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#AlanWatts #incrementalVideo #philosophy
Incremental Video Test

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Definition of the Difference of Two Squares Identity
#identity #math #precalculus

The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of

\[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\]

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math & Science Wiki
Bhardwaj , 敬全 钟 , Sam Reeve , and 10 others Ashley Toh Lucerne O' Brannan Satyabrata Dash Ben Sidebotham Sandeep Bhardwaj Derek Guo Jongheun Lee Mahindra Jain Jimin Khim Tara Kappel contributed <span>The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of \[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\] We will also prove this identity by multiplying polynomials on the left side and getting equal to the right side. This identity is often used in algebra where it is useful in applicatio




Flashcard 3146181119244

Question

The [...] identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of

\[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\]

Answer
difference of two squares

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The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of a2−b2=(a+b)(a−b).

Original toplevel document

Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
Bhardwaj , 敬全 钟 , Sam Reeve , and 10 others Ashley Toh Lucerne O' Brannan Satyabrata Dash Ben Sidebotham Sandeep Bhardwaj Derek Guo Jongheun Lee Mahindra Jain Jimin Khim Tara Kappel contributed <span>The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of \[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\] We will also prove this identity by multiplying polynomials on the left side and getting equal to the right side. This identity is often used in algebra where it is useful in applicatio







Flashcard 3146182692108

Question

The difference of two squares [...] is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of

\[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\]

Answer
identity

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The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of a2−b2=(a+b)(a−b).

Original toplevel document

Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
Bhardwaj , 敬全 钟 , Sam Reeve , and 10 others Ashley Toh Lucerne O' Brannan Satyabrata Dash Ben Sidebotham Sandeep Bhardwaj Derek Guo Jongheun Lee Mahindra Jain Jimin Khim Tara Kappel contributed <span>The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of \[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\] We will also prove this identity by multiplying polynomials on the left side and getting equal to the right side. This identity is often used in algebra where it is useful in applicatio







Flashcard 3146192391436

Question
[...] \(=(a+b)(a-b)\)
Answer
\(a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b)\)

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Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of a2−b2=(a+b)(a−b).

Original toplevel document

Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
Bhardwaj , 敬全 钟 , Sam Reeve , and 10 others Ashley Toh Lucerne O' Brannan Satyabrata Dash Ben Sidebotham Sandeep Bhardwaj Derek Guo Jongheun Lee Mahindra Jain Jimin Khim Tara Kappel contributed <span>The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of \[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\] We will also prove this identity by multiplying polynomials on the left side and getting equal to the right side. This identity is often used in algebra where it is useful in applicatio







Flashcard 3146196323596

Question
\(a^2-b^2=\) [...]
Answer
\(a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b)\)

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Open it
The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of a2−b2=(a+b)(a−b).

Original toplevel document

Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
Bhardwaj , 敬全 钟 , Sam Reeve , and 10 others Ashley Toh Lucerne O' Brannan Satyabrata Dash Ben Sidebotham Sandeep Bhardwaj Derek Guo Jongheun Lee Mahindra Jain Jimin Khim Tara Kappel contributed <span>The difference of two squares identity is a squared number subtracted from another squared number to get factorized in the form of \[a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b).\] We will also prove this identity by multiplying polynomials on the left side and getting equal to the right side. This identity is often used in algebra where it is useful in applicatio







#mathematics #polynomials #precalculus

Rewrite \(5^2-2^2\) as a product.


We have

\[5^2-2^2 = (5-2) \times (5+2) = 3\times 7.\]

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
ction contains examples and problems to boost understanding in the usage of the difference of squares identity: \(a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b)\). Here are the examples to learn the usage of the identity. <span>Rewrite \(5^2-2^2\) as a product. We have \[5^2-2^2 = (5-2) \times (5+2) = 3\times 7. \ _\square\] Calculate \(299\times 301\). You can brute force the answer to this problem by using a calculator, but we have a sweeter way. We can apply the difference of two squares identity. At fir




#mathematics #polynomials #precalculus

Calculate \(299\times 301\).


You can brute force the answer to this problem by using a calculator, but we have a sweeter way. We can apply the difference of two squares identity.

At first we may think about using the long multiplication method, but it wastes time and is, of course, boring. Notice that \(299=300-1\) and \(301=300+1\), so

\(299\times 301=(300-1)(300+1)=300^2-1^2=89999\).

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
es identity: \(a^2-b^2=(a+b)(a-b)\). Here are the examples to learn the usage of the identity. Rewrite \(5^2-2^2\) as a product. We have \[5^2-2^2 = (5-2) \times (5+2) = 3\times 7. \ _\square\] <span>Calculate \(299\times 301\). You can brute force the answer to this problem by using a calculator, but we have a sweeter way. We can apply the difference of two squares identity. At first we may think about using the long multiplication method, but it wastes time and is, of course, boring. Notice that \(299=300-1\) and \(301=300+1\), so \[\begin{align*}299\times 301&=(300-1)(300+1)\\&=300^2-1^2\\&=89999. \ _\square \end{align*}\] Show that any odd number can be written as the difference of two squares. Let the odd number be \( n = 2b + 1 \), where \(b\) is a non-negative integer. Then we have \[ n = 2b+1 = [ (b+




#mathematics #polynomials #precalculus

Show that any odd number can be written as the difference of two squares.


Let the odd number be \( n = 2b + 1 \), where \(b\) is a non-negative integer. Then we have

\[ n = 2b+1 = [ (b+1) + b ] [ (b+1) - b ] = (b+1)^2 - b^2. \ _\square\]

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
wastes time and is, of course, boring. Notice that \(299=300-1\) and \(301=300+1\), so \[\begin{align*}299\times 301&=(300-1)(300+1)\\&=300^2-1^2\\&=89999. \ _\square \end{align*}\] <span>Show that any odd number can be written as the difference of two squares. Let the odd number be \( n = 2b + 1 \), where \(b\) is a non-negative integer. Then we have \[ n = 2b+1 = [ (b+1) + b ] [ (b+1) - b ] = (b+1)^2 - b^2. \ _\square\] What is \[234567^2-234557\times 234577\ ?\] Using the same method as the example above, \[\begin{align*} 234567^2-234557\times 234577&=234567^2-\big(234567^2-10^2\big)\\ &=23456




#mathematics #polynomials #precalculus

What is

\[234567^2-234557\times 234577\ ?\]


Using the same method as the example above,

\[\begin{align*} 234567^2-234557\times 234577&=234567^2-\big(234567^2-10^2\big)\\ &=234567^2-234567^2+10^2\\ &=100.\ _\square \end{align*}\]

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
he difference of two squares. Let the odd number be \( n = 2b + 1 \), where \(b\) is a non-negative integer. Then we have \[ n = 2b+1 = [ (b+1) + b ] [ (b+1) - b ] = (b+1)^2 - b^2. \ _\square\] <span>What is \[234567^2-234557\times 234577\ ?\] Using the same method as the example above, \[\begin{align*} 234567^2-234557\times 234577&=234567^2-\big(234567^2-10^2\big)\\ &=234567^2-234567^2+10^2\\ &=100.\ _\square \end{align*}\] Solve the following problems: [emptylink] \[b-a\] \[{ a }^{ 2 }{ +b }^{ 2 }\] \[a+b\] \[a-b\] Which of the following equals \(\dfrac { { a }^{ 2 }-{ b }^{ 2 } }{ a-b } \) for \(a\neq b\




#mathematics #polynomials #precalculus

What is \(99^2 - 98^2 \, ?\)

Note: Try it without using a calculator.

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
the following problems: [emptylink] \[b-a\] \[{ a }^{ 2 }{ +b }^{ 2 }\] \[a+b\] \[a-b\] Which of the following equals \(\dfrac { { a }^{ 2 }-{ b }^{ 2 } }{ a-b } \) for \(a\neq b\)? [emptylink] <span>199 187 197 198 What is \(99^2 - 98^2 \, ?\) Note: Try it without using a calculator. [emptylink] Submit your answer \[\large \color{blue}{2014}\color{blue}{2014} \times \color{blue}{2014}\color{blue}{2014} - \color{blue}{2014}\color{red}{2013} \times \color{blue}{2014}\




#mathematics #polynomials #precalculus

Which of the following equals \(\dfrac { { a }^{ 2 }-{ b }^{ 2 } }{ a-b } \) for \(a\neq b\)?
\[a+b\]

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
[\begin{align*} 234567^2-234557\times 234577&=234567^2-\big(234567^2-10^2\big)\\ &=234567^2-234567^2+10^2\\ &=100.\ _\square \end{align*}\] Solve the following problems: [emptylink] <span>\[b-a\] \[{ a }^{ 2 }{ +b }^{ 2 }\] \[a+b\] \[a-b\] Which of the following equals \(\dfrac { { a }^{ 2 }-{ b }^{ 2 } }{ a-b } \) for \(a\neq b\)? [emptylink] 199 187 197 198 What is \(99^2 - 98^2 \, ?\) Note: Try it without using a calculator. [emptylink] Submit your answer \[\large \color{blue}{2014}\color{blue}{2014} \times \co




#mathematics #polynomials #precalculus

\[\large \color{blue}{2014}\color{blue}{2014} \times \color{blue}{2014}\color{blue}{2014} - \color{blue}{2014}\color{red}{2013} \times \color{blue}{2014}\color{fuchsia}{2015} = ? \]

Don't use a calculator!

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Difference Of Squares | Brilliant Math &amp; Science Wiki
he following equals \(\dfrac { { a }^{ 2 }-{ b }^{ 2 } }{ a-b } \) for \(a\neq b\)? [emptylink] 199 187 197 198 What is \(99^2 - 98^2 \, ?\) Note: Try it without using a calculator. [emptylink] <span>Submit your answer \[\large \color{blue}{2014}\color{blue}{2014} \times \color{blue}{2014}\color{blue}{2014} - \color{blue}{2014}\color{red}{2013} \times \color{blue}{2014}\color{fuchsia}{2015} = ? \] Don't use a calculator! Further Extension Since the two factors are different by \(2b\), the factors will always have the same parity. That is, if \(a-b\) is even then \(a+b\) must also be even, so the product




Japan has become seen as a much-admired and emulated exemplar of these active, “understanding-centered” teaching methods. But what’s often missing from the discussion is the rest of the story: Japan is also home of the Kumon method of teaching mathematics, which emphasizes memorization, repetition, and rote learning hand-in-hand with developing the child’s mastery over the material. This intense afterschool program, and others like it, is embraced by millions of parents in Japan and around the world who supplement their child’s participatory education with plenty of practice, repetition, and yes, intelligently designed rote learning, to allow them to gain hard-won fluency with the material.
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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
standing math through active discussion is the talisman of learning. If you can explain what you’ve learned to others, perhaps drawing them a picture, the thinking goes, you must understand it. <span>Japan has become seen as a much-admired and emulated exemplar of these active, “understanding-centered” teaching methods. But what’s often missing from the discussion is the rest of the story: Japan is also home of the Kumon method of teaching mathematics, which emphasizes memorization, repetition, and rote learning hand-in-hand with developing the child’s mastery over the material. This intense afterschool program, and others like it, is embraced by millions of parents in Japan and around the world who supplement their child’s participatory education with plenty of practice, repetition, and yes, intelligently designed rote learning, to allow them to gain hard-won fluency with the material. Also in Psychology What Color Is This Song? By Stephen E. Palmer Suppose you’re at a concert with a friend who leans over and whispers in your ear, “What color was that music?” It may s




The problem with focusing relentlessly on understanding is that math and science students can often grasp essentials of an important idea, but this understanding can quickly slip away without consolidation through practice and repetition. Worse, students often believe they understand something when, in fact, they don’t. By championing the importance of understanding, teachers can inadvertently set their students up for failure as those students blunder in illusions of competence. As one (failing) engineering student recently told me: “I just don’t see how I could have done so poorly. I understood it when you taught it in class.” My student may have thought he’d understood it at the time, and perhaps he did, but he’d never practiced using the concept to truly internalize it. He had not developed any kind of procedural fluency or ability to apply what he thought he understood.
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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
re supposed to be given equal emphasis with conceptual understanding, all too often it doesn’t happen. Imparting a conceptual understanding reigns supreme—especially during precious class time. <span>The problem with focusing relentlessly on understanding is that math and science students can often grasp essentials of an important idea, but this understanding can quickly slip away without consolidation through practice and repetition. Worse, students often believe they understand something when, in fact, they don’t. By championing the importance of understanding, teachers can inadvertently set their students up for failure as those students blunder in illusions of competence. As one (failing) engineering student recently told me: “I just don’t see how I could have done so poorly. I understood it when you taught it in class.” My student may have thought he’d understood it at the time, and perhaps he did, but he’d never practiced using the concept to truly internalize it. He had not developed any kind of procedural fluency or ability to apply what he thought he understood. There is an interesting connection between learning math and science, and learning a sport. When you learn how to swing a golf club, you perfect that swing from lots of repetition over




There is an interesting connection between learning math and science, and learning a sport. When you learn how to swing a golf club, you perfect that swing from lots of repetition over a period of years. Your body knows what to do from a single thought—one chunk—instead of having to recall all the complex steps involved in hitting a ball.

In the same way, once you understand why you do something in math and science, you don’t have to keep re-explaining the how to yourself every time you do it. It’s not necessary to go around with 25 marbles in your pocket and lay out 5 rows of 5 marbles again and again so that you get that 5 x 5 = 25. At some point, you just know it fluently from memory. You memorize the idea that you simply add exponents—those little superscript numbers—when multiplying numbers that have the same base (104 x 105 = 109). If you use the procedure a lot, by doing many different types of problems, you will find that you understand both the why and the how behind the procedure very well indeed. The greater understanding results from the fact that your mind constructed the patterns of meaning. Continually focusing on understanding itself actually gets in the way.

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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
e, and perhaps he did, but he’d never practiced using the concept to truly internalize it. He had not developed any kind of procedural fluency or ability to apply what he thought he understood. <span>There is an interesting connection between learning math and science, and learning a sport. When you learn how to swing a golf club, you perfect that swing from lots of repetition over a period of years. Your body knows what to do from a single thought—one chunk—instead of having to recall all the complex steps involved in hitting a ball. In the same way, once you understand why you do something in math and science, you don’t have to keep re-explaining the how to yourself every time you do it. It’s not necessary to go around with 25 marbles in your pocket and lay out 5 rows of 5 marbles again and again so that you get that 5 x 5 = 25. At some point, you just know it fluently from memory. You memorize the idea that you simply add exponents—those little superscript numbers—when multiplying numbers that have the same base (104 x 105 = 109). If you use the procedure a lot, by doing many different types of problems, you will find that you understand both the why and the how behind the procedure very well indeed. The greater understanding results from the fact that your mind constructed the patterns of meaning. Continually focusing on understanding itself actually gets in the way. I learned these things about math and the process of learning not in the K-12 classroom but in the course of my life, as a kid who grew up reading Madeleine L’Engle and Dostoyevsky, who




What I had done in learning Russian was to emphasize not just understanding of the language, but fluency. Fluency of something whole like a language requires a kind of familiarity that only repeated and varied interaction with the parts can develop. Where my language classmates had often been content to concentrate on simply understanding Russian they heard or read, I instead tried to gain an internalized, deep-rooted fluency with the words and language structure. I wouldn’t just be satisfied to know that понимать meant “to understand.” I’d practice with the verb—putting it through its paces by conjugating it repeatedly with all sorts of tenses, and then moving on to putting it into sentences, and then finally to understanding not only when to use this form of the verb, but also when not to use it. I practiced recalling all these aspects and variations quickly. After all, through practice, you can understand and translate dozens—even thousands— of words in another language. But if you aren’t fluent, when someone throws a bunch of words at you quickly, as with normal speaking (which always sounds horrifically fast when you’re learning a new language), you have no idea what they’re actually saying, even though technically you understand all the component words and structure. And you certainly can’t speak quickly enough yourself for native speakers to find it enjoyable to listen to you.
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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
from my experience becoming fluent in Russian as an adult, I suspected—or maybe I just hoped—that there might be aspects to language learning that I might apply to learning in math and science. <span>What I had done in learning Russian was to emphasize not just understanding of the language, but fluency. Fluency of something whole like a language requires a kind of familiarity that only repeated and varied interaction with the parts can develop. Where my language classmates had often been content to concentrate on simply understanding Russian they heard or read, I instead tried to gain an internalized, deep-rooted fluency with the words and language structure. I wouldn’t just be satisfied to know that понимать meant “to understand.” I’d practice with the verb—putting it through its paces by conjugating it repeatedly with all sorts of tenses, and then moving on to putting it into sentences, and then finally to understanding not only when to use this form of the verb, but also when not to use it. I practiced recalling all these aspects and variations quickly. After all, through practice, you can understand and translate dozens—even thousands— of words in another language. But if you aren’t fluent, when someone throws a bunch of words at you quickly, as with normal speaking (which always sounds horrifically fast when you’re learning a new language), you have no idea what they’re actually saying, even though technically you understand all the component words and structure. And you certainly can’t speak quickly enough yourself for native speakers to find it enjoyable to listen to you. This approach—which focused on fluency instead of simple understanding—put me at the top of the class. And I didn’t realize it then, but this approach to learning language had given me




Chunking was originally conceptualized in the groundbreaking work of Herbert Simon in his analysis of chess—chunks were envisioned as the varying neural counterparts of different chess patterns. Gradually, neuroscientists came to realize that experts such as chess grand masters are experts because they have stored thousands of chunks of knowledge about their area of expertise in their long-term memory. Chess masters, for example, can recall tens of thousands of different chess patterns. Whatever the discipline, experts can call up to consciousness one or several of these well-knit-together, chunked neural subroutines to analyze and react to a new learning situation. This level of true understanding, and ability to use that understanding in new situations, comes only with the kind of rigor and familiarity that repetition, memorization, and practice can foster.

As studies of chess masters, emergency room physicians, and fighter pilots have shown, in times of critical stress, conscious analysis of a situation is replaced by quick, subconscious processing as these experts rapidly draw on their deeply ingrained repertoire of neural subroutines—chunks. At some point, self-consciously “understanding” why you do what you do just slows you down and interrupts flow, resulting in worse decisions.

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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
class. And I didn’t realize it then, but this approach to learning language had given me an intuitive understanding of a fundamental core of learning and the development of expertise—chunking. <span>Chunking was originally conceptualized in the groundbreaking work of Herbert Simon in his analysis of chess—chunks were envisioned as the varying neural counterparts of different chess patterns. Gradually, neuroscientists came to realize that experts such as chess grand masters are experts because they have stored thousands of chunks of knowledge about their area of expertise in their long-term memory. Chess masters, for example, can recall tens of thousands of different chess patterns. Whatever the discipline, experts can call up to consciousness one or several of these well-knit-together, chunked neural subroutines to analyze and react to a new learning situation. This level of true understanding, and ability to use that understanding in new situations, comes only with the kind of rigor and familiarity that repetition, memorization, and practice can foster. As studies of chess masters, emergency room physicians, and fighter pilots have shown, in times of critical stress, conscious analysis of a situation is replaced by quick, subconscious processing as these experts rapidly draw on their deeply ingrained repertoire of neural subroutines—chunks. At some point, self-consciously “understanding” why you do what you do just slows you down and interrupts flow, resulting in worse decisions. When I felt intuitively that there might be a connection between learning a new language and learning mathematics, I was right. Day-by-day, sustained practice of Russian fired and wired




When learning math and engineering as an adult, I began by using the same strategy I’d used to learn language. I’d look at an equation, to take a very simple example, Newton’s second law of f = ma. I practiced feeling what each of the letters meant—f for force was a push, m for mass was a kind of weighty resistance to my push, and a was the exhilarating feeling of acceleration. (The equivalent in Russian was learning to physically sound out the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet.) I memorized the equation so I could carry it around with me in my head and play with it. If m and a were big numbers, what did that do to f when I pushed it through the equation? If f was big and a was small, what did that do to m? How did the units match on each side? Playing with the equation was like conjugating a verb. I was beginning to intuit that the sparse outlines of the equation were like a metaphorical poem, with all sorts of beautiful symbolic representations embedded within it. Although I wouldn’t have put it that way at the time, the truth was that to learn math and science well, I had to slowly, day by day, build solid neural “chunked” subroutines—such as surrounding the simple equation f = ma—that I could easily call to mind from long term memory, much as I’d done with Russian.
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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
not only when to use that word, but when not to use it, or to use a different variant of it—I was actually using the same approaches that expert practitioners use to learn in math and science. <span>When learning math and engineering as an adult, I began by using the same strategy I’d used to learn language. I’d look at an equation, to take a very simple example, Newton’s second law of f = ma. I practiced feeling what each of the letters meant—f for force was a push, m for mass was a kind of weighty resistance to my push, and a was the exhilarating feeling of acceleration. (The equivalent in Russian was learning to physically sound out the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet.) I memorized the equation so I could carry it around with me in my head and play with it. If m and a were big numbers, what did that do to f when I pushed it through the equation? If f was big and a was small, what did that do to m? How did the units match on each side? Playing with the equation was like conjugating a verb. I was beginning to intuit that the sparse outlines of the equation were like a metaphorical poem, with all sorts of beautiful symbolic representations embedded within it. Although I wouldn’t have put it that way at the time, the truth was that to learn math and science well, I had to slowly, day by day, build solid neural “chunked” subroutines—such as surrounding the simple equation f = ma—that I could easily call to mind from long term memory, much as I’d done with Russian. Time after time, professors in mathematics and the sciences have told me that building well-ingrained chunks of expertise through practice and repetition was absolutely vital to their s




Time after time, professors in mathematics and the sciences have told me that building well-ingrained chunks of expertise through practice and repetition was absolutely vital to their success. Understanding doesn’t build fluency; instead, fluency builds understanding. In fact, I believe that true understanding of a complex subject comes only from fluency.
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How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
lowly, day by day, build solid neural “chunked” subroutines—such as surrounding the simple equation f = ma—that I could easily call to mind from long term memory, much as I’d done with Russian. <span>Time after time, professors in mathematics and the sciences have told me that building well-ingrained chunks of expertise through practice and repetition was absolutely vital to their success. Understanding doesn’t build fluency; instead, fluency builds understanding. In fact, I believe that true understanding of a complex subject comes only from fluency. In other words, in science and math education in particular, it’s easy to slip into teaching methods that emphasize understanding and that avoid the sometimes painful repetition and pra




Advantage of interruption in learning:

improving attention
: whenever attention declines, change of the subject is the simplest remedy other than taking a definite break from learning
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by a higher authority, student's own choices require prioritization, which in turn requires preview. Previewing is a form of interruption. Regular interruption allows of prioritizing on the go <span>improving attention: whenever attention declines, change of the subject is the simplest remedy other than taking a definite break from learning As for the disadvantages ... there are none! Simply put: interruption is optional! It is true that incremental learning may lead to "learning impatience" and "craving interruption", how

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
nned paper materials, etc. The oldest, most popular, and the most mature component of incremental learning is incremental reading. We will use incremental reading as the comprehensive introduction to other forms of incremental learning. <span>The value of interruption in learning In incremental learning, we often quickly move from one subject to another. Such interruptions may occur many times during a single learning day. When people first learn about this incremental methodology they immediately ask "Why interrupt? Aren't these the prime principles of human endeavour to be thorough, persist, and do things right to the end?" The 3 main advantages of interruption in learning are: improving memory: spaced learning has long been proven dramatically more efficient than conglomerate learning massed in time improving learning choices/priorities: unless the learning material has been pre-selected by a higher authority, student's own choices require prioritization, which in turn requires preview. Previewing is a form of interruption. Regular interruption allows of prioritizing on the go improving attention: whenever attention declines, change of the subject is the simplest remedy other than taking a definite break from learning As for the disadvantages ... there are none! Simply put: interruption is optional! It is true that incremental learning may lead to "learning impatience" and "craving interruption", however, these have never been proven detrimental beyond showing that once you employ incremental learning, you may never want to go back to traditional "book at a time" learning. Nevertheless, you should not forget that schools are incremental too. Just on a slightly moderate scale. Schools employ interruption when kids move from geography to physics, or when they close the books for the day. Once the art of incremental learning is mastered, the advantages go far beyond the advantages of the interruption or spaced repetition. Here is a shortlist (for a detailed discussion see: Advantages of incremental learning). massive learning - you learn more than you thought your memory can hold 95% knowledge retention - you nearly eliminate the problem of forgetting lifetime memories - your memories will last for life (as long as you stick with the regular review schedule based on spaced repetition) comprehensive learning on all fronts (rather than the school-like focus on 2-4 majors) better understanding of the studied subject is assisted by moderation in consuming details, and easy inclusion of explanatory material (e.g. from dictionaries and/or encyclopedias) better consolidation of the knowledge structure by incremental approach, interrupted learning, spacing, and slotting in of the new knowledge. Contrary to popular belief, incremental learning helps you keep the big picture in your mind better attention by focusing on a single issue at a time without ever missing a detail, and by remedying attention deficits with a constant change of the learning material creativity - by encountering different subjects in unpredictable sequences, your creativity soars. You can employ it, for example, in the process of incremental problem solving or incremental writing (this article was written using incremental writing tools in SuperMemo) battling chaos - it is easier to resolve contradictions in SuperMemo, e.g. when processing new research with contradictory claims and findings. Unlike your memory in "real life" where you keep oscillating between contradictions, SuperMemo does not tolerate information discrepancy. Contradictory material converges up to a point when you realize you need to decide on the nature of the truth all knowledge is well prioritized all knowledge is easily searchable all knowledge is quantifiable (size, retention, workload, etc.) stresslessness - nothing frees your mind for learning efficiently as the sense that no detail will ever be missed and you can focus on a single problem at a time while delegating other problems to later fun - once you master incremental learning, it can truly be the best part of your day with few other earthly pleasures giving you as much satisfaction as new useful knowledge In short, with incremental learning you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. For a detailed explanation see: Advantages of incremental learning. Interruption is not a problem In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first




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you will quickly discover that multiple cloze deletions on a single paragraph are not a good idea
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s a bit about your memory and habits (1-3 weeks), you will oscillate around 95% recall as of the first repetition (if you do not delay , and if you stick to the rules of formulating knowledge ) <span>you will quickly discover that multiple cloze deletions on a single paragraph are not a good idea (e.g. compare the measured forgetting index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning par

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
Search : Find texts on the registry menu) If you want a picture to be part of the answer (i.e. not visible at question time), mark it with Answer on the image component menu To learn more about using pictures, see: Visual learning <span>References See: Hints for using references Your own discoveries In incremental learning, you will quickly discover why some of your own ideas about the learning process might not be optimum. Here are some things that you will discover on your own within the first 2-3 months of intense incremental learning: recognition is good for your exam, but recall is vital for your professional skills in the long-term manually organizing the timing of review is not what suits your memory best; it is actually quite the opposite to the idea of SuperMemo, which says that you review the material at moments that help stabilize memories manually organizing the order of review is not what suits your memory best (even though subset review is a very useful tool in SuperMemo when preparing for an exam) for beginners, traditional learning might be superior to SuperMemo in a very short-term (perhaps up to 1-2 months) because of the steep learning curve. You need to learn the toolset of incremental reading before you can reap the benefits (unless you employ simple Q&A learning when SuperMemo might be superior even within a week's perspective) you may reach 95% recall within 1-2 weeks on condition that you do not postpone your review. However, if you dump 1,000 pages of topics into the process at once, you will simply not manage to review all that material as scheduled by SuperMemo, and your retention might hover around 60-80% depending on how much time you invested in making repetitions once SuperMemo learns a bit about your memory and habits (1-3 weeks), you will oscillate around 95% recall as of the first repetition (if you do not delay, and if you stick to the rules of formulating knowledge) you will quickly discover that multiple cloze deletions on a single paragraph are not a good idea (e.g. compare the measured forgetting index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have le




#incremental_learning #learning
The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful!
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lation according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning. <span>The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article? For months I haven't had time to read this article! etc. SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially (by decision) or automatically (i.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ts too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels. <span>Stresslessness Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learning is stressful. However, even though complexity always leads to a degree of stress or confusion, in the long-term, the opposite is true: SuperMemo helps you combat stress. Stressless learning is one of the greatest advantages of incremental learning. All the advantages listed in this section contribute to the sense of fun and relaxation. However, SuperMemo's ability to combat information overload might be the chief factor. Conversely, low stress levels have a miraculous impact on the effectiveness of learning. Not everyone is stressed with information overload. There is a precondition for experiencing stress of having too much to read or too much to learn: obsessive hunger for knowledge, fear of not being able to keep up, pressing need for new knowledge, etc. This precondition is met in a great proportion of the general population according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning. The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article? For months I haven't had time to read this article! etc. SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially (by decision) or automatically (i.e. behind the scenes). Oftentimes, reading 3% of an article may provide 50% of its reading value. Reading of articles may be delayed without your participation, i.e. not by stressful procrastination, but by a sheer competition with other pieces of information on the basis of their priority. In incremental reading, instead of hesitating or procrastinating, you simply prioritize. If you happen to open a dozen of tabs in your web browser, you will often be stressed about the optimum course of action. You might be late for sleep, or late for work, and yet you do not want to lose the information. In SuperMemo, you just import&prioritize. Or just import. Nothing is lost. You will encounter the imported material as soon as your learning time allocations permit. Similarly, you can clear your 1,000 pieces mail Inbox in a few hours with all pieces of mail well prioritized and scheduled for review. Once you know you can rely on SuperMemo in presenting review material for you, you can eliminate the stress and anxiety related to having too much to study or too much to read. You will never manage to read or learn all that you would hope for, but you will at least not lose sleep over planning and scheduling. SuperMemo is a promise of the best use of your potential. With this conviction, you can devote all your energy to comprehension, analysis and retention of the learned material. SuperMemo helps you take away a big deal of information overload stress. In a typical IFS stress therapy, you will see that scrupulous notes, ordering one's desk, planning one's work, keeping a calendar of appointments, etc. all have a strong therapeutic value. SuperMemo does exactly the same: it helps you keep a scrupulous and well-prioritized record of what you want to read and takes away stressful chaos from the process of acquiring information and learning the collected material. SuperMemo eliminates disorder and the ensuing uncertainty that often characterizes wild searches for information on the net. Attention Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids. Limited attention helps maximize the learn




#incremental_learning #learning
The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information.
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The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ts too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels. <span>Stresslessness Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learning is stressful. However, even though complexity always leads to a degree of stress or confusion, in the long-term, the opposite is true: SuperMemo helps you combat stress. Stressless learning is one of the greatest advantages of incremental learning. All the advantages listed in this section contribute to the sense of fun and relaxation. However, SuperMemo's ability to combat information overload might be the chief factor. Conversely, low stress levels have a miraculous impact on the effectiveness of learning. Not everyone is stressed with information overload. There is a precondition for experiencing stress of having too much to read or too much to learn: obsessive hunger for knowledge, fear of not being able to keep up, pressing need for new knowledge, etc. This precondition is met in a great proportion of the general population according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning. The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article? For months I haven't had time to read this article! etc. SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially (by decision) or automatically (i.e. behind the scenes). Oftentimes, reading 3% of an article may provide 50% of its reading value. Reading of articles may be delayed without your participation, i.e. not by stressful procrastination, but by a sheer competition with other pieces of information on the basis of their priority. In incremental reading, instead of hesitating or procrastinating, you simply prioritize. If you happen to open a dozen of tabs in your web browser, you will often be stressed about the optimum course of action. You might be late for sleep, or late for work, and yet you do not want to lose the information. In SuperMemo, you just import&prioritize. Or just import. Nothing is lost. You will encounter the imported material as soon as your learning time allocations permit. Similarly, you can clear your 1,000 pieces mail Inbox in a few hours with all pieces of mail well prioritized and scheduled for review. Once you know you can rely on SuperMemo in presenting review material for you, you can eliminate the stress and anxiety related to having too much to study or too much to read. You will never manage to read or learn all that you would hope for, but you will at least not lose sleep over planning and scheduling. SuperMemo is a promise of the best use of your potential. With this conviction, you can devote all your energy to comprehension, analysis and retention of the learned material. SuperMemo helps you take away a big deal of information overload stress. In a typical IFS stress therapy, you will see that scrupulous notes, ordering one's desk, planning one's work, keeping a calendar of appointments, etc. all have a strong therapeutic value. SuperMemo does exactly the same: it helps you keep a scrupulous and well-prioritized record of what you want to read and takes away stressful chaos from the process of acquiring information and learning the collected material. SuperMemo eliminates disorder and the ensuing uncertainty that often characterizes wild searches for information on the net. Attention Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids. Limited attention helps maximize the learn




Flashcard 3146341813516

Tags
#incremental_learning #learning
Question
The term [...] has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information.
Answer
Information Fatigue Syndrome

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ts too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels. <span>Stresslessness Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learning is stressful. However, even though complexity always leads to a degree of stress or confusion, in the long-term, the opposite is true: SuperMemo helps you combat stress. Stressless learning is one of the greatest advantages of incremental learning. All the advantages listed in this section contribute to the sense of fun and relaxation. However, SuperMemo's ability to combat information overload might be the chief factor. Conversely, low stress levels have a miraculous impact on the effectiveness of learning. Not everyone is stressed with information overload. There is a precondition for experiencing stress of having too much to read or too much to learn: obsessive hunger for knowledge, fear of not being able to keep up, pressing need for new knowledge, etc. This precondition is met in a great proportion of the general population according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning. The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article? For months I haven't had time to read this article! etc. SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially (by decision) or automatically (i.e. behind the scenes). Oftentimes, reading 3% of an article may provide 50% of its reading value. Reading of articles may be delayed without your participation, i.e. not by stressful procrastination, but by a sheer competition with other pieces of information on the basis of their priority. In incremental reading, instead of hesitating or procrastinating, you simply prioritize. If you happen to open a dozen of tabs in your web browser, you will often be stressed about the optimum course of action. You might be late for sleep, or late for work, and yet you do not want to lose the information. In SuperMemo, you just import&prioritize. Or just import. Nothing is lost. You will encounter the imported material as soon as your learning time allocations permit. Similarly, you can clear your 1,000 pieces mail Inbox in a few hours with all pieces of mail well prioritized and scheduled for review. Once you know you can rely on SuperMemo in presenting review material for you, you can eliminate the stress and anxiety related to having too much to study or too much to read. You will never manage to read or learn all that you would hope for, but you will at least not lose sleep over planning and scheduling. SuperMemo is a promise of the best use of your potential. With this conviction, you can devote all your energy to comprehension, analysis and retention of the learned material. SuperMemo helps you take away a big deal of information overload stress. In a typical IFS stress therapy, you will see that scrupulous notes, ordering one's desk, planning one's work, keeping a calendar of appointments, etc. all have a strong therapeutic value. SuperMemo does exactly the same: it helps you keep a scrupulous and well-prioritized record of what you want to read and takes away stressful chaos from the process of acquiring information and learning the collected material. SuperMemo eliminates disorder and the ensuing uncertainty that often characterizes wild searches for information on the net. Attention Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids. Limited attention helps maximize the learn







Flashcard 3146343386380

Tags
#incremental_learning #learning
Question
The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to [...]
Answer
stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ts too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels. <span>Stresslessness Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learning is stressful. However, even though complexity always leads to a degree of stress or confusion, in the long-term, the opposite is true: SuperMemo helps you combat stress. Stressless learning is one of the greatest advantages of incremental learning. All the advantages listed in this section contribute to the sense of fun and relaxation. However, SuperMemo's ability to combat information overload might be the chief factor. Conversely, low stress levels have a miraculous impact on the effectiveness of learning. Not everyone is stressed with information overload. There is a precondition for experiencing stress of having too much to read or too much to learn: obsessive hunger for knowledge, fear of not being able to keep up, pressing need for new knowledge, etc. This precondition is met in a great proportion of the general population according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning. The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article? For months I haven't had time to read this article! etc. SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially (by decision) or automatically (i.e. behind the scenes). Oftentimes, reading 3% of an article may provide 50% of its reading value. Reading of articles may be delayed without your participation, i.e. not by stressful procrastination, but by a sheer competition with other pieces of information on the basis of their priority. In incremental reading, instead of hesitating or procrastinating, you simply prioritize. If you happen to open a dozen of tabs in your web browser, you will often be stressed about the optimum course of action. You might be late for sleep, or late for work, and yet you do not want to lose the information. In SuperMemo, you just import&prioritize. Or just import. Nothing is lost. You will encounter the imported material as soon as your learning time allocations permit. Similarly, you can clear your 1,000 pieces mail Inbox in a few hours with all pieces of mail well prioritized and scheduled for review. Once you know you can rely on SuperMemo in presenting review material for you, you can eliminate the stress and anxiety related to having too much to study or too much to read. You will never manage to read or learn all that you would hope for, but you will at least not lose sleep over planning and scheduling. SuperMemo is a promise of the best use of your potential. With this conviction, you can devote all your energy to comprehension, analysis and retention of the learned material. SuperMemo helps you take away a big deal of information overload stress. In a typical IFS stress therapy, you will see that scrupulous notes, ordering one's desk, planning one's work, keeping a calendar of appointments, etc. all have a strong therapeutic value. SuperMemo does exactly the same: it helps you keep a scrupulous and well-prioritized record of what you want to read and takes away stressful chaos from the process of acquiring information and learning the collected material. SuperMemo eliminates disorder and the ensuing uncertainty that often characterizes wild searches for information on the net. Attention Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids. Limited attention helps maximize the learn







Incremental reading is best suited for articles written in hypertext or in an encyclopedic manner. Ideally, each sentence you read has a contribution to your knowledge and is not useless without the sentences that follow.
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s not a problem In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first paragraph or even a sentence. <span>Incremental reading is best suited for articles written in hypertext or in an encyclopedic manner. Ideally, each sentence you read has a contribution to your knowledge and is not useless without the sentences that follow. Imagine that you would like to learn a few things about Gamal Abdel Nasser . You will, for example, import to SuperMemo an article about Nasser from Wikipedia . In the first sentence yo

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ll directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. For a detailed explanation see: Advantages of incremental learning. <span>Interruption is not a problem In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first paragraph or even a sentence. Incremental reading is best suited for articles written in hypertext or in an encyclopedic manner. Ideally, each sentence you read has a contribution to your knowledge and is not useless without the sentences that follow. Imagine that you would like to learn a few things about Gamal Abdel Nasser. You will, for example, import to SuperMemo an article about Nasser from Wikipedia. In the first sentence you will find out that "Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918 - 1970) was the second President of Egypt". If you are new to Nasser, you may be happy to just know he was the Egyptian president and safely jump to reading other articles. Thus you may delay the encounter with the historic role of Nasser and economize some time to finding out, for example, who Shimon Peres is. When you see the Nasser article for the second time, you might find that "He was followed by after President Muhammad Naguib and can be considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history". This piece of knowledge is also self-contained and you can patiently wait for your third encounter with Nasser. When you return the next time, you may conclude that another piece about Nasser is of lower priority: "Nasser was born in Alexandria". You can schedule the review of that piece in 2-3 years. Perhaps your interest in Nasser or in Alexandria will grow to the point that this knowledge will become relevant. If not, you can always dismiss or delete such an extract. Alternatively, you can skip a few paragraphs and extract a more important sentence: "In 1952, Nasser led the military coup against King Farouk I of Egypt". Even if your read individual sentences about Nasser in intervals lasting months, your knowledge will progressively expand and will become increasingly consolidated (esp. if you employ cloze deletions, which are mandatory for longer intervals). Naturally, not all texts are are so well-suited for incremental reading. For example, a research paper may throw at you a detailed description of methods and leave results and conclusions for the end. In such cases, you may extract the abstract and delay the body of the paper by a period in which you believe the abstract will have been sufficiently processed. Then, if you are still interested in the article, you can schedule the methods well into the future (you will or will not read the methods depending on the conclusions of the article). You can schedule the results and the discussion into a less remote point in time, and proceed with reading the conclusions. The hardest texts may not be suitable to reading in increments. For example, a piece of software code may need to be analyzed in its entirety before it reveals any useful meaning. In such cases, when the text (here the code) comes up in the incremental reading process, analyze it and verbalize your conclusions. The conclusions can then be processed incrementally. You will generate individual questions depending on which pieces of knowledge you consider important and which become volatile. The original computer code can be still retained in your collection as reference only. When learning at the university, you do many courses in parallel. That's a macro version of incremental reading. Many people love to zap TV channels and play a chaotic version of incremental video with their TV set. Zapping may not be a recommended way of learning, but it won't leave your mind blank. Another example can be seen in people who have a habit of reading a few novels in parallel. Their limit on the number of novels comes from the limits of human memory. There is a breaking point beyond which a novel, if read in bursts separated by longer intervals, cannot be followed due to fading memories. Incremental reading is based on SuperMemo, and by definition is far less limited by your forgetful memory. The number of articles in the process can reach a hundred thousands, and given basic skills, you won't get confused. Complexity of incremental learning Unlike classic SuperMemo, incremental learning requires quite a lot of experience and training before it becomes effective. However, your inve




The hardest texts may not be suitable to reading in increments. For example, a piece of software code may need to be analyzed in its entirety before it reveals any useful meaning. In such cases, when the text (here the code) comes up in the incremental reading process, analyze it and verbalize your conclusions. The conclusions can then be processed incrementally. You will generate individual questions depending on which pieces of knowledge you consider important and which become volatile.
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ll not read the methods depending on the conclusions of the article). You can schedule the results and the discussion into a less remote point in time, and proceed with reading the conclusions. <span>The hardest texts may not be suitable to reading in increments. For example, a piece of software code may need to be analyzed in its entirety before it reveals any useful meaning. In such cases, when the text (here the code) comes up in the incremental reading process, analyze it and verbalize your conclusions. The conclusions can then be processed incrementally. You will generate individual questions depending on which pieces of knowledge you consider important and which become volatile. The original computer code can be still retained in your collection as reference only. When learning at the university, you do many courses in parallel. That's a macro version of increm

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ll directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. For a detailed explanation see: Advantages of incremental learning. <span>Interruption is not a problem In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first paragraph or even a sentence. Incremental reading is best suited for articles written in hypertext or in an encyclopedic manner. Ideally, each sentence you read has a contribution to your knowledge and is not useless without the sentences that follow. Imagine that you would like to learn a few things about Gamal Abdel Nasser. You will, for example, import to SuperMemo an article about Nasser from Wikipedia. In the first sentence you will find out that "Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918 - 1970) was the second President of Egypt". If you are new to Nasser, you may be happy to just know he was the Egyptian president and safely jump to reading other articles. Thus you may delay the encounter with the historic role of Nasser and economize some time to finding out, for example, who Shimon Peres is. When you see the Nasser article for the second time, you might find that "He was followed by after President Muhammad Naguib and can be considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history". This piece of knowledge is also self-contained and you can patiently wait for your third encounter with Nasser. When you return the next time, you may conclude that another piece about Nasser is of lower priority: "Nasser was born in Alexandria". You can schedule the review of that piece in 2-3 years. Perhaps your interest in Nasser or in Alexandria will grow to the point that this knowledge will become relevant. If not, you can always dismiss or delete such an extract. Alternatively, you can skip a few paragraphs and extract a more important sentence: "In 1952, Nasser led the military coup against King Farouk I of Egypt". Even if your read individual sentences about Nasser in intervals lasting months, your knowledge will progressively expand and will become increasingly consolidated (esp. if you employ cloze deletions, which are mandatory for longer intervals). Naturally, not all texts are are so well-suited for incremental reading. For example, a research paper may throw at you a detailed description of methods and leave results and conclusions for the end. In such cases, you may extract the abstract and delay the body of the paper by a period in which you believe the abstract will have been sufficiently processed. Then, if you are still interested in the article, you can schedule the methods well into the future (you will or will not read the methods depending on the conclusions of the article). You can schedule the results and the discussion into a less remote point in time, and proceed with reading the conclusions. The hardest texts may not be suitable to reading in increments. For example, a piece of software code may need to be analyzed in its entirety before it reveals any useful meaning. In such cases, when the text (here the code) comes up in the incremental reading process, analyze it and verbalize your conclusions. The conclusions can then be processed incrementally. You will generate individual questions depending on which pieces of knowledge you consider important and which become volatile. The original computer code can be still retained in your collection as reference only. When learning at the university, you do many courses in parallel. That's a macro version of incremental reading. Many people love to zap TV channels and play a chaotic version of incremental video with their TV set. Zapping may not be a recommended way of learning, but it won't leave your mind blank. Another example can be seen in people who have a habit of reading a few novels in parallel. Their limit on the number of novels comes from the limits of human memory. There is a breaking point beyond which a novel, if read in bursts separated by longer intervals, cannot be followed due to fading memories. Incremental reading is based on SuperMemo, and by definition is far less limited by your forgetful memory. The number of articles in the process can reach a hundred thousands, and given basic skills, you won't get confused. Complexity of incremental learning Unlike classic SuperMemo, incremental learning requires quite a lot of experience and training before it becomes effective. However, your inve




Japan is also home of the Kumon method of teaching mathematics, which emphasizes memorization, repetition, and rote learning hand-in-hand with developing the child’s mastery over the material.
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Japan has become seen as a much-admired and emulated exemplar of these active, “understanding-centered” teaching methods. But what’s often missing from the discussion is the rest of the story: <span>Japan is also home of the Kumon method of teaching mathematics, which emphasizes memorization, repetition, and rote learning hand-in-hand with developing the child’s mastery over the material. This intense afterschool program, and others like it, is embraced by millions of parents in Japan and around the world who supplement their child’s participatory education with plenty o

Original toplevel document

How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus
standing math through active discussion is the talisman of learning. If you can explain what you’ve learned to others, perhaps drawing them a picture, the thinking goes, you must understand it. <span>Japan has become seen as a much-admired and emulated exemplar of these active, “understanding-centered” teaching methods. But what’s often missing from the discussion is the rest of the story: Japan is also home of the Kumon method of teaching mathematics, which emphasizes memorization, repetition, and rote learning hand-in-hand with developing the child’s mastery over the material. This intense afterschool program, and others like it, is embraced by millions of parents in Japan and around the world who supplement their child’s participatory education with plenty of practice, repetition, and yes, intelligently designed rote learning, to allow them to gain hard-won fluency with the material. Also in Psychology What Color Is This Song? By Stephen E. Palmer Suppose you’re at a concert with a friend who leans over and whispers in your ear, “What color was that music?” It may s




Flashcard 3147798809868

Tags
#kkhosravi #linux #topics
Question
True/False: Linux is a subset/direct derivitive of Unix
Answer
FALSE.
Linux (created in 1990s) was created from scratch but inspired by Unix (created in 70s) and sharing many of same commands.

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Question
In Linux, a [...] is a process running in the background that is not associated with any terminal
Answer
Daemon

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Question
In Linux, [...] is done to get access to content of hard drives / usb flash drives / cd roms / etc
Answer
mounting

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Question
Before you mount a new hard drive, you must first create/make a new [...]
Answer
directory

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Question
To get the name of drive to mount, command is [...]
Answer
fdisk -l

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Question
Command to create new directory for new mount point is:
Answer
mkdir /mnt/SOMENAME

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Flashcard 3147839442188

Tags
#asset-swap #finance #gale-using-and-tradning-asset-swaps #has-images

#asset-swap #finance #gale-using-and-tradning-asset-swaps

Question
What formula is it?
Answer
market value accrued asset swap

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pdf

cannot see any pdfs







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Question
Command to mount a new drive (once mount point directory is created is: [...]
Answer
sudo mount /dev/NAME_OF_DRIVE /mnt/NAME_OF_MOUNT_POINT_FOLDER
NOTE: NAME_OF_DRIVE is derived from "fdisk -l"

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Question
Ubuntu is a derivitive of [...]
Answer
Debian

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Question
Redhat is a derivitive of [...]
Answer
Fedora

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Question
Centos is a free derivitive of paid/enterprise [...]
Answer
Redhat

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Flashcard 3147852025100

Question
Ubuntu command to install/upgrade/remove packages/apps is [...]
Answer
apt-get

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American consumers have done fabulously well in recent decades
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TheMoneyIllusion
nsumers will do well. During Mao’s 27 years in office, China lacked a democratic form of government, private property rights, freedom of the press and an internet. Therefore . . . ???? And BTW, <span>American consumers have done fabulously well in recent decades, at least in terms of autos, TVs, phones, cameras, internet, entertainment choices, restaurant quality and choice, cheap clothing, etc., etc., etc. PS. I have a related post at Econlog.




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Question
Command to get linux distribution information is?
Answer
cat /etc/*release

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Tags
#test #to-remove
Question
This is a LaTeX test.
Answer
\(\begin{pmatrix}1 & cos(\theta) \\ -cos(\theta) & 0 \end{pmatrix}\)

\(x = {-b \pm \sqrt{b^2-4ac} \over 2a}\)

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Flashcard 3155355634956

Question
How would you find file named testrunner in linux?
Answer
sudo find -iname *testrunner* --> RUN from /, note -iname is to keep search case insensative

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#strategy
According to the skilled strategist Sun Tzu, strategy is about winning before the battle begins, while tactics are about striking at weakness.
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#strategy
“Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy are the noise before defeat.”
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