# on 26-Nov-2019 (Tue)

#### Annotation 1425372744972

 5.Cloze deletion is easy and effective #rules-of-formulating-knowledge Cloze deletion is a sentence with its parts missing and replaced by three dots. Cloze deletion exercise is an exercise that uses cloze deletion to ask the student to fill in the gaps marked with the three dots. For example, Bill ...[name] was the second US president to go through impeachment. If you are a beginner and if you find it difficult to stick to the minimum information principle, use cloze deletion! If you are an advanced user, you will also like cloze deletion. It is a quick and effective method of converting textbook knowledge into knowledge that can be subject to learning based on spaced repetition. Cloze deletion makes the core of the fast reading and learning technique called incremental reading.

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The basic reproduction number, notated [...]
R0

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
The basic reproduction number R0 ,for example, is a central concept characterizing the average number of secondary cases generated by one primary case in a susceptible population.

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Define a configuration and generate the configuration document:

#### Define a configuration and generate the configuration document:

Configuration EnvironmentVariable_Path
{ param () Import-DscResource -ModuleName 'PSDscResources' Node localhost { Environment CreatePathEnvironmentVariable { Name = 'TestPathEnvironmentVariable' Value = 'TestValue' Ensure = 'Present' Path = $true Target = @('Process', 'Machine') } } } EnvironmentVariable_Path -OutputPath:"C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path" status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs tion MOF document The Windows PowerShell Configuration keyword is used to create a configuration. The following steps describe the creation of a configuration document using Windows PowerShell. <span>Define a configuration and generate the configuration document: Configuration EnvironmentVariable_Path { param () Import-DscResource -ModuleName 'PSDscResources' Node localhost { Environment CreatePathEnvironmentVariable { Name = 'TestPathEnvironmentVariable' Value = 'TestValue' Ensure = 'Present' Path =$true Target = @('Process', 'Machine') } } } EnvironmentVariable_Path -OutputPath:"C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path" Install a module containing DSC resources Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration includes built-in modules containing DSC resources. You can also load modules from external sour

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Install a module containing DSC resources

#### Install a module containing DSC resources

Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration includes built-in modules containing DSC resources. You can also load modules from external sources such as the PowerShell Gallery, using the PowerShellGet cmdlets.

Install-Module 'PSDscResources' -Verbose

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Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs
ame = 'TestPathEnvironmentVariable' Value = 'TestValue' Ensure = 'Present' Path = \$true Target = @('Process', 'Machine') } } } EnvironmentVariable_Path -OutputPath:"C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path" <span>Install a module containing DSC resources Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration includes built-in modules containing DSC resources. You can also load modules from external sources such as the PowerShell Gallery, using the PowerShellGet cmdlets. Install-Module 'PSDscResources' -Verbose Apply the configuration to the machine Configuration documents (MOF files) can be applied to the machine using the Start-DscConfiguration cmdlet. Start-DscConfiguration -Path 'C:\Enviro

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Apply the configuration to the machine

#### Apply the configuration to the machine

Configuration documents (MOF files) can be applied to the machine using the Start-DscConfiguration cmdlet.

Start-DscConfiguration -Path 'C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path' -Wait -Verbose

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Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs
lt-in modules containing DSC resources. You can also load modules from external sources such as the PowerShell Gallery, using the PowerShellGet cmdlets. Install-Module 'PSDscResources' -Verbose <span>Apply the configuration to the machine Configuration documents (MOF files) can be applied to the machine using the Start-DscConfiguration cmdlet. Start-DscConfiguration -Path 'C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path' -Wait -Verbose Get the current state of the configuration The Get-DscConfiguration cmdlet queries the current status of the machine and returns the current values for the configuration. Get-DscConfigu

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Get the current state of the configuration

#### Get the current state of the configuration

The Get-DscConfiguration cmdlet queries the current status of the machine and returns the current values for the configuration.

Get-DscConfiguration

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Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs
the machine Configuration documents (MOF files) can be applied to the machine using the Start-DscConfiguration cmdlet. Start-DscConfiguration -Path 'C:\EnvironmentVariable_Path' -Wait -Verbose <span>Get the current state of the configuration The Get-DscConfiguration cmdlet queries the current status of the machine and returns the current values for the configuration. Get-DscConfiguration The Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet returns the current meta-configuration applied to the machine. Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager Remove the current configuration from a machi

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The Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet returns the current meta-configuration applied to the machine.

The Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet returns the current meta-configuration applied to the machine.

Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager

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Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs
e Get the current state of the configuration The Get-DscConfiguration cmdlet queries the current status of the machine and returns the current values for the configuration. Get-DscConfiguration <span>The Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet returns the current meta-configuration applied to the machine. Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager Remove the current configuration from a machine The Remove-DscConfigurationDocument Remove-DscConfigurationDocument -Stage Current -Verbose Configure settings in Local Configuration Man

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Remove the current configuration from a machine

#### R emove the current configuration from a machine

Remove-DscConfigurationDocument -Stage Current -Verbose

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Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs
nt values for the configuration. Get-DscConfiguration The Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet returns the current meta-configuration applied to the machine. Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager <span>Remove the current configuration from a machine The Remove-DscConfigurationDocument Remove-DscConfigurationDocument -Stage Current -Verbose Configure settings in Local Configuration Manager Apply a Meta Configuration MOF file to the machine using the Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet. Requires the path to the Meta Con

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Configure settings in Local Configuration Manager

#### Configure settings in Local Configuration Manager

Apply a Meta Configuration MOF file to the machine using the Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet. Requires the path to the Meta Configuration MOF.

Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager -Path 'c:\metaconfig\localhost.meta.mof' -Verbose

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Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs
lied to the machine. Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager Remove the current configuration from a machine The Remove-DscConfigurationDocument Remove-DscConfigurationDocument -Stage Current -Verbose <span>Configure settings in Local Configuration Manager Apply a Meta Configuration MOF file to the machine using the Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet. Requires the path to the Meta Configuration MOF. Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager -Path 'c:\metaconfig\localhost.meta.mof' -Verbose Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration log files Logs for DSC are written to Windows Event Log in the path Microsoft-Windows-Dsc/Operational. Additional logs for debugging purpo

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Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration log files

Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration log files

Logs for DSC are written to Windows Event Log in the path Microsoft-Windows-Dsc/Operational.

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Get started with Desired State Configuration (DSC) for Windows - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs
he machine using the Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager cmdlet. Requires the path to the Meta Configuration MOF. Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager -Path 'c:\metaconfig\localhost.meta.mof' -Verbose <span>Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration log files Logs for DSC are written to Windows Event Log in the path Microsoft-Windows-Dsc/Operational. Additional logs for debugging purposes can be enabled following the steps in Where Are DSC Event Logs . Is this page helpful? Yes No Any additional feedback? Skip Submit Thank you. Feed

#### Annotation 4607185653004

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading The overarching aim of Adalja et al.'s (2018) study was to provide an inductive, microbe-agnostic analysis of the microbial world to identify fundamental principles that underlie this special category of microorganisms that have potential to cause global catastrophe. Such principles could refine pandemic preparedness by providing a new framework or lens through which to survey the threat landscape of infectious diseases in order to better anticipate, prepare for, and respond to GCBR threats.

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#### Annotation 4607188012300

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Attributes likely to be essential components of any GCBR-level pathogen include: efficient human-to-human transmissibility,an appreciable case fatality rate,the absence of an effective or widely available medical countermeasure,an immunologically naïve population,virulence factors enabling immune system evasion, andrespiratory mode of spread. Additionally, the ability to transmit during incubation periods and/or the occurrence of mild illnesses would further augment spread.

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#### Annotation 4607189585164

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Most classes of microbe could evolve or be manipulated in ways that would cause a catastrophic risk to humans. However, viruses—especially RNA viruses—are the most likely class of microorganism to have this capacity.

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#### Annotation 4607191158028

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading several features of viruses make this class of microbial agents the most likely to cause GCBRs. Viruses possess higher capacity for genetic mutability due to both the structure of their genomes and the generation time for replication in which large numbers of progeny virus are created each day. Additionally, the inability of a virus to be countered with a broad-spectrum antiviral—compared with bacteria, fungi, and parasites—makes viruses the more likely cause of a GCBR.

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#### Annotation 4607192730892

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading RNA viruses merit special concern chiefly because of their higher mutability compared to DNA viruses.

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#### Annotation 4607195090188

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Major resource-intensive efforts are currently under way to develop a global virome to catalog as many viral species on the planet as possible. The rationale behind these projects is to develop a full understanding of the breadth of the viral world and to be able to develop better situational awareness of looming threats. The scientific value of such an undertaking is substantial and without question. However, these efforts will not necessarily translate into better pandemic preparedness, given the sheer numbers of viruses that will be catalogued without a clear means of prioritizing them, the fact that most identified viruses will pose little to no threat to humans, and the recognition that, while a viral cause of the next pandemic is most likely, there is no guarantee it will not be caused by another class of pathogen. The cost- effectiveness of a global viral catalog for diminishing pandemic threats may be less than that of systematically pursuing diagnoses of infectious disease syndromes, as discussed below.

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#### Annotation 4607196663052

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Aggressive diagnostic testing of infectious disease syndromes such as atypical pneumonia, central nervous system infections, and septic shock in strategic and sentinel locations around the world and over time may provide insight into new or changing patterns of infection. Such a practice would be a radical departure from standard practices in both the developed and the developing worlds, in which syndromic clinical diagnosis, basic microbiological testing, and empiric therapy are often the rule. With the heightened availability of more sophisticated diagnostic testing in both developed and developing nations, it is increasingly possible to have greater insight into the microbiological causes underlying many common infectious syndromes that currently are not routinely pursued to a specific microbiological etiology. Illuminating this biological dark matter that is present in hospitals and clinics worldwide will not only improve treatment but would focus pathogen discovery efforts on established damage-causing microbes.

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#### Annotation 4607198235916

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading During an outbreak situation, early decisions regarding vaccine policy, resource mobilization, and countermeasure deployment made by political and scientific leaders can be decisive in the control of an outbreak and could prevent many of the downstream cascading effects that affect the healthcare and other sectors. Conversely, decisions—both scientific and political—that lead to harmful or erroneous actions could deepen the consequences of an epidemic or worsen a GCBR.

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#### Annotation 4607199808780

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading it is important to realize that outbreaks caused by pathogens not categorized as GCBR-level risks could rise to that level through synergy with external factors

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#### Annotation 4607201381644

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Historical pathogen list–based approaches should not stand as permanent fixed ideas that stultify thinking on pandemic pathogens. An active-minded approach that seeks to root the pandemic potential of pathogens in their actual traits is one that will foster more breadth in preparedness and proactivity. Incorporating this approach would require a major change in thinking and resource allocation

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#### Annotation 4607202954508

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Given the greater concern for respiratory-borne RNA viruses, improving surveillance of human infections with this class of viruses should become a higher priority. Currently, such a system exists for influenza, but other viruses, such as parainfluenza, coronavirus, and RSV, are not given the dedicated resources necessary to track their epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and microbiological traits. Future efforts could build on the success of influenza surveillance and incorporate additional high-priority viruses.

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#### Annotation 4607205313804

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading An increased emphasis on developing a specific pipeline of antiviral agents for RNA respiratory viruses would add resilience against these potential GCBR agents. Today, no such antiviral agents exist outside of influenza that possess high efficacy.

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#### Annotation 4607206886668

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Vaccines against RNA respiratory viruses should be pursued with increased priority, as no highly efficacious vaccines, including against influenza, are commercially available today. Vaccines could be used to quench nascent outbreaks or to pre-vaccinate target populations.

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#### Annotation 4607208459532

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Ongoing efforts to create a universal flu vaccine should continue and be supplemented, given the risk of a novel influenza A virus to cause a GCBR.

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#### Annotation 4607210032396

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading A clinical research agenda for optimizing the treatment of respiratory-spread RNA viruses should be funded by pharmaceutical companies and medical research agencies and pursued by clinical centers. Important research questions regarding supportive and adjunctive therapy, intensive care unit interventions, and antiviral therapy should be addressed and answered.

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#### Annotation 4607211605260

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading Research that could increase the pandemic potential or risk of respiratory-borne RNA viruses or the orthopox viruses should undergo special review, given the potential consequences. Such work should be performed under the appropriate biosafety level protocols.

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#### Annotation 4607213178124

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading microbiologically specific diagnoses of infectious disease syndromes in strategic or sentinel locations around the world should become more routine, especially now that diagnostics are becoming more powerful and available

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#### Annotation 4607214750988

 #2018_Adalja_etal_pandemic_potential_pathogens #reading there are countless undiagnosed severe infectious disease syndromes (including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and encephalitis) in every hospital and clinic in the world, we need to do more to understand these causes of undiagnosed infectious syndromes, some of which may be the result of a novel GCBR-level agent in its first forays into humans or a changing spectrum of illness in a known agent

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Nesta aula faremos uma grande [...] do Direito Administrativo. [...] com breve abordagem sobre seu [...] e origem.
[default - edit me]

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contextualização

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Na sequência, estudaremos as diferenças entre os conceitos de Estado, Governo e Administração Pública. A partir daí, poderemos estudar as fontes do direito administrativo e o sistema administrativo adotado pelo Brasil, comparativamente aos sistemas existentes ao redor do mundo.
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comparativamente

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In AWS, VPC [...] [...]s allow a way for you to capture and look at all the incoming and outgoing IP traffic going to resources within your VPC (e.g. EC2 instances, ELBs, etc).

Flow Logs

^^ you can configure flow logs at VPC, Subnet, or individual Network Interface (attached to EC2, ELB, etc) level, and send the logs to CloudWatch and/or S3.

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In AWS, Flow Logs (which capture all incoming and outgoing IP to any AWS resource with a network interface, e.g. EC2, ELB, etc) can be created at the following three levels [...] , Subnet, and Network Interface

VPC

^^ when you create a VPC flow log that goes to a CloudWatch Log Group, there is a seperate log file for each network interface attached to each resource (EC2, ELB, RDS, etc) in your VPC

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In AWS, Flow Logs (which capture all incoming and outgoing IP to any AWS resource with a network interface, e.g. EC2, ELB, etc) can be created at the following three levels VPC, [...] , and Network Interface

Subnet

^^ when you create a VPC flow log that goes to a CloudWatch Log Group, there is a seperate log file for each network interface attached to each resource (EC2, ELB, RDS, etc) in your VPC

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In AWS, Flow Logs (which capture all incoming and outgoing IP to any AWS resource with a network interface, e.g. EC2, ELB, etc) can be created at the following three levels VPC, Subnet, and [...] [...]

Network Interface

^^ when you create a VPC flow log that goes to a CloudWatch Log Group, there is a seperate log file for each network interface attached to each resource (EC2, ELB, RDS, etc) in your VPC

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In AWS, Flow Logs allow you to see all the incoming and outgoing IP traffic for each [...] [...] attached to any of your AWS resrouces (EC2, ELB, RDS, etc)

Network Interface

^^ Network Interface = Elastic Network Interface, viewable from the EC2 console, "Networking & Security" section.

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In AWS, Flow Logs (which capture all incoming and outgoing IP to any AWS resource with a network interface, e.g. EC2, ELB, etc) can be configured at the VPC, Subnet or Network Interface level and the logs can be sent to either [...] or [...] <- two different occulsions
S3 or Cloudwatch

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In AWS, when you create a VPC flow log that goes to CloudWatch, you need to first create a CloudWatch [...] [...] where there will be an individual log file stored (that contains incoming and outgoing IP traffic) for each network interface (attached to each resource, e.g. EC2, ELB, RDS, etc) in your VPC.
Log Group

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In AWS, a NAT gateway/instance allows your instances in a private subnet to make outbound connections to the internet (to download software for example), but if you want to SSH into your instances in your private subnet from the internet, you need to use a [...] host/server

Bastion

^^ Bastion host is in the public subnet, since it needs a public IP, to be an SSH entry point from internet to then tunnel the traffic to the private IP of your instance in private subnet.
^^^ You must use bastion as jumphost to access your EC2 instances in private subnet (since these instances don't have a public IP), but you can also use the bastion host as jumphost for instances in your public subnet too (as a good security measure).

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In AWS, you must use bastion as jumphost to access your EC2 instances in private subnet to be able to SSH to them from the internet, since these instances don't have a [...] [...] , but you can also use the bastion host as jumphost for instances in your public subnet too (as a good security measure).
Public IP

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In AWS, and networking in general, a [...] host/server provides a single point of entry to your instances/servers (i.e. for SSH), so it reduces the surface area of what you need to harden against hacker attacks. This way you just have to harden your [...] host/server, not all the instances you want to ssh to from the internet. <- same answer for both occulsions
Bastion

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In AWS, [...] [...] connects your on-premise data centre to AWS (both public AWS, like S3, and private AWS, like your VPC) by going through the internet but via the amazon backbone network which is faster and more secure.
Direct Connect

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In AWS, Direct Connect directly connects your on-premise data centre to AWS (both public AWS, like S3, and private AWS, like your VPC) by going through the internet but via the amazon backbone network. The benefit of Direct Connect is that it is [...] and more [...]than using the normal internet network.
faster/stabler and more secure

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In AWS, VPC [...]s allow you to privately connect your VPC resources (like EC2s) to supported AWS services (like S3) without going over the internet, so if you have an instance in private subnet, and you are not even using a NAT to connect outbound to internet, you can still access AWS resources like S3.
Endpoints

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In AWS, VPC endpoints allow you to connect your VPC resources (like instances in private subnet with no route to a NAT) to supported AWS services, like S3, without going through the internet. There are two types of VPC endpoints, [...] endpoints and [...] endpoints. <--two different occulsions

Interface endpoints and Gateway endpoints

^^ Interface Endpoints are a Network interface with Private IP that allow you to talk to certain AWS resouces (like Config, SNS, etc)
^^^ Gateway Endpoints are gateways that allow you to talk to S3 and DynamoDB
^^^^ You create both types of VPC Endpoints via the "Endpoints" section of the VPC console (during this creation process a route is added to your specified subnet Route Table to route traffic from your VPC subnet(s) bound for the said AWS service (like S3) to the Interface/Gateway (and the Interface/Gateway endpoint then connects with PrivateLink to the service without going over the internet).

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In AWS, lets say you have a VPC with a private subnet and you want instances in your private subnet to talk to S3 but you don't want to configure a NAT for your private subnet. How do you achieve this (be as specific as possible, i.e there are two steps that take place that get this achieved).