Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 11-Sep-2021 (Sat)

Do you want BuboFlash to help you learning these things? Click here to log in or create user.

Glucocorticoids
#Endocrinology
These are named after their effects on carbohydrate metabolism. Major actions are listed in Box 21.13. They act on intracellular corti- costeroid receptors and combine with coactivating proteins to bind the ‘glucocorticoid response element’ (GRE) in specific regions of DNA to cause gene transcription. Glucocorticoid action is modified locally by the action of 11β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD). 11βHSD type 1 converts inactive cortisone into active cortisol, hence amplifying the hormone signal, while 11βHSD type 2 does the opposite
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on suggested re-reading day
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 6731760536844

Tags
#Endocrinology #has-images


Question
glucocorticoids increase

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 6731763420428

Tags
#Endocrinology #has-images


Question
glucocorticoids decrease

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Endocrinology
#Mineralocorticoids
The predominant effect of mineralocorticoids is on the extracellu- lar balance of sodium and potassium in the distal tubule of the kidney. Aldosterone, produced solely in the zona glomerulosa, is the predominant mineralocorticoid in humans (about 50%); corti- costerone makes a small contribution to overall mineralocorticoid activity. Mineralocorticoids act on type 1 corticosteroid receptors, while glucocorticoids act on type 2 receptors, both having a very similar structure. The mineralocorticoid activity of cortisol is weak but cortisol is present in considerable excess. The mineralocorti- coid receptor in the kidney is protected from this excess by the intrarenal conversion (‘shuttle’) of cortisol to cortisone by 11βHSD type 2
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on suggested re-reading day
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Androgens
#Endocrinology
Although secreted in considerable quantities, most androgens have relatively weak intrinsic androgenic activity until metabolized periph- erally to testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. Dihydrotestosterone is metabolized from testosterone by 5α- reductase and is a potent androgen receptor agonist. The androgen receptor has been well characterized and mutations within this gene may cause androgen insensitivity syndromes
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on suggested re-reading day
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 6731769449740

Tags
#Endocrinology
Question
Mineralocorticoid secretion is mainly controlled by the [...] system
Answer
Mineralocorticoid secretion is mainly controlled by the renin– angiotensin system

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 6731771809036

Tags
#Endocrinology
Question
[...] ar e used if excess cortisol is suspected, and [...] are used if cortisol deficiency is suspected
Answer
Suppression tests are used if excess cortisol is suspected, and stimulation tests are used if cortisol deficiency is suspected

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 6731775216908

Tags
#endcrinology #has-images
Question
whata are the causes of Cushing's syndrome?



statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 6731781508364

Tags
#Endocrinology #has-images



statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Cushings syndrome
#Endocrinology
Cushing’s syndrome reflects a constellation of clinical features that result from chronic exposure to excess glucocor- ticoids of any etiology. The disorder can be ACTH-dependent (e.g., pituitary corticotrope adenoma, ectopic secretion of ACTH by nonpi- tuitary tumor) or ACTH-independent (e.g., adrenocortical adenoma, adrenocortical carcinoma [ACC], nodular adrenal hyperplasia), as well as iatrogenic (e.g., administration of exogenous glucocorticoids to treat various inflammatory conditions). The term Cushing’s disease refers specifically to Cushing’s syndrome caused by a pituitary corticotrope adenoma.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on suggested re-reading day
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Cushings syndrome epidemology
#Endocrinology
In the overwhelming majority of patients, Cushing’s syndrome is caused by an ACTH-producing corticotrope adenoma of the pitu- itary , as initially described by Harvey Cushing in 1912. Cushing’s disease more frequently affects women, with the exception of prepubertal cases, where it is more common in boys. By contrast, ectopic ACTH syndrome is more frequently identified in men. Only 10% of patients with Cushing’s syndrome have a primary, adrenal cause of their disease (e.g., autonomous cortisol excess independent of ACTH), and most of these patients are women. However, overall, the medical use of glucocorticoids for immunosuppression, or for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, is the most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on suggested re-reading day
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 6731789110540

Tags
#Endocrinology #has-images
Question
Signs of Cushimhs syndrome



statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 6731791207692

Tags
#Endocrinology #has-images
Question
Symptoms of Cushings syndrome



statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

pdf

cannot see any pdfs







Flashcard 6731796188428

Question
game theory
Answer
[default - edit me]

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
What is Game Theory?
tomorrow, nothing but an eternal shallow, mathematical present." Hermann Hesse An Instructive Example A Better Place Readings About Game Theory Reviews of Game Theory Texts What economists call <span>game theory psychologists call the theory of social situations, which is an accurate description of what game theory is about. Although game theory is relevant to parlor games such as poker or brid