includes holy beings such as bodhisattvas, arhats and stream-enterers. Bodhisattva Maitreya, Pakistan (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art. In early Buddhism and in




    In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193]
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    schools as well as Theravada, to be considered a bodhisattva one has to have made a vow in front of a living Buddha and also has to have received a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.[193] <span>In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193] Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the attainment of the arhat as an inferior one, since it is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisat




    In early Buddhism and in Theravada Buddhism, an arhat (literally meaning "worthy") is someone who reached the same awakening (bodhi) of a Buddha by following the teaching of a Buddha.[192] They are seen as having ended rebirth and all the mental defilements. A bodhisattva ("a being bound for awakening") meanwhile, is simply a name for someone who is working towards awakening (bodhi) as a Buddha. According to all the early buddhist schools as well as Theravada, to be considered a bodhisattva one has to have made a vow in front of a living Buddha and also has to have received a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.
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    Buddhism - Wikipedia
    a goal in most forms of Buddhism. The āryasaṅgha includes holy beings such as bodhisattvas, arhats and stream-enterers. Bodhisattva Maitreya, Pakistan (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art. <span>In early Buddhism and in Theravada Buddhism, an arhat (literally meaning "worthy") is someone who reached the same awakening (bodhi) of a Buddha by following the teaching of a Buddha.[192] They are seen as having ended rebirth and all the mental defilements. A bodhisattva ("a being bound for awakening") meanwhile, is simply a name for someone who is working towards awakening (bodhi) as a Buddha. According to all the early buddhist schools as well as Theravada, to be considered a bodhisattva one has to have made a vow in front of a living Buddha and also has to have received a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.[193] In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteyya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[193] Mahāyāna Buddhism generally sees the a




    “As per IMF’s calculations, the total fiscal support in response to COVID-19 amounted to about 12% of global GDP by mid-September 2020,
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    too: Das Maintaining and improving the quality of expenditure would help address the objectives of fiscal sustainability while supporting growth, RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das said on Saturday. <span>“As per IMF’s calculations, the total fiscal support in response to COVID-19 amounted to about 12% of global GDP by mid-September 2020,” Mr. Das said while delivering the Nani Palkhivala Memorial Lecture online on the subject, ‘Towards a Stable Financial System’. “Global public debt is said to have reached 100% of GDP i




    “Global public debt is said to have reached 100% of GDP in 2020. As a result, most economies are expected to emerge from the pandemic with higher deficits and debt vulnerabilities.”

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    VID-19 amounted to about 12% of global GDP by mid-September 2020,” Mr. Das said while delivering the Nani Palkhivala Memorial Lecture online on the subject, ‘Towards a Stable Financial System’. <span>“Global public debt is said to have reached 100% of GDP in 2020. As a result, most economies are expected to emerge from the pandemic with higher deficits and debt vulnerabilities.” He said although the scale of fiscal spending was expected to breach the quantitative targets of fiscal prudence across most economies in the short-run, it was crucial in the context of




    Setting up a BIC as a holding company or a core investment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee in its report on ‘Governance of Boards of Banks in India’.
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    talisation of public sector banks (PSBs), the Finance Ministry is examining other avenues for affordable capital infusion, including setting up of a Bank Investment Company (BIC), sources said. <span>Setting up a BIC as a holding company or a core investment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee in its report on ‘Governance of Boards of Banks in India’. The report recommended transferring shares of the government in the banks to the BIC which would become the parent holding company of all these banks; as a result of this, all the PSBs




    With the RBI raising concerns over the issuance of zero-coupon bonds for recapitalisation of public sector banks (PSBs),
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    ment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Setting up a BIC as a holding company or a core investment company was suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee. <span>With the RBI raising concerns over the issuance of zero-coupon bonds for recapitalisation of public sector banks (PSBs), the Finance Ministry is examining other avenues for affordable capital infusion, including setting up of a Bank Investment Company (BIC), sources said. Setting up a BIC as a holding com




    “Financial stability is a public good and its resilience and robustness need to be preserved and nurtured by all stakeholders. We need to support economic revival and growth, we need to preserve financial stability,” he said.
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    effective robust payments ecosystem. The regulated entities on their part need to strengthen their internal defences to identify emerging risks early and manage them effectively, Mr. Das added. <span>“Financial stability is a public good and its resilience and robustness need to be preserved and nurtured by all stakeholders. We need to support economic revival and growth, we need to preserve financial stability,” he said. ‘Easing COVID impact’ Mr. Das said the year 2020 could be marked as one of the toughest periods for human society caused by COVID-19 and the policies adopted by the central bank have he




    “I would like to unambiguously reiterate that the Reserve Bank remains steadfast to take any further measures, as may be necessary, while at the same time remaining fully committed to maintain financial stability,” he added.
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    ective during the pandemic to support economic activity, Mr. Das said, “looking back, it is evident that our policies have helped in easing the severity of the economic impact of the pandemic”. <span>“I would like to unambiguously reiterate that the Reserve Bank remains steadfast to take any further measures, as may be necessary, while at the same time remaining fully committed to maintain financial stability,” he added. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




    ndia’s exports rose marginally to $27.2 billion in December, while imports surged 7.6% to $42.6 billion, official data showed.
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    pdated: January 16, 2021 00:18 IST PTI new delhi, January 16, 2021 04:07 IST Updated: January 16, 2021 00:18 IST Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Representational image. | Photo Credit: K.R. Deepak I<span>ndia’s exports rose marginally to $27.2 billion in December, while imports surged 7.6% to $42.6 billion, official data showed. Merchandise exports were valued at $27.1 billion in December 2019. “The trade deficit for December 2020 was estimated at $15.44 billion as against the deficit of $12.49 billion in Decem




    India’s overall exports (merchandise and services) in April-December 2020-21 were estimated at $348.5 billion, showing a negative growth of 12.7% YoY. Overall imports fell 25.9% to $343.3 billion.
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    in December 2019. “The trade deficit for December 2020 was estimated at $15.44 billion as against the deficit of $12.49 billion in December 2019, an increase of 23.66%,” according to the data. <span>India’s overall exports (merchandise and services) in April-December 2020-21 were estimated at $348.5 billion, showing a negative growth of 12.7% YoY. Overall imports fell 25.9% to $343.3 billion. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




    “The trade deficit for December 2020 was estimated at $15.44 billion as against the deficit of $12.49 billion in December 2019, an increase of 23.66%,” according to the data.
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    ndia’s exports rose marginally to $27.2 billion in December, while imports surged 7.6% to $42.6 billion, official data showed. Merchandise exports were valued at $27.1 billion in December 2019. <span>“The trade deficit for December 2020 was estimated at $15.44 billion as against the deficit of $12.49 billion in December 2019, an increase of 23.66%,” according to the data. India’s overall exports (merchandise and services) in April-December 2020-21 were estimated at $348.5 billion, showing a negative growth of 12.7% YoY. Overall imports fell 25.9% to $343




    On the positive side, the brokerage said credit demand is bottoming out and the real lending rates, adjusted for wholesale price inflation, are falling.
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    . Krishnan Real lending rates are dropping, says U.S. brokerage American brokerage BofA Securities said the Indian economy continues to be ‘weak,’ pointing to activity indicators tracked by it. <span>On the positive side, the brokerage said credit demand is bottoming out and the real lending rates, adjusted for wholesale price inflation, are falling. It can be noted that there has been a slew of reports lately about a stronger recovery being underway after the jolt caused by the pandemic. The government expects the GDP to contract 7




    China was “the world's only major economy to have registered positive growth in foreign trade in goods,” Li Kuiwen, spokesperson of the GAC, said, with China’s foreign trade and exports in the first 10 months of the year accounting for a record 12.8% and 14.2% of the global total.
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    ntrol by the summer, the economy rebounded to grow 3.2% in the second quarter and 4.9% in the third, with China’s industries humming back to life with much of the rest of the world in lockdown. <span>China was “the world's only major economy to have registered positive growth in foreign trade in goods,” Li Kuiwen, spokesperson of the GAC, said, with China’s foreign trade and exports in the first 10 months of the year accounting for a record 12.8% and 14.2% of the global total. That was reflected in the annual export figures, recording a sharp rise with most of China’s major trading partners. Exports to ASEAN countries, China’s largest trading partner last yea




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    Economy India’s trade with China falls in 2020, deficit at five-year low Ananth Krishnan January 15, 2021 19:28 IST Updated: January 16, 2021 13:31 IST Ananth Krishnan January 15, 2021 19:28 IST Updated: January 16, 2021 13:31 IST The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. userIdentify.then(function() { if(isDeviceEnabled("[medium, small]") && isNonSubcribedUser()) { var slotName = 'div-gpt-ad-1552914402102-0'; var idStart = "content-body-"; var articleSize = document.getElementsByClassName("article").length - 1; var componentContainer = document.getElementsByClassName("article")[articleSize].getElementsByTagName("div"); for (var i = 0; i < componentContainer.length; i++) { var id = componentContainer[i].id; if ((id.length >= idStart.length) && (id.substring(0, idStart.length) == idStart)) { var pTagList = componentContainer[i].getElementsByTagName('P'); if (pTagList.length > 1) { var secondPTag = componentContainer[i].getElementsByTagName('p')[4]; if(typeof secondPTag !== "undefined"){ Element.prototype.appendAfter = function(element) { element.parentNode.insertBefore(this, element.nextSibling); }; var newElement = document.createElement('div'); newElement.id = slotName; newElement.setAttribute("class", "dfp-ad Inarticle"); newElement.appendAfter(secondPTag); break; } } } } googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1552914402102-0'); }); } });

    File photo shows containers at the Yangshan Deep Water Port in Shanghai. | Photo Credit: Reuters

    The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015.
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    The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015.
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    declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. Share Article 3 PRINT A A A File photo shows containers at the Yangshan Deep Water Port in Shanghai. | Photo Credit: Reuters <span>The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. India’s trade with China last year fell to the lowest since 2017, with the trade imbalance declining to a five-year low on the back of a slump in India’s imports from China. Two-way tra




    India’s exports to China, however, rose to the highest figure on record, for the first time crossing the $20 billion-mark and growing 16% last year to $20.86 billion.
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    ng to new figures from China’s General Administration of Customs (GAC). India’s imports from China accounted for $66.7 billion, declining by 10.8% year-on-year and the lowest figure since 2016. <span>India’s exports to China, however, rose to the highest figure on record, for the first time crossing the $20 billion-mark and growing 16% last year to $20.86 billion. The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. While there was no immediate break-up of the data i




    India’s biggest import in 2019 was electrical machinery and equipment, worth $20.17 billion. Other major imports in 2019 were organic chemicals ($8.39 billion) and fertilisers ($1.67 billion), while India’s top exports were iron ore, organic chemicals, cotton and unfinished diamonds. The past 12 months saw a surge in demand for iron ore in China with a slew of new infrastructure projects aimed at reviving growth after the COVID-19 slump.
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    The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. While there was no immediate break-up of the data in 2020, <span>India’s biggest import in 2019 was electrical machinery and equipment, worth $20.17 billion. Other major imports in 2019 were organic chemicals ($8.39 billion) and fertilisers ($1.67 billion), while India’s top exports were iron ore, organic chemicals, cotton and unfinished diamonds. The past 12 months saw a surge in demand for iron ore in China with a slew of new infrastructure projects aimed at reviving growth after the COVID-19 slump. China’s total iron ore imports were up 9.5 per cent in 2020. Whether 2020 is an exception or marks a turn away from the recent pattern of India’s trade with China remains to be seen. Wh




    While India’s imports from China declined, so did India’s imports overall with a slump in domestic demand last year.
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    -19 slump. China’s total iron ore imports were up 9.5 per cent in 2020. Whether 2020 is an exception or marks a turn away from the recent pattern of India’s trade with China remains to be seen. <span>While India’s imports from China declined, so did India’s imports overall with a slump in domestic demand last year. There is, as yet, no evidence to suggest India has replaced its import dependence on China by either sourcing those goods elsewhere or manufacturing them at home, and the trade pattern




    Two-way trade in 2020 reached $87.6 billion, down by 5.6%,
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    lowest since 2015. India’s trade with China last year fell to the lowest since 2017, with the trade imbalance declining to a five-year low on the back of a slump in India’s imports from China. <span>Two-way trade in 2020 reached $87.6 billion, down by 5.6%, according to new figures from China’s General Administration of Customs (GAC). India’s imports from China accounted for $66.7 billion, declining by 10.8% year-on-year and the lowest fig




    India’s trade with China last year fell to the lowest since 2017
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    ngshan Deep Water Port in Shanghai. | Photo Credit: Reuters The trade deficit, a source of friction between India and China, declined to a five year-low of $45.8 billion, the lowest since 2015. <span>India’s trade with China last year fell to the lowest since 2017, with the trade imbalance declining to a five-year low on the back of a slump in India’s imports from China. Two-way trade in 2020 reached $87.6 billion, down by 5.6%, according to new




    Exports to ASEAN countries, China’s largest trading partner last year with $684 billion in annual trade, were up 6.7%, while exports to the EU, China’s second-largest trading partner, were also up 6.7%, with trade reaching $649 billion.
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    ths of the year accounting for a record 12.8% and 14.2% of the global total. That was reflected in the annual export figures, recording a sharp rise with most of China’s major trading partners. <span>Exports to ASEAN countries, China’s largest trading partner last year with $684 billion in annual trade, were up 6.7%, while exports to the EU, China’s second-largest trading partner, were also up 6.7%, with trade reaching $649 billion. Despite the trade war with the U.S. and the pandemic, two-way trade was up 8.3% to $586 billion, with Chinese exports up 7.9% to reach a record $451 billion. The trade surplus with the




    The IMF believes the farm bills passed by the Indian government have the potential to represent a significant step forward for agricultural reforms, but a social safety net is needed to protect those who might be adversely impacted during the transition to the new system, a spokesperson of the global lender said here.
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    ST PTI Washington, January 15, 2021 10:27 IST Updated: January 15, 2021 10:39 IST Share Article PRINT A A A IMF logo is seen outside its headquarters in Washington. File | Photo Credit: Reuters <span>The IMF believes the farm bills passed by the Indian government have the potential to represent a significant step forward for agricultural reforms, but a social safety net is needed to protect those who might be adversely impacted during the transition to the new system, a spokesperson of the global lender said here. Gerry Rice, Director of Communications at the International Monetary Fund (IMF), said the new measures will reduce the role of the middlemen and enhance efficiency. “We believe the farm




    “The measures will enable farmers to directly contract with sellers, allow farmers to retain a greater share of the surplus by reducing the role of middlemen, enhance efficiency and support rural growth,” he said.
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    iency. “We believe the farm bills do have the potential to represent a significant step forward for agricultural reforms in India,” Mr. Rice said at a news conference in Washington on Thursday. <span>“The measures will enable farmers to directly contract with sellers, allow farmers to retain a greater share of the surplus by reducing the role of middlemen, enhance efficiency and support rural growth,” he said. “However, it is crucial that the social safety net adequately protects those who might be adversely impacted during the transition to this new system,” the spokesperson said responding




    Wikipedia, which is operated by non-profit organisation Wikimedia Foundation, already counts India as its fifth largest market. It gets about 750 million page views a month from the Indian audience.

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    long-term commitment to India and is focussing on bringing more users to its platform by meeting language needs and introducing tools to ease access, a top Wikimedia Foundation executive said. <span>Wikipedia, which is operated by non-profit organisation Wikimedia Foundation, already counts India as its fifth largest market. It gets about 750 million page views a month from the Indian audience. “India is not just the fifth largest Wikipedia source of traffic for us, it is a country of hundreds of millions of people who have real clear needs for knowledge, and to themselves hav




    Wikipedia turns 20
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    the specific language needs of communities, and then how to think about having the tools that are appropriate for the way that people are seeking and contributing information today,” she said. <span>Wikipedia turns 20 Wikipedia, which turns 20 on January 15 has over 55 million articles that can be accessed in more than 300 languages for free without advertisements. The content is created and edited b




    KaiOS, which we recognise is one of the more commonly used operating systems across the Indian market,” she said.
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    world lives — on mobile phones in their pockets...And then specifically, how do we build tools that are relevant to mobile phones in people’s pockets? So we recently launched an application on <span>KaiOS, which we recognise is one of the more commonly used operating systems across the Indian market,” she said. Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales said Wikipedia’s model has always been based on the belief that knowledge belongs to all humans. “Wikipedia forces us to step outside of our echo chambers




    The IMF Managing Director during a global media roundtable on January 14 predicted a less bad outlook for India in the upcoming World Economic Update due to the steps taken by it.
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    ts economic consequences: IMF chief PTI Washington, January 15, 2021 04:00 IST Updated: January 15, 2021 20:42 IST PTI Washington, January 15, 2021 04:00 IST Updated: January 15, 2021 20:42 IST <span>The IMF Managing Director during a global media roundtable on January 14 predicted a less bad outlook for India in the upcoming World Economic Update due to the steps taken by it. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Kristalina Georgieva. File | Photo Credit: Reuters The IMF Managing Director during a global media roundtable on January 14 predicted a less bad outlook for




    The inflation based on Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was 1.55% in November 2020, and 2.76% in December 2019.

    The wholesale price-based inflation slowed to 1.22% in December on easing food prices, as per government data released on Thursday.

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    ary 14, 2021 13:13 IST Updated: January 14, 2021 13:13 IST The inflation based on Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was 1.55% in November 2020, and 2.76% in December 2019. Share Article 0 PRINT A A A <span>The inflation based on Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was 1.55% in November 2020, and 2.76% in December 2019. The wholesale price-based inflation slowed to 1.22% in December on easing food prices, as per government data released on Thursday. The inflation based on Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was 1.55% in November 2020, and 2.76% in December 2019. The rate of inflation based on WPI Food Index decreased from 4.27% in November




    India’s index of industrial production (IIP) for November was dragged lower by mining and manufacturing, which both shrank, as per quick estimates. Mining output contracted 7.3% in the month, while manufacturing declined 1.7%, indicating an unwinding of inventory build-ups with the quenching of pent-up and festive demand.
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    nk 1.9%. The lowest consumer price inflation (CPI) print in 14 months was driven by an sharp slowdown in food price inflation, which eased to 3.4% in December, from the preceding month’s 9.5% . <span>India’s index of industrial production (IIP) for November was dragged lower by mining and manufacturing, which both shrank, as per quick estimates. Mining output contracted 7.3% in the month, while manufacturing declined 1.7%, indicating an unwinding of inventory build-ups with the quenching of pent-up and festive demand. Electricity production grew for the third month in a row, rising 3.5% year-on-year. The NSO also revised upwards the index for the preceding three months by incorporating more productio




    The finance ministry has rejected the demand for further extension of the last date for filing returns where audit is required beyond February 15.
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    New Delhi, January 12, 2021 12:48 IST Updated: January 12, 2021 12:49 IST Share Article 0 PRINT A A A Taxpayers file returns at the Income Tax office in Chennai. File | Photo Credit: The Hindu <span>The finance ministry has rejected the demand for further extension of the last date for filing returns where audit is required beyond February 15. Last month, the government had extended the income tax return (ITR) filing deadline for individuals till January 10, and for companies till February 15. "CBDT passes order u/s 119 of In




    “The disconnect between certain segments of financial markets and the real economy has been accentuating in recent times, both globally and in India,” Mr. Das wrote in his foreword to the RBI’s biannual Financial Stability Report (FSR), which was released on Monday.
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    s flagged the growing disconnect between exuberant equity markets and real economic activity and warned that the ‘stretched valuations of financial assets’ threaten overall financial stability. <span>“The disconnect between certain segments of financial markets and the real economy has been accentuating in recent times, both globally and in India,” Mr. Das wrote in his foreword to the RBI’s biannual Financial Stability Report (FSR), which was released on Monday. “Stretched valuations of financial assets pose risks to financial stability,” he cautioned. Pointing to the interconnected nature of the financial system, the RBI Governor urged banks a




    Bank credit growth (Y-o-Y), which had declined to 5.7% in 2019-20, remains sluggish; on the other hand, deposit growth has remained robust in double digits, reflecting precautionary saving in the face of high uncertainty, the RBI said.
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    nding and reviving. Although a recovery in economic activity from the lows of March and April 2020 was under way, it was far from being entrenched and output remained below pre-pandemic levels. <span>Bank credit growth (Y-o-Y), which had declined to 5.7% in 2019-20, remains sluggish; on the other hand, deposit growth has remained robust in double digits, reflecting precautionary saving in the face of high uncertainty, the RBI said. Return on assets (RoA) and return on equity (RoE) for SCBs have improved across all bank groups and capital to risk-weighted assets ratios (CRARs) improved by 110 bps over March 2020 le




    As of August 2020, 89.6% of all loans given by Urban Cooperative Banks to the MSME sector were under moratorium
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    nks to the MSME sector were under moratorium Share Article 0 PRINT A A A A worker seen at an engineering MSME unit at Guindy Industrial Estate in Chennai. File photo | Photo Credit: Bijoy Ghosh <span>As of August 2020, 89.6% of all loans given by Urban Cooperative Banks to the MSME sector were under moratorium A higher share of loan recipients from the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector opted for the COVID-19-related moratorium in August 2020 compared to April 2020. Corporate a




    Even among the MSME companies considered the lowest* risk, the share of missed payments for term loans jumped from 9% in March to 25% in June. In the companies considered the highest risk, the share more than tripled from 11% to 36% between March and June.
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    l Corporate % of loan amount under moratorium Individual Others Total MSME 70 50 30 10 In August, 68% of all MSME loans were under moratorium, a marginal jump from 65% in April. COVID-19 impact <span>Even among the MSME companies considered the lowest* risk, the share of missed payments for term loans jumped from 9% in March to 25% in June. In the companies considered the highest risk, the share more than tripled from 11% to 36% between March and June. image/svg+xml March 2020 June 2020 % of missed payments for term loans 40 30 20 10 0 Medium risk High risk Low risk *The risk factors are calculated based on the credit score, which poi




    More than 30% of UCBs’ total loans went to the MSME sector as of March 2020 - the highest among all bank types.
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    calculated based on the credit score, which points to early signs of trouble in an MSME. Also read: Data | Why did bad loans in banks reduce despite COVID-19 and economic downturn? Most exposed <span>More than 30% of UCBs’ total loans went to the MSME sector as of March 2020 - the highest among all bank types. Thus, the stress in the MSME sector will have a bigger impact in the balance sheets of UCBs. image/svg+xml UCBs PSBs NBFCs SFBs PVBs FBs Loans to MSMEs as a % of total advances 35 25 15




    As of August 2020, 89.6% of all loans given by UCBs to the MSME sector were under moratorium - the highest among all bank types. It is still not known what share of these loan accounts will turn into NPAs (loans overdue >90 days).
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    15 5 Note: PSB: Public Sector Bank; PVB: Private Sector Bank; SCB: All Scheduled Commercial Banks; NBFC: Non-Banking Financial Company; FB: Foreign Banks; SFB: Small Finance Bank Affected banks <span>As of August 2020, 89.6% of all loans given by UCBs to the MSME sector were under moratorium - the highest among all bank types. It is still not known what share of these loan accounts will turn into NPAs (loans overdue >90 days). image/svg+xml UCBs PSBs NBFCs SFBs PVBs FBs SCBs % of loans to MSME under moratorium 100 80 60 40 Source: RBI, MSME Pulse A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you




    Banks' gross non-performing assets may rise to 13.5% by September 2021, from 7.5% in September 2020 under the baseline scenario, according to Financial Stability Report (FSR) released by the Reserve Bank of India.

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    Share Article 0 PRINT A A A RBI logo. File | Photo Credit: Reuters If the macroeconomic environment worsens into a severe stress scenario, the GNPA ratio may escalate to 14.8%, the report said <span>Banks' gross non-performing assets may rise to 13.5% by September 2021, from 7.5% in September 2020 under the baseline scenario, according to Financial Stability Report (FSR) released by the Reserve Bank of India. Also read: Policy roll-back may dent banks’ health, says RBI If the macroeconomic environment worsens into a severe stress scenario, the GNPA ratio may escalate to 14.8%, the report sai




    RBI Financial Stability Report: Banks gross NPA may rise to 13.5% by September 2021
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    RBI Financial Stability Report: Banks gross NPA may rise to 13.5% by September 2021 Share On 0 Business Agri-Business Industry Economy Markets Budget 2020 Stock Quotes Business Economy Economy <span>RBI Financial Stability Report: Banks gross NPA may rise to 13.5% by September 2021 PTI Mumbai, January 11, 2021 19:14 IST Updated: January 11, 2021 19:15 IST PTI Mumbai, January 11, 2021 19:14 IST Updated: January 11, 2021 19:15 IST If the macroeconomic environment wo




    In fact, on January 11, Bitcoin and other coins tanked, wiping off some $170 billion from the market, signalling some market correction and proving that the industry itself is battling obstacles in terms of scaling, efficiency and security.
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    ts; wise ones warn that investing in crypto-coins or tokens is speculative, the market is largely unregulated, and that anyone considering it should be prepared to lose their entire investment. <span>In fact, on January 11, Bitcoin and other coins tanked, wiping off some $170 billion from the market, signalling some market correction and proving that the industry itself is battling obstacles in terms of scaling, efficiency and security. In 2018, the scene had experienced what experts call a ‘crypto winter’: value was at rock-bottom and there was a lot of speculation around government intervention. Alongside this appreh




    In 2018, the scene had experienced what experts call a ‘crypto winter’: value was at rock-bottom and there was a lot of speculation around government intervention. Alongside this apprehension, crypto technologists took more than a sleeves-rolled-up commitment to technical development in the infrastructure. This strengthened the foundation, which contributed to crypto’s ‘spring’ in the late-2020 ‘success’ of Bitcoin.
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    tanked, wiping off some $170 billion from the market, signalling some market correction and proving that the industry itself is battling obstacles in terms of scaling, efficiency and security. <span>In 2018, the scene had experienced what experts call a ‘crypto winter’: value was at rock-bottom and there was a lot of speculation around government intervention. Alongside this apprehension, crypto technologists took more than a sleeves-rolled-up commitment to technical development in the infrastructure. This strengthened the foundation, which contributed to crypto’s ‘spring’ in the late-2020 ‘success’ of Bitcoin. Neeraj Khandelwal, co-founder of CoinDCX Alexis Ohanian, founder of Reddit and crypto advocate, explained in a past interview with CNBC that, “I’m personally happy with the fact that th




    According to Assocham, the most definitive of the data is the record collection of Rs 1.15 lakh crore in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) during December.
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    es, the accruals of the economic benefits would be significant, especially to sectors such as hospitality, transportation, entertainment, which were hit hard during the pandemic," Mr Sood said. <span>According to Assocham, the most definitive of the data is the record collection of Rs 1.15 lakh crore in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) during December. "The State-wise collection showed the fightback spirit in consumer confidence. Illustratively, the largest consumption State of Maharashtra, which was amongst the severely affected by t




    The spokesperson further said that the update does not change WhatsApp's data sharing practices with Facebook and does not impact how people communicate privately with friends or family wherever they are in the world.
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    ny Facebook to help manage their communications with their customers on WhatsApp.” "Though of course, it remains up to the user whether or not they want to message with a business on WhatsApp." <span>The spokesperson further said that the update does not change WhatsApp's data sharing practices with Facebook and does not impact how people communicate privately with friends or family wherever they are in the world. "WhatsApp remains deeply committed to protecting people's privacy. We are communicating directly with users through WhatsApp about these changes so they have time to review the new poli




    The Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT) claimed that through the new privacy policy, "all kinds of personal data, payment transactions, contacts, location and other vital information of a person who is using WhatsApp will be acquired by it and can be used for any purpose by WhatsApp".
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    ology Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad demanding that the government restrict WhatsApp from implementing its new privacy policy or impose a ban on the messaging app and its parent company Facebook. <span>The Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT) claimed that through the new privacy policy, "all kinds of personal data, payment transactions, contacts, location and other vital information of a person who is using WhatsApp will be acquired by it and can be used for any purpose by WhatsApp". In the communication to Mr. Prasad, CAIT has demanded that "government should immediately restrict WhatsApp from implementing the new policy or put a ban on WhatsApp and its parent comp




    "WhatsApp remains deeply committed to protecting people's privacy. We are communicating directly with users through WhatsApp about these changes so they have time to review the new policy over the course of the next month," the spokesperson added.
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    said that the update does not change WhatsApp's data sharing practices with Facebook and does not impact how people communicate privately with friends or family wherever they are in the world. <span>"WhatsApp remains deeply committed to protecting people's privacy. We are communicating directly with users through WhatsApp about these changes so they have time to review the new policy over the course of the next month," the spokesperson added. An email sent to Facebook seeking comment on the issue did not elicit a response. CAIT Secretary General Praveen Khandelwal said, "The changed privacy policy of WhatsApp is an encroachm




    Bitumen, LPG

    But, consumption of bitumen, used in road construction, jumped by 20% to 7,61,000 tonnes.

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    hut in most parts of the country. Demand for naphtha, which is used as an industrial fuel for generating electricity and producing petrochemicals, fell 2.67% to 1.23 million tonnes in December. <span>Bitumen, LPG But, consumption of bitumen, used in road construction, jumped by 20% to 7,61,000 tonnes. LPG — the only fuel that showed growth even during the lockdown period on the back of the government giving free cooking gas to the poor — was 7.4% higher at 2.53 million tonnes. Aviati




    LPG — the only fuel that showed growth even during the lockdown period on the back of the government giving free cooking gas to the poor — was 7.4% higher at 2.53 million tonnes.
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    g electricity and producing petrochemicals, fell 2.67% to 1.23 million tonnes in December. Bitumen, LPG But, consumption of bitumen, used in road construction, jumped by 20% to 7,61,000 tonnes. <span>LPG — the only fuel that showed growth even during the lockdown period on the back of the government giving free cooking gas to the poor — was 7.4% higher at 2.53 million tonnes. Aviation turbine fuel or ATF sales fell 41% to 4,28,000 tonnes as most airlines are yet to resume full operations. However, on a month-on-month basis, it improved by 13.5%. A letter fro




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