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Flashcard 1429123239180

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#sister-miriam-joseph #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
[...] or [...] may be expressed by cries or exclamat ions, as when a baby cries or a dog barks for food.
Answer
Volition (desires)

appetition (appetites)

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Volition (desires) or appetition (appetites) may be expressed by cries or exclamat ions, as when a baby cries or a dog barks for food. Since, however, desires multiply as knowledge increases, humans usual

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Flashcard 1431633530124

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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question
The negative slope in the indifference curve simply represents that both goods are wanted; in order to maintain indifference, a [...] must be compensated for by [...]
Answer
decrease in one

an increase in the other

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pan>The indifference curve represents our consumer’s unique preferences over the two goods wine and bread. Its negative slope simply represents that both wine and bread are seen as “good” to this consumer; in order to maintain indifference, a <span>decrease in the quantity of wine must be compensated for by an increase in the quantity of bread.<span><body><html>

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
n below and to the left of the indifference curve. Exhibit 2. An Indifference Curve Note: An indifference curve shows all combinations of two goods such that the consumer is indifferent between them. <span>The indifference curve represents our consumer’s unique preferences over the two goods wine and bread. Its negative slope simply represents that both wine and bread are seen as “good” to this consumer; in order to maintain indifference, a decrease in the quantity of wine must be compensated for by an increase in the quantity of bread. Its curvature tells us something about the strength of his willingness to trade off one good for the other. The indifference curve in Exhibit 2 is characteristically drawn to be convex







Flashcard 1432516955404

Tags
#matter-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The human voice alone is [...], having a meaning [...]
Answer
symbolic

imposed upon it by convention.

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Voice is the sound uttered by an animal. The voice of irrational animals has meaning from nature, from the tone of the utterance. The human voice alone is symbolic, having a meaning imposed upon it by convention.

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Flashcard 1432521149708

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The alphabet of the International Phonetic Association is a system of written symbols aiming at an accurate and uniform representation of the sounds of speech. It distinguishes [...] vowel sounds, six diphthongs, and twenty-seven consonant sounds.
Answer
twenty

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The alphabet 8 of the International Phonetic Association is a system of written symbols aiming at an accurate and uniform representation of the sounds of speech. It distinguishes twent y vowel sounds, six diphthongs, and twenty-seven consonant sounds. The English language lacks three of the vowel sounds (those present in German grün and schön and in French seul) and

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Flashcard 1432859839756

Tags
#i-q #types-of-inteligence
Question
[...], e.g. lexical skills, formal speech, verbal debate, creative writing.
Answer
Verbal=linguistic

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Verbal=linguistic, e.g. lexical skills, formal speech, verbal debate, creative writing.

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Flashcard 1435048480012

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4


Question


The total expenditure by buyers becomes the [...] to sellers in a market.

Answer
total revenue

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Exhibit 22. Elasticity and Total Expenditure
d>it does not matter whether we are dealing with the demand curve of an individual consumer, the demand curve of the market, or the demand curve facing any given seller. The total expenditure by buyers becomes the total revenue to sellers in a market. If demand is elastic, a fall in price will result in an increase in total revenue as a whole, and if demand is inelastic, a fall in price will result







Flashcard 1435553369356

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #lol #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
In the theory of the firm, the price at which a given quantity of a good can be bought or sold is assumed to [...]
Answer
be known with certainty

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The price at which a given quantity of a good can be bought or sold is assumed to be known with certainty (i.e., the theory of the firm under conditions of certainty)

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2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
fit over the period ahead. Such analysis provides both tools (e.g., optimization) and concepts (e.g., productivity) that can be adapted to more-complex cases and also provides a set of results that may offer useful approximations in practice. <span>The price at which a given quantity of a good can be bought or sold is assumed to be known with certainty (i.e., the theory of the firm under conditions of certainty). The main contrast of this type of analysis is to the theory of the firm under conditions of uncertainty, where prices, and therefore profit, are uncertain. Under market uncertainty, a







Flashcard 1435624410380

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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economic-and-normal-profit #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question

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Economic profit (also known as abnormal profit or supernormal profit ) may be defined broadly as accounting profit less the implicit opportunity costs not included in total accounting costs.

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2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
00 – $48,000,000 = $2,000,000. Note that total accounting costs in either case include interest expense—which represents the return required by suppliers of debt capital—because interest expense is an explicit cost. <span>2.1.2. Economic Profit and Normal Profit Economic profit (also known as abnormal profit or supernormal profit ) may be defined broadly as accounting profit less the implicit opportunity costs not included in total accounting costs. Equation (3a)  Economic profit = Accounting profit – Total implicit opportunity costs We can define a term, economic cost , equal to the sum of total accounting costs and implicit opportunity costs. Economic profit is therefore equivalently defined as: Equation (3b)  Economic profit = Total revenue – Total economic costs For publicly traded corporations, the focus of investment analysts’ work, the cost of equity capital is the largest and most readily identified implicit opportunity cost omitted in calculating total accounting cost. Consequently, economic profit can be defined for publicly traded corporations as accounting profit less the required return on equity capital. Examples will make these concepts clearer. Consider the start-up company for which we calculated an accounting profit of €300,000 and suppose that the entrepreneurial executive who launched the start-up took a salary reduction of €100,000 per year relative to the job he left. That €100,000 is an opportunity cost of involving him in running the start-up. Besides labor, financial capital is a resource. Suppose that the executive, as sole owner, makes an investment of €1,500,000 to launch the enterprise and that he might otherwise expect to earn €200,000 per year on that amount in a similar risk investment. Total implicit opportunity costs are €100,000 + €200,000 = €300,000 per year and economic profit is zero: €300,000 – €300,000 = €0. For the publicly traded corporation, we consider the cost of equity capital as the only implicit opportunity cost identifiable. Suppose that equity investment is $18,750,000 and shareholders’ required rate of return is 8 percent so that the dollar cost of equity capital is $1,500,000. Economic profit for the publicly traded corporation is therefore $2,000,000 (accounting profit) less $1,500,000 (cost of equity capital) or $500,000. For the start-up company, economic profit was zero. Total economic costs were just covered by revenues and the company was not earning a euro more nor less than the amount that meets the opportunity costs of the resources used in the business. Economists would say the company was earning a normal profit (economic profit of zero). In simple terms, normal profit is the level of accounting profit needed to just cover the implicit opportunity costs ignored in accounting costs. For the publicly traded corporation, normal profit was $1,500,000: normal profit can be taken to be the cost of equity capital (in money terms) for such a company or the dollar return required on an equal investment by equity holders in an equivalently risky alternative investment opportunity. The publicly traded corporation actually earned $500,000 in excess of normal profit, which should be reflected in the common shares’ market price. Thus, the following expression links accounting profit to economic profit and normal profit: Equation (4)  Accounting profit = Economic profit + Normal profit When accounting profit equals normal profit, economic profit is zero. Further, when accounting profit is greater than normal profit, economic profit is positive; and when accounting profit is less than normal profit, economic profit is negative (the firm has an economic loss ). Economic profit for a firm can originate from sources such as: competitive advantage; exceptional managerial efficiency or skill; difficult to copy technology or innovation (e.g., patents, trademarks, and copyrights); exclusive access to less-expensive inputs; fixed supply of an output, commodity, or resource; preferential treatment under governmental policy; large increases in demand where supply is unable to respond fully over time; exertion of monopoly power (price control) in the market; and market barriers to entry that limit competition. Any of the above factors may lead the firm to have positive net present value investment (NPV) opportunities. Access to positive NPV opportunities and therefore profit in excess of normal profits in the short run may or may not exist in the long run, depending on the potential strength of competition. In highly competitive market situations, firms tend to earn the normal profit level over time because ease of market entry allows for other competing firms to compete away any economic profit over the long run. Economic profit that exists over the long run is usually found where competitive conditions persistently are less than perfect in the market. 2.1.3. Economic Rent The surplus value known as economic rent results when a particular resource or good is fixed in supply (with a vertical su







Flashcard 1435818921228

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question
The MRSBW is the rate at which the consumer is willing to give up wine to obtain a small increment of bread while holding [...]
Answer
holding utility constant (i.e., movement along an indifference curve).

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The MRS BW is the rate at which the consumer is willing to give up wine to obtain a small increment of bread, holding utility constant (i.e., movement along an indifference curve).

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
in Exhibit 2 is characteristically drawn to be convex when viewed from the origin. This indicates that the willingness to give up wine to obtain a little more bread diminishes the more bread and the less wine the bundle contains. <span>We capture this willingness to give up one good to obtain a little more of the other in the phrase marginal rate of substitution of bread for wine, MRS BW . The MRS BW is the rate at which the consumer is willing to give up wine to obtain a small increment of bread, holding utility constant (i.e., movement along an indifference curve). Notice that the convexity implies that at a bundle like a′′, which contains rather a lot of wine and not much bread, the consumer would be willing to give up a considerable amount of wi







Flashcard 1438143352076

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #introduction #reading-35-capital-budgeting
Question
The "budget" is aplan which details [...] during a future period.
Answer
projected cash inflows and outflows

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Subject 1. Capital Budgeting: Introduction
ssets) whose cash flows are expected to extend beyond one year. Managers analyze projects and decide which ones to include in the capital budget. "Capital" refers to long-term assets. The "budget" is a <span>plan which details projected cash inflows and outflows during a future period. The typical steps in the capital budgeting process: Generating good investment ideas to consider. Analyzing individual pro







Flashcard 1438171139340

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #introduction #reading-35-capital-budgeting
Question

Replacement decisions to maintain a business. [...] are usually made without detailed analysis.
Answer
Maintenance decisions

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types of replacement decisions: Replacement decisions to maintain a business. The issue is twofold: should the existing operations be continued? If yes, should the same processes continue to be used? <span>Maintenance decisions are usually made without detailed analysis. Replacement decisions to reduce costs. Cost reduction projects determine whether to replace serviceable but obsolete equipment. These decisio

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Subject 1. Capital Budgeting: Introduction
ood capital budgeting decisions can be made). Otherwise, you will have the GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) problem. Improve operations, thus making capital decisions well-implemented. <span>Project classifications: Replacement projects. There are two types of replacement decisions: Replacement decisions to maintain a business. The issue is twofold: should the existing operations be continued? If yes, should the same processes continue to be used? Maintenance decisions are usually made without detailed analysis. Replacement decisions to reduce costs. Cost reduction projects determine whether to replace serviceable but obsolete equipment. These decisions are discretionary and a detailed analysis is usually required. The cash flows from the old asset must be considered in replacement decisions. Specifically, in a replacement project, the cash flows from selling old assets should be used to offset the initial investment outlay. Analysts also need to compare revenue/cost/depreciation before and after the replacement to identify changes in these elements. Expansion projects. Projects concerning expansion into new products, services, or markets involve strategic decisions and explicit forecasts of future demand, and thus require detailed analysis. These projects are more complex than replacement projects. Regulatory, safety and environmental projects. These projects are mandatory investments, and are often non-revenue-producing. Others. Some projects need special considerations beyond traditional capital budgeting analysis (for example, a very risky research project in which cash flows cannot be reliably forecast). LOS a. describe the capital budgeting process and distinguish among the various categories of capital projects; <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1438303784204

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
Important capital budgeting concepts (middle one):
  • [...]
Answer
Opportunity cost

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#13; Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. <span>Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the book

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Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
d in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. <span>Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they should not be included in the capital budgeting analysis. For example, a small bookstore is considering opening a coffee shop within its store, which will generate an annual net cash outflow of $10,000 from selling coffee. That is, the coffee shop will always be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent $5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the $5,000 is spent. Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project. Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the bookstore example, the space to be occupied by the coffee shop is an opportunity cost - it could be used to sell books and generate a $5,000 annual net cash inflow. Externalities are the effects of a project on cash flows in other parts of a firm. Although they are difficult to quantify, they should be considered. Externalities can be either positive or negative: Positive externalities create benefits for other parts of the firm. For example, the coffee shop may generate some additional customers for the bookstore (who otherwise may not buy books there). Future cash flows generated by positive externalities occur with the project and do not occur without the project, so they are incremental. Negative externalities create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. Future cash flows represented by negative externalities occur regardless of the project, so they are non-incremental. Such cash flows represent a transfer from existing projects to new projects, and thus should be subtracted from the new projects' cash flows. Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows. A conventional cash flow pattern is one with an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. Some project interactions: Indepe







Flashcard 1442970471692

Tags
#gramatica-española #tulio
Question
Entre el morfema y la oración, unidades mínima y máxima, respectivamente, del análisis gramatical, se ubican la palabra, unidad compartida por ambas partes, y las unidades intermedias, [...] construcciones como el libro, mi viejo libro de gramática, muy interesante, lejos de la ciudad, leer detenidamente.
Answer
los sintagmas,

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labras en el marco de la oración, su unidad máxima. Entre el morfema y la oración, unidades mínima y máxima, respectivamente, del análisis gramatical, se ubican la palabra, unidad compartida por ambas partes, y las unidades intermedias, <span>los sintagmas, construcciones como el libro, mi viejo libro de gramática, muy interesante, lejos de la ciudad, leer detenidamente.<span><body><html>

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ibro no es segmentable en partes que preserven la dualidad entre sonido y significado: es una palabra simple. En cambio, libro-s, libr-ero, libr-ito contienen cada una dos formantes. La morfología detiene su análisis al llegar a la palabra. <span>La sintaxis, a su vez, estudia la combinatoria de las palabras en el marco de la oración, su unidad máxima. Entre el morfema y la oración, unidades mínima y máxima, respectivamente, del análisis gramatical, se ubican la palabra, unidad compartida por ambas partes, y las unidades intermedias, los sintagmas, construcciones como el libro, mi viejo libro de gramática, muy interesante, lejos de la ciudad, leer detenidamente. La gramática tradicional centró su estudio en la palabra y su clasificación ("las partes de la oración"), por lo que estuvo más cerca de la morfología que de la sintaxis







Flashcard 1442993540364

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question
Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra [...]
Answer
compuesta.

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Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra compuesta.

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La estructura interna de la palabra
1. Los formantes morfológicos Una palabra tiene estructura interna cuando contiene más de un formante morfológico. Un formante morfológico o morfema es una unidad mínima que consta de una forma fonética y de un significado. Comparemos las siguientes palabras: gota, gotas, gotita, gotera, cuentagotas. Gota es la única de estas palabras que consta de un solo formante. Carece, entonces, de estructura interna. Es una palabra simple. Todas las otras palabras tienen estructura interna. [31] Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfe- mas, son formas ligadas. Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra compuesta. Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos (-s, -ita, -era) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente. Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos. Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas. Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivos (útil), adverbios (ayer), verbos (cuenta). Pueden ser: - palabras simples (gota, útil, ayer); - base a la que se adosan los afijos en palabras complejas (got-, politic-); - parte de una palabra, compuesta (cuenta, gotas). b. Otros son formantes gramaticales: tienen significado gramatical, no léxico. Se agrupan en clases cerradas. Pueden ser: - palabras independientes: preposiciones (a, de, por), conjunciones (que, si); - afijos en palabras derivadas (-s, -ero, in-, des-); - menos frecuentemente, formantes de compuestos (aun-que, por-que, si-no). Entre las palabras no simples consideradas hasta aquí, cada una contenía sólo dos formantes. En otras un mismo tipo de formantes se repite: - sufijos: region-al-izar, util-iza-ble; - prefijos: des-com-poner. ex-pro-soviético, o también formantes de diferentes tipos pueden combinarse entre sí: - prefijo y sufijo: des-leal-tad, em-pobr-ecer; - palabra compuesta y sufijo: rionegr-ino, narcotrafic-ante. En la combinación de prefijación y sufijación, se distinguen dos casos, ilustrados en nuestros ejemplos. En deslealtad, la aplicación de cada uno de los afijos da como resultado una palabra bien formada: si aplicamos sólo el prefijo se obtiene el adjetivo desleal; si aplicamos sólo el sufijo el resultado será el sustantivo lealtad. En cambio, en empobrecer, si se aplica sólo un afijo [32] el resultado no será una palabra existente: *empobre, *pobrecer. Prefijo y sufijo se aplican simultáneamente, constituyendo un único formante morfológico – discontinuo– que se añade a ambos lados de la base léxica. Este segundo caso se denomina parasíntesis. Para establecer la estructura interna de las palabras, la morfología se ocupa de: a. identificar los formantes morfológicos; b. determinar las posibles variaciones que éstos presenten; c. describir los procesos involucrados; d. reconocer la organización de las palabras. 2. Identificación de los formantes morfológicos Comparemos ahora las siguientes palabras: sol, sol-ar; sol-azo, quita- sol, gira-sol, solter-o, solaz. En las







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#bayesianism #cognitive-science #computation #computational-psychology #continue-here
3. Multiple Levels of Computational Cognitive Modeling
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#bayesianism #cognitive-science #computation #computational-psychology
he goal of this chapter is to illustrate the kinds of computational models of cogni- tion that we can build if we assume that hu- man learning and inference approximately follow the principles of Bayesian probabilis- tic inference and to explain some of the mathematical ideas and techniques under- lying those models.
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#bayesianism #cognitive-science #computation #computational-psychology
Bayesian models have ad- dressed animal learning (Courville, Daw, & Touretzky, 2006), human inductive learn- ing and generalization (Tenenbaum, Grif- fiths, & Kemp, 2006), visual scene percep- tion (Yuille & Kersten, 2006), motor con- trol (Kording & Wolpert, 2006), seman- tic memory (Steyvers, Griffiths, & Dennis, 2006), language processing and acquisition (Chater & Manning, 2006; Xu & Tenen- baum, 2007), symbolic reasoning (Oaksford &Chater, 2001), causal learning and in- ference (Steyvers et al., 2003; Griffiths & Tenenbaum, 2005, 2007a), and social cog- nition (Baker, Tenenbaum, & Saxe, 2007), among other topics.
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#bayesianism #cognitive-science #computation #computational-psychology
To us, the big question is this: How does the human mind go beyond the data of experience? In other words, how does the mind build rich, abstract, veridical models of the world given only the sparse and noisy data that we observe through our senses?
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#bayesianism #cognitive-science #computation #computational-psychology
he Bayesian framework for probabilis- tic inference provides a general approach to understanding how problems of induc- tion can be solved in principle and per- haps how they might be solved in the hu- man mind. Let us give a few examples. Vision researchers are interested in how the mind infers the intrinsic properties of a ob- ject (e.g., its color or shape) as well as its role in a visual scene (e.g., its spatial re- lation to other objects or its trajectory of motion). These features are severely under- determined by the available image data. For instance, the spectrum of light wavelengths reflected from an object’s surface into the observer’s eye is a product of two unknown spectra: the surface’s color spectrum and the spectrum of the light illuminating the scene. Solving the problem of “color constancy” – inferring the object’s color given only the light reflected from it, under any conditions of illumination – is akin to solving the equa- tion y = a × b for a given y,withoutknow- ing b. No deductive or certain inference is possible. At best, we can make a reasonable guess, based on some expectations about which values of a and b are more likely a priori. This inference can be formalized in a Bayesian framework (Brainard & Free- man, 1997), and it can be solved reasonably well given prior probability distributions for natural surface reflectances and illumination spectra.
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2. The Basics of Bayesian Inference
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2.1. Bayes’ Rule
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2.2. Comparing Hypotheses
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2.3. Parameter Estimation
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2.4. Model Selection
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2.5. Summary
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3. Graphical Models
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3.1. Bayesian Networks
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3.2. Representing Probability Distributions over Propositions
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3.3. Causal Graphical Models
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3.4. Example: Causal Induction from Contingency Data
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4. Hierarchical Bayesian Models
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4.1. Example: Learning about Feature Variability
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4.2. Example: Property Induction
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5. Markov Chain Monte Carlo
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5.1. Example: Inferring Topics from Text
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6. Conclusion
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Bayesian Models of Cognition
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1. Introduction
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he focus of this chapter will be on problems in higher-level cognition: inferring causal structure from patterns of statistical correlation, learning about categories and hidden properties of objects, and learning the meanings of words. This focus is partly a pragmatic choice, as these topics are the sub- ject of our own research and hence we know them best. But there are also deeper rea- sons for this choice. Learning about causal relations, category structures, or the proper- ties or names of objects are problems that are very close to the classic problems of induction that have been much discussed and puzzled over in the Western philo- sophical tradition. Showing how Bayesian methods can apply to these problems thus illustrates clearly their importance in un- derstanding phenomena of induction more generally. These are also cases where the im- portant mathematical principles and tech- niques of Bayesian statistics can be applied in a relatively straightforward way. They thus provide an ideal training ground for readers new to Bayesian modeling.
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Bayesian principles dictate how rational agents should update their be- liefs in light of new data, based on a set of as- sumptions about the nature of the problem at hand and the prior knowledge possessed by the agents.
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Bayesian models are typically formulated at Marr’s (1982)levelof“com- putational theory,” rather than the algorith- mic or process level that characterizes more traditional cognitive modeling paradigms
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limits on the phenomena that are valuable to study within aBayesianparadigm.Somephenomenawill surely be more satisfying to address at an al- gorithmic or neurocomputational level. For example, that a certain behavior takes peo- ple an average of 450 milliseconds to pro- duce, measured from the onset of a visual stimulus, or that this reaction time increases when the stimulus is moved to a different part of the visual field or decreases when the same information content is presented audi- torily, are not facts that a rational computa- tional theory is likely to predict.
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not all computational-level models of cog- nition may have a place for Bayesian anal- ysis. Only problems of inductive inference, or problems that contain an inductive com- ponent, are naturally expressed in Bayesian terms. Deductive reasoning, planning, or problem solving, for instance, are not tra- ditionally thought of in this way. However, Bayesian principles are increasingly coming to be seen as relevant to many cognitive ca- pacities, even those not traditionally seen in statistical terms (Anderson, 1990; Oaksford &Chater, 2001), because of the need for people to make inherently underconstrained inferences from impoverished data in an un- certain world
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The more complex methods can support multiple hierarchi- cally organized layers of inference, struc- tured representations of abstract knowledge, and approximate methods of evaluation that can be applied efficiently to data sets with many thousands of entities. For the first time, we now have practical methods for developing computational models of human cognition that are based on sound proba- bilistic principles and that can also capture something of the richness and complexity of everyday thinking, reasoning, and learning.
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Finally, probabilistic models can be used to advance and perhaps resolve some of the great theoretical debates that divide tradi- tional approaches to cognitive science. The history of computational models of cogni- tion exhibits an enduring tension between models that emphasize symbolic represen- tations and deductive inference, such as first-order logic or phrase structure gram- mars, and models that emphasize continu- ous representations and statistical learning, such as connectionist networks or other as- sociative systems. Probabilistic models can be defined with either symbolic or continu- ous representations, or hybrids of both, and help to illustrate how statistical learning can be combined with symbolic structure. More generally, we think that the most promis- ing routes to understanding human intelli- gence in computational terms will involve deep interactions between these two tradi- tionally opposing approaches, with sophis- ticated statistical inference machinery oper- ating over structured symbolic knowledge representations.
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Jon Snow is the bastard son of Eddard Stark, Lord of Winterfell
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Jon Snow - A Wiki of Ice and Fire
AC [1] Book(s) A Game of Thrones (POV)A Clash of Kings (POV)A Storm of Swords (POV)A Feast for Crows (appears)A Dance with Dragons (POV) Played by Kit Harington TV series Season 1 | Season 2 | Season 3 | Season 4 | Season 5 | Season 6 <span>Jon Snow is the bastard son of Eddard Stark, Lord of Winterfell. [2] He has five half-siblings: Robb, Sansa, Arya, Bran, and Rickon Stark. Unaware of the identity of his mother, [3] Jon was raised at Winterfell. At the age of fourteen, he joins th