Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 13-May-2017 (Sat)

Do you want BuboFlash to help you learning these things? Click here to log in or create user.

#artificial-intelligence #common-lisp #norvig
perhaps the most important characteristic of a programming language: the abilityto define new objects in terms of others, and to name these objects for future use.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

pdf

cannot see any pdfs




Flashcard 1602796260620

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #common-lisp #norvig
Question
perhaps the most important characteristic of a programming language: the abilityto define new objects in terms of [...], and to name these objects for future use.
Answer
others

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
perhaps the most important characteristic of a programming language: the abilityto define new objects in terms of others, and to name these objects for future use.

Original toplevel document (pdf)

cannot see any pdfs







statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Erlang (programming language) - Wikipedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the programming language. For other things named "Erlang", see Erlang (disambiguation). <span>Erlang [imagelink] Paradigm multi-paradigm: concurrent, functional Designed by Joe Armstrong, Robert Virding, and Mike Williams Developer Ericsson First appeared 1986; 31 years ago (1986) Stable release 19.3 [1] / 14 March 2017; 59 days ago (2017-03




Flashcard 1602809367820

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #eps #financial-reporting-and-analysis #understanding-income-statement
Question
Diluted EPS

Net income
___________________________________
(Weighted average number of shares outstanding + [...] )
Answer
Shares that would have been issued

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
ulation plus the additional shares of common stock that would be issued upon conversion of the preferred. Thus, the formula to calculate diluted EPS using the if-converted method for preferred stock is: Equation (2)  <span>Diluted EPS Net income ___________________________________ (Weighted average number of shares outstanding + New common shares that would have been issued at conversion) A diluted EPS calculation using the if-converted method for preferred stock is provided in Example 15. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Earnings Per Share
income) from continuing operations.46 Similar presentation is required under US GAAP.47 This section outlines the calculations for EPS and explains how the calculation differs for a simple versus complex capital structure. <span>Simple versus Complex Capital Structure A company’s capital is composed of its equity and debt. Some types of equity have preference over others, and some debt (and other instruments) may be converted into equity. Under IFRS, the type of equity for which EPS is presented is referred to as ordinary. Ordinary shares are those equity shares that are subordinate to all other types of equity. The ordinary shareholders are basically the owners of the company—the equity holders who are paid last in a liquidation of the company and who benefit the most when the company does well. Under US GAAP, this ordinary equity is referred to as common stock or common shares , reflecting US language usage. The terms “ordinary shares,” “common stock,” and “common shares” are used interchangeably in the following discussion. When a company has issued any financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock, it is said to have a complex capital structure. Examples of financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock include convertible bonds, convertible preferred stock, employee stock options, and warrants.48 If a company’s capital structure does not include such potentially convertible financial instruments, it is said to have a simple capital structure. The distinction between simple versus complex capital structure is relevant to the calculation of EPS because financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock could, as a result of conversion or exercise, potentially dilute (i.e., decrease) EPS. Information about such a potential dilution is valuable to a company’s current and potential shareholders; therefore, accounting standards require companies to disclose what their EPS would be if all dilutive financial instruments were converted into common stock. The EPS that would result if all dilutive financial instruments were converted is called diluted EPS . In contrast, basic EPS is calculated using the reported earnings available to common shareholders of the parent company and the weighted average number of shares outstanding. Companies are required to report both basic and diluted EPS. For example, Danone reported basic EPS (“before dilution”) and diluted EPS (“after dilution”) of €2.57 for 2009, somewhat lower than 2008. Kraft reported basic EPS of $2.04 and diluted EPS of $2.03 for 2009, much higher than basic and diluted EPS (from continuing operations) of $1.22 and $1.21 for 2008. (The EPS information appears at the bottom of Danone’s and Kraft’s income statements.) An analyst would try to determine the causes underlying the changes in EPS, a topic we will address following an explanation of the calculations of both basic and diluted EPS. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1602815134988

Tags
#broker #estate #real
Question
[..1.] A special category of fixtures includes property used in the course of business. An article owned by a tenant, attached to a rented space or building, and used in conducting a business is a [..1.] , or a chattel fixture. Some examples of [.1..] are hydraulic lifts in an auto repair shop, lanes and pin-setting equipment in a bowling alley, and dining booths in a restaurant. Agricultural fixtures, such as chicken coops and tool sheds, are also included in this category. [..1.] must be removed on or before the last day the property is rented. The tenant is responsible for any damage caused by the removal of a [.1..] . [.1..] that are not removed become the real property of the landlord. Acquiring the property in this way is known as [.2..] (this is related to the legal principle of constructive annexation).
Answer
1 - Trade Fixture
2 -- Accession

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602818805004

Tags
#broker #estate #real
Question
What is land vs. real estate vs. real property?
Answer
Land thus includes not only the surface of the earth, with the boulders and plants found on it, but also the underlying soil. It includes the subsurface, the minerals and substances that lie far below the earth’s surface as well as the airspace, the air above the earth, all the way into space. Most of the surface of the earth, of course, is not land at all, but water. Federal, state, and local laws govern the ownership and use of the wetter parts of the earth, including oceans, lakes, and rivers. Private contracts, as well as laws and regulations, can also limit ownership and use rights in the surface, subsurface, and airspace of land.

Real estate is defined as land plus all human-made improvements to the land that are permanently attached (annexed) to it. (See Figure 2.1.)An improvement to land can be any artificial thing attached on or below ground, such as a building, fence, water line or sewer pipe, as well as growing things that are made part of the landscaping.

Real Property

Real property is defined as the interests, benefits, and rights that are automatically included in the ownership of real estate. (See Figure 2.1.) In many states, the terms real estate and real property are synonymous, and are used to refer to both the physical property and the rights of ownership, while other states still make the distinction.

Traditionally, ownership rights of real property are described as a bundle of legal rights. These rights include the

  • right of possession,
  • right to control the property within the framework of the law,
  • right of enjoyment (to use the property in any legal manner),
  • right of exclusion (to keep others from entering or using the property), and
  • right of disposition (to sell, will, transfer, or otherwise dispose of or encumber the property).

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602820640012

Question
Bundle of Sticks comprising Real Property -- what are the sticks?
Answer
FIGURE 2.2: The Bundle of Legal Rights


PCEED People possess and control and are disposed to Enjoy excluding

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602822737164

Question
What is the acronym for the bundle of sticks known as Real Property?
Answer




PCEED - People are disposed to enjoy excluding and controlling
FIGURE 2.2: The Bundle of Legal Rights

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602824572172

Tags
#broker #estate #real
Question
Middle Ages under old English Law had transfers of Real Property by what means?
Answer
FIGURE 2.2: The Bundle of Legal Rights

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602826407180

Tags
#broker #estate #real
Question
Two meanings of title as it relates to real property?
Answer
1 - bundle of legal rights (PCEED)
2 - evidence of ownership of the bundle (a deed). Title refers to ownership NOT the printed document (which is the deed) (note distinction with cars, where you are asked if you have "title" meaning the printed document.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602829028620

Tags
#broker #estate #real
Question
An ________ is a right or privilege associated with property, but not necessarily part of the the property. Parking Spaces, Easements, Water Rights. Connected to the Property and normally transfers to new owner when sold.
Answer
Appurtenance

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602831125772

Tags
#broker #estate #pennsylvania #real
Question
Damage to the surface caused by mining (downward land shifts, sinkholes and troughs from groundwater flows, and resulting damage to structures.
Requires ______________ Notice whereby if a seller cannot certify support of a structure the purchaser must be so notified. Special Insurance Available
Answer
Mine Subsidence.
Coal Mining Notice.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602833222924

Question

Before air travel was possible, a property’s [...] rights were considered unlimited, extending upward into the farthest reaches of outer space. Now that air travel is common, however, the federal government, through laws, regulations, and court decisions, has put limits on [...] rights. Today, reasonable interference with these rights is permitted, such as that necessary for aircraft (and presumably spacecraft), as long as the owner’s right to use and occupy the land is not unduly lessened. Government and airport authorities often purchase adjacent [...] rights to provide approach patterns for air traffic.

With the continuing development of solar power, [...] rights—and, more specifically, light or solar rights—are being closely examined by the courts. A new highrise building that blocks sunlight from a smaller existing building may be found to be interfering with the smaller building’s right to sunlight, particularly if systems in the smaller building are solar powered. [...] and solar rights are regulated by state and local laws and regulations.

Answer
Air Rights

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602835320076

Question

[.1..] PROPERTY VERSUS [..2.] PROPERTY

Property may be classified as either [...1 or 2] . [.1..] property, sometimes called personalty, is all the property that can be owned and that does not fit the definition of [.2..] property. An important distinction between the two is that [..1.] property is [.3.] . Items of [.1..] property, also called chattels, include such tangibles as chairs, tables, clothing, money, bonds, and bank accounts.

Answer
1 - personal
2 -- real
3 -- movable

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1602839776524

Question
[...] becomes President of South Korea

[...] assumed the office of President of South Korea on Wednesday. He was announced the winner of Tuesday's election, with [...] of the vote, and sworn in on Wednesday at the Korean National Assembly.

Answer
Moon Jae-in and 41%

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
Wikinews, the free news source
ikinews The free news source you can write! Saturday, May 13, 2017, 2326 (UTC) Copy us • Newsroom • Mission statement • Report breaking news • Donate Audio Wikinews • Social networking • Chat • Best of Wikinews [imagelink] <span>Moon Jae-in becomes President of South Korea Moon Jae-in assumed the office of President of South Korea on Wednesday. He was announced the winner of Tuesday's election, with 41.1% of the vote, and sworn in on Wednesday at the Korean National Assembly. [ML] [ ± ] - Image credit - Read more... Latest news [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] ± Changing position, President Trump says FBI Director Comey







Although comedian John Oliver on his show Last Week Tonight had asked his viewers to inundate the FCC website with comments supporting Net Neutrality, the FCC said a DDoS cyberattack, not angry HBO fans, were responsible for their website becoming unresponsive shortly thereafter.
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Wikinews, the free news source
sia thing" was among his reasons, mentioning Comey's repeated claims that he, Trump, was not being investigated. [ ± ] - Image credit - Read more... [imagelink] Cyberattack, not HBO comedian, caused website wipeout, says FCC <span>Although comedian John Oliver on his show Last Week Tonight had asked his viewers to inundate the FCC website with comments supporting Net Neutrality, the FCC said a DDoS cyberattack, not angry HBO fans, were responsible for their website becoming unresponsive shortly thereafter. [ ± ] - Image credit - Read more... [imagelink] Emmanuel Macron wins French presidential election race On Sunday, En Marche! candidate Emmanuel Macron won the second round




Flashcard 1602843708684

Question
Although comedian [...] on his show Last Week Tonight had asked his viewers to inundate the FCC website with comments supporting Net Neutrality, the FCC said a DDoS cyberattack, not angry HBO fans, were responsible for their website becoming unresponsive shortly thereafter.
Answer
John Oliver

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Although comedian John Oliver on his show Last Week Tonight had asked his viewers to inundate the FCC website with comments supporting Net Neutrality, the FCC said a DDoS cyberattack, not angry HBO fans, were respon

Original toplevel document

Wikinews, the free news source
sia thing" was among his reasons, mentioning Comey's repeated claims that he, Trump, was not being investigated. [ ± ] - Image credit - Read more... [imagelink] Cyberattack, not HBO comedian, caused website wipeout, says FCC <span>Although comedian John Oliver on his show Last Week Tonight had asked his viewers to inundate the FCC website with comments supporting Net Neutrality, the FCC said a DDoS cyberattack, not angry HBO fans, were responsible for their website becoming unresponsive shortly thereafter. [ ± ] - Image credit - Read more... [imagelink] Emmanuel Macron wins French presidential election race On Sunday, En Marche! candidate Emmanuel Macron won the second round







The Indian Supreme Court yesterday formally began a hearing against triple talaq , an Islamic rule which allows men to divorce their wives instantly without the need of a judicial hearing. Activists and Muslim women have filed many petitions against Islamic practices — triple talaq, nikah halala , and polygamy — saying they are unconstitutional and demanding gender equality .
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on

Supreme Court of India begins hearing against triple talaq - Wikinews, the free news source
hacker 2 May 2017: Turkey blocks Wikipedia, alleging smear campaign 22 April 2017: 28-year-old suspect charged for attacking Borussia Dortmund's team bus [imagelink] Collaborate! Pillars of Wikinews writing Writing an article <span>The Indian Supreme Court yesterday formally began a hearing against triple talaq, an Islamic rule which allows men to divorce their wives instantly without the need of a judicial hearing. Activists and Muslim women have filed many petitions against Islamic practices — triple talaq, nikah halala, and polygamy — saying they are unconstitutional and demanding gender equality. [imagelink] We will also examine whether triple talaq is a part of enforceable fundamental right [imagelink] —Supreme Court A bench of five justices — Chief Justice Jagdish Sing




Flashcard 1602848951564

Question
The Indian Supreme Court yesterday formally began a hearing against [...] , an Islamic rule which allows men to divorce their wives instantly without the need of a judicial hearing. Activists and Muslim women have filed many petitions against Islamic practices — [...] , nikah halala , and polygamy — saying they are unconstitutional and demanding gender equality .
Answer

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The Indian Supreme Court yesterday formally began a hearing against triple talaq , an Islamic rule which allows men to divorce their wives instantly without the need of a judicial hearing. Activists and Muslim women have filed many petitions against Islamic practice

Original toplevel document

Supreme Court of India begins hearing against triple talaq - Wikinews, the free news source
hacker 2 May 2017: Turkey blocks Wikipedia, alleging smear campaign 22 April 2017: 28-year-old suspect charged for attacking Borussia Dortmund's team bus [imagelink] Collaborate! Pillars of Wikinews writing Writing an article <span>The Indian Supreme Court yesterday formally began a hearing against triple talaq, an Islamic rule which allows men to divorce their wives instantly without the need of a judicial hearing. Activists and Muslim women have filed many petitions against Islamic practices — triple talaq, nikah halala, and polygamy — saying they are unconstitutional and demanding gender equality. [imagelink] We will also examine whether triple talaq is a part of enforceable fundamental right [imagelink] —Supreme Court A bench of five justices — Chief Justice Jagdish Sing







Flashcard 1602853670156

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #eps #financial-reporting-and-analysis #understanding-income-statement
Question
The if-converted method is based on what EPS would have been if [...] at the beginning of the period.
Answer
the convertible preferred securities had been converted

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
diluted EPS. 6.3.1. Diluted EPS When a Company Has Convertible Preferred Stock Outstanding When a company has convertible preferred stock outstanding, diluted EPS is calculated using the if-converted method . <span>The if-converted method is based on what EPS would have been if the convertible preferred securities had been converted at the beginning of the period. In other words, the method calculates what the effect would have been if the convertible preferred shares converted at the beginning of the period. If the convertible shares had been co

Original toplevel document

Earnings Per Share
income) from continuing operations.46 Similar presentation is required under US GAAP.47 This section outlines the calculations for EPS and explains how the calculation differs for a simple versus complex capital structure. <span>Simple versus Complex Capital Structure A company’s capital is composed of its equity and debt. Some types of equity have preference over others, and some debt (and other instruments) may be converted into equity. Under IFRS, the type of equity for which EPS is presented is referred to as ordinary. Ordinary shares are those equity shares that are subordinate to all other types of equity. The ordinary shareholders are basically the owners of the company—the equity holders who are paid last in a liquidation of the company and who benefit the most when the company does well. Under US GAAP, this ordinary equity is referred to as common stock or common shares , reflecting US language usage. The terms “ordinary shares,” “common stock,” and “common shares” are used interchangeably in the following discussion. When a company has issued any financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock, it is said to have a complex capital structure. Examples of financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock include convertible bonds, convertible preferred stock, employee stock options, and warrants.48 If a company’s capital structure does not include such potentially convertible financial instruments, it is said to have a simple capital structure. The distinction between simple versus complex capital structure is relevant to the calculation of EPS because financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock could, as a result of conversion or exercise, potentially dilute (i.e., decrease) EPS. Information about such a potential dilution is valuable to a company’s current and potential shareholders; therefore, accounting standards require companies to disclose what their EPS would be if all dilutive financial instruments were converted into common stock. The EPS that would result if all dilutive financial instruments were converted is called diluted EPS . In contrast, basic EPS is calculated using the reported earnings available to common shareholders of the parent company and the weighted average number of shares outstanding. Companies are required to report both basic and diluted EPS. For example, Danone reported basic EPS (“before dilution”) and diluted EPS (“after dilution”) of €2.57 for 2009, somewhat lower than 2008. Kraft reported basic EPS of $2.04 and diluted EPS of $2.03 for 2009, much higher than basic and diluted EPS (from continuing operations) of $1.22 and $1.21 for 2008. (The EPS information appears at the bottom of Danone’s and Kraft’s income statements.) An analyst would try to determine the causes underlying the changes in EPS, a topic we will address following an explanation of the calculations of both basic and diluted EPS. <span><body><html>