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Flashcard 1623578250508

Question
Contrast interleaved and blocked practice.
Answer
In the sequence ABCABCABC, two intervening items (i.e., B and C) come before each recurrence of a given item (i.e., A). Such an arrangement, in which different kinds of items inter-mix during practice, is termed interleaved practice. In contrast, blocked practice groups the same kinds of items together during practice (e.g., AAABBBCCC).


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Flashcard 1624091004172

Tags
#summary #tvm
Question
The present value of a perpetuity is A/r, where A is [...]
Answer
the periodic payment to be received forever.


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The present value of a perpetuity is A/r, where A is the periodic payment to be received forever.

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may be handled in a similar fashion as single payments if we use annuity factors instead of single-payment factors. The present value, PV, is the future value, FV, times the present value factor, (1 + r) − N . <span>The present value of a perpetuity is A/r, where A is the periodic payment to be received forever. It is possible to calculate an unknown variable, given the other relevant variables in time value of money problems. The cash flow additivity principle c







Flashcard 1624656448780

Tags
#discounted-cashflow-applications
Question
The [...] is the market for short-term debt instruments (one-year maturity or less).
Answer


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Flashcard 1624658283788

Tags
#discounted-cashflow-applications
Question
[...] pay interest as the difference between the amount borrowed and the amount paid back.


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Flashcard 1624660380940

Tags
#discounted-cashflow-applications
Question
The [...] of a T-bill is the amount the US government promises to pay back to a T-bill investor.
Answer


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The study also found that temporal spacing could be a factor— interleaving with more (rather than fewer) intervening items from other categories, between successive presentations of a given category, improved learning. Attentional lapses may also play a role. Mind wandering is more likely during blocked than interleaved training

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#duchowy #formacja #psychologia #rozwojowa #rozwój #wychowanie #wzrost
Ludzie tak usposobieni studiują teolo- giczne traktaty, mając nadzieję na nawiązanie relacji z Bogiem po- przez rozum, ponieważ zbyt obawiają się więzi poprzez serce.

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Language is not arbitrary linguistic forms applied to a cultural reality that can be found outside of language in the real world. Without language, the habits, beliefs, institutions, and monuments that we call culture would be just observable realities, not cultural phenomena. To become culture, they have to have meaning, which, when given to foods, gardens and ways of life, constitutes culture.

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CALL research studies range from very carefully controlled laboratory setting studies, to those that gather data in contexts approximating everyday life. This is important in CALL where learners utilize their own personal technologies in their language learning outside of class

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that aim to gather data in natural contexts approximating everyday life. This issue is important in an area such as CALL where learners are increasingly uti- lizing their own powerful, personal technologies in their language learning independently outside of class without a teacher present.

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#duchowy #formacja #psychologia #rozwojowa #rozwój #wychowanie #wzrost
Jako człowiek dorosły musisz być sobą i być równy z innymi doro- słymi (to sedno tego rozdziału). Obydwa zadania wymagają przeciw- stawienia się matce i odnalezienia siebie. Pierwsze zadanie dotyczy tego, na ile jesteś oddzielony od matki i różny od niej, drugie wymaga zamknięcia pewnego etapu i stanięcia na tej samej płaszczyźnie, co matka. Obydwoje jesteście dorośli i żadne z was nie ma prawa sądzić drugiego.

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The quantitative findings demonstrate that students are not confined to using the centrally provisioned technologies made available through their institutional studies. In fact in this study they played a relatively minor role. Instead they are drawing upon their own personal technologies that are fit for disciplinary purpose. Additionally, the results clearly highlight that the technologies and tools that language learners now potentially have at their fingertips are powerful, expansive and changing. These results indicate the importance of listening to the learners’ voice, as indicated by Conole earlier. For this to occur, qualitative approaches to research are key.

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#duchowy #formacja #psychologia #rozwojowa #rozwój #wychowanie #wzrost
Czas na wyzwolenie się z relacji „zawsze gorszy” czy „zawsze lep- szy” zarówno w stosunku do mamy, jak i do innych dorosłych. Czas dorosnąć do równości z innymi.

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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
When you make a single investment today, its future value, received N years from now, is as follows:

  • FV = future value at time n
  • PV = present value
  • r = interest rate per period
  • N = number of years
A key assumption of the future value formula is that interim interest earned is reinvested at the given interest rate (r). This is known as compounding.

In order to receive a single future cash flow N years from now, you must make an investment today in the following amount:

Notice that the future cash flow is discounted back to the present. Therefore, the interest rate is called the discount rate.

You should be able to calculate PVs and FVs using your calculator.

  • N = number of periods
  • I/Year = yield in market place or the required rate of return
  • PV = present value
  • PMT = payment amount per period
  • FV = the future value of the investment
One can solve for any of the above variables. Just input the other variables and solve for the unknown. Using the calculator on the test will prove to be a very time-efficient manner of calculating present values and future values.

Example 1

An analyst invests $5 million in a 5-year certificate of deposit (CD) at a local financial institution. The CD promises to pay 7% per year compounded annually. The institution also allows him to reinvest the interest at the same CD rate for the duration of the CD. How much will the analyst have at the end of five years if his money remains invested at 7% for five years with no withdrawals of interest?

Before using the Texas Instruments BAII PLUS and HP 12C calculator, it is essential to ensure that your settings are correct. The default settings on the calculator are not necessarily the settings you need when making the calculations. Follow these steps to ensure that your calculator is correctly set.

Texas Instruments BAII PLUS Settings

  • Press 2nd QUIT 2nd [CLR TVM] to clear the worksheet.
  • Press 2nd [P/Y] to enter payments per year and/or compounding periods per year.
  • The P/Y label and current value are displayed. The default value is 12. You must now key in 1 and then ENTER since you want 1 payment per year.
  • If the question says there are 12 payments per year, you would change this to 12.
HP 12C Settings

  • Turn the calculator on by pressing the ON key.
  • Clear the memory and set decimals to 2 places by pressing the following keys:
  • CLEAR REG f 2 - 0.00 will display.
  • CLEAR FIN - this clears all the data in the financial mode.

The calculator keys to press are:

If you are given the FV and need to solve for PV, the calculator keys to press are:

When compounding periods are not annual

Some investments pay interest more than once a year. When you calculate these amounts, make sure that periodic interest rates correspond to the number of compounding periods in the year. For example, if time periods are quoted in quarters, quarterly interest rates should be used.

When compounding periods are other than annual

...

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Flashcard 1625071684876

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question
When you make a single investment today, its future value, received N years from now, is as follows:

Answer


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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
When you make a single investment today, its future value, received N years from now, is as follows: FV = future value at time n PV = present value r = interest rate per period N = number of years A key assumption of the future valu







Flashcard 1625074044172

Tags
#reading-6-tvm
Question
A key assumption of the future value formula is that [...] .
Answer
interim interest earned is reinvested at the given interest rate (r)


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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
make a single investment today, its future value, received N years from now, is as follows: FV = future value at time n PV = present value r = interest rate per period N = number of years <span>A key assumption of the future value formula is that interim interest earned is reinvested at the given interest rate (r). This is known as compounding. In order to receive a single future cash flow N years from now, you must make an investment today in the following amount:







Flashcard 1625076403468

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question
In order to receive a single future cash flow N years from now, you must make an investment today in the following amount:
Answer


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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
e n PV = present value r = interest rate per period N = number of years A key assumption of the future value formula is that interim interest earned is reinvested at the given interest rate (r). This is known as compounding. <span>In order to receive a single future cash flow N years from now, you must make an investment today in the following amount: Notice that the future cash flow is discounted back to the present. Therefore, the interest rate is called the discount rate. You sh







Flashcard 1625078762764

Tags
#reading-6-tvm
Question
For investments that pay interest more than once a year you should make sure that [...] correspond to the [...]
Answer
periodic interest rates

number of compounding periods in the year.


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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
ulator keys to press are: If you are given the FV and need to solve for PV, the calculator keys to press are: When compounding periods are not annual <span>Some investments pay interest more than once a year. When you calculate these amounts, make sure that periodic interest rates correspond to the number of compounding periods in the year. For example, if time periods are quoted in quarters, quarterly interest rates should be used. When compounding periods are other than annual &#13







Flashcard 1625081122060

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question

When compounding periods are other than annual the formula is:

Answer


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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
. When you calculate these amounts, make sure that periodic interest rates correspond to the number of compounding periods in the year. For example, if time periods are quoted in quarters, quarterly interest rates should be used. <span>When compounding periods are other than annual r s = the quoted annual interest rate m = the number of compounding periods per year N = the number of years. Example 2 An analyst invests $5 million in a 5-year certificate of deposit (CD) at a local financial institution. The CD promises to pay 7% per year, compounded semi-a







Flashcard 1625083481356

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question

  • rs = [...]
  • m = [...]
  • N = [...]
Answer
rs = the quoted annual interest rate

m = the number of compounding periods per year

N = the number of years.


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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
. When you calculate these amounts, make sure that periodic interest rates correspond to the number of compounding periods in the year. For example, if time periods are quoted in quarters, quarterly interest rates should be used. <span>When compounding periods are other than annual r s = the quoted annual interest rate m = the number of compounding periods per year N = the number of years. Example 2 An analyst invests $5 million in a 5-year certificate of deposit (CD) at a local financial institution. The CD promises to pay 7% per year, compounded semi-a







Flashcard 1625087413516

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question

If the number of compounding periods becomes infinite, interest is compounding continuously. Accordingly, the future value N years from now is computed as follows:

[...]
Answer


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subject 3. The Future Value and Present Value of a Single Cash Flow
t? The calculator keys to press are: Note that the answer is greater than when the compounding was annual. This is because interest is earned twice a year instead of only once. <span>If the number of compounding periods becomes infinite, interest is compounding continuously. Accordingly, the future value N years from now is computed as follows: <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1625097374988

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirve la funcion countif?
Answer
Para devolver el numero de celdas que tienen una palabra específica


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Flashcard 1625099209996

Tags
#excel
Question
Como debe de escribirse el criterio en la funcion countif?
Answer
entre comillas


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Flashcard 1625101045004

Tags
#excel
Question
En la funcion countif la palabra (criteria) es sensible a mayusculas?
Answer
no


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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Annuity is a finite set of sequential cash flows, all with the same value.

Ordinary annuity has a first cash flow that occurs one period from now (indexed at t = 1). In other words, the payments occur at the end of each period.

  • Future value of a regular annuity

    where

    • A = annuity amount
    • N = number of regular annuity payments
    • r = interest rate per period

  • Present value of a regular annuity

Annuity due has a first cash flow that is paid immediately (indexed at t = 0). In other words, the payments occur at the beginning of each period.
  • Future value of an annuity due

    This consists of two parts: the future value of one annuity payment now, and the future value of a regular annuity of (N -1) period. Calculate the two parts and add them together. Alternatively, you can use this formula:

    Note that, all other factors being equal, the future value of an annuity due is equal to the future value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by (1 + r).

  • Present value of an annuity due

    This consists of two parts: an annuity payment now and the present value of a regular annuity of (N - 1) period. Use the above formula to calculate the second part and add the two parts together. This process can also be simplified to a formula:

    Note that, all other factors being equal, the present value of an annuity due is equal to the present value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by (1 + r).

Hint: Remember these formulas - you can use them to solve annuity-related questions directly, or to double-check the answers given by your calculator.

A perpetuity is a perpetual annuity: an ordinary annuity that extends indefinitely. In other words, it is an infinite set of sequential cash flows that have the same value, with the first cash flow occurring one period from now.

This equation is valid for a perpetuity with level payments, positive interest rate r. The first payment occurs one period from now (like a regular annuity). An example of a perpetuity is a stock paying constant dividends.

Example: Future value of a regular annuity

An analyst decides to set aside $10,000 per year in a conservative portfolio projected to earn 8% per annum. If the first payment he makes is one year from now, calculate the accumulated amount at the end of 10 years.

Method 1: Using a formula

  • Identify the given variables: A = 10,000, r = 0.08, N = 10
  • Identify the appropriate formula: FV = A x {[(1 + r)N - 1] / r}
  • Solve for the unknown: FV = 10,000 {[(1 + 0.08)10 - 1] / 0.08} = $144,865
Method 2: Using a calculator

Texas Instruments settings:

  • 2nd P/Y = 1 and key in 1 ENTER.
  • SET END since this is a regular annuity. You do this by pressing 2nd BGN 2nd SET until you see END displaying. Press 2nd SET twice if necessary. After setting to END, you mu
...

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Flashcard 1625113627916

Tags
#reading-6-tvm
Question
[...] is a finite set of sequential cash flows, all with the same value.

Answer
Annuity


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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
Annuity is a finite set of sequential cash flows, all with the same value. Ordinary annuity has a first cash flow that occurs one period from now (indexed at t = 1). In other words, the payments occur at the end of each period. Future value







Flashcard 1625115987212

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question
Future value of a regular annuity
Answer


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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
ity is a finite set of sequential cash flows, all with the same value. Ordinary annuity has a first cash flow that occurs one period from now (indexed at t = 1). In other words, the payments occur at the end of each period. <span>Future value of a regular annuity where A = annuity amount N = number of regular annuity payments r = interest rate per period Present valu







Flashcard 1625118346508

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question
Present value of a regular annuity
Answer


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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
he end of each period. Future value of a regular annuity where A = annuity amount N = number of regular annuity payments r = interest rate per period <span>Present value of a regular annuity Annuity due has a first cash flow that is paid immediately (indexed at t = 0). In other words, the payments occur at the beginning of







Flashcard 1625120705804

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question
Future value of an annuity due

(without calculating the 2 parts)
Answer


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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
sent value of a regular annuity Annuity due has a first cash flow that is paid immediately (indexed at t = 0). In other words, the payments occur at the beginning of each period. <span>Future value of an annuity due This consists of two parts: the future value of one annuity payment now, and the future value of a regular annuity of (N -1) period. Calculate the two parts and add them together. Alternatively, you can use this formula: Note that, all other factors being equal, the future value of an annuity due is equal to the future value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by







Flashcard 1625123065100

Tags
#reading-6-tvm
Question

If you forget the formula how can you calculate the FV of an annuity due?

Answer

This consists of two parts: the future value of one annuity payment now, and the future value of a regular annuity of (N -1) period.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
sent value of a regular annuity Annuity due has a first cash flow that is paid immediately (indexed at t = 0). In other words, the payments occur at the beginning of each period. <span>Future value of an annuity due This consists of two parts: the future value of one annuity payment now, and the future value of a regular annuity of (N -1) period. Calculate the two parts and add them together. Alternatively, you can use this formula: Note that, all other factors being equal, the future value of an annuity due is equal to the future value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by







Flashcard 1625124900108

Tags
#reading-6-tvm
Question
If caeteris paribus, the future value of an annuity due is equal to the [...]
Answer
future value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by (1 + r).


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
future value of one annuity payment now, and the future value of a regular annuity of (N -1) period. Calculate the two parts and add them together. Alternatively, you can use this formula: Note that, <span>all other factors being equal, the future value of an annuity due is equal to the future value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by (1 + r). Present value of an annuity due This consists of two parts: an annuity payment now and the present value of a regular annuity of (N - 1) period. Use the a







Flashcard 1625127259404

Tags
#has-images #reading-6-tvm
Question
Present value of an annuity due

(without breaking it in 2)

Answer


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Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
u can use this formula: Note that, all other factors being equal, the future value of an annuity due is equal to the future value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by (1 + r). <span>Present value of an annuity due This consists of two parts: an annuity payment now and the present value of a regular annuity of (N - 1) period. Use the above formula to calculate the second part and add the two parts together. This process can also be simplified to a formula: Note that, all other factors being equal, the present value of an annuity due is equal to the present value of an ordinary annuity multiplied







Flashcard 1625129618700

Tags
#reading-6-tvm
Question
All other factors being equal, the present value of an annuity due is equal to [...]
Answer
the present value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by (1 + r)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Subject 4. The Future Value and Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows (Ordinary Annuities, Annuity Dues, and Perpetuities)
e present value of a regular annuity of (N - 1) period. Use the above formula to calculate the second part and add the two parts together. This process can also be simplified to a formula: Note that, <span>all other factors being equal, the present value of an annuity due is equal to the present value of an ordinary annuity multiplied by (1 + r). Hint: Remember these formulas - you can use them to solve annuity-related questions directly, or to double-check the answers given by your calculator. A perpe