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Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth

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Bacteria - Wikipedia
([imagelink] i /bækˈtɪəriə/; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. <span>Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, [4] and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiot




Root nodules are found on the roots of plants, primarily legumes, that form a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.[1] Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, capable plants form a symbiotic relationship with a host-specific strain of bacteria known as rhizobia

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Root nodule - Wikipedia
Root nodule From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search A simplified diagram of the relation between the plant and the symbiotic bacteria (cyan) in the root nodules. <span>Root nodules are found on the roots of plants, primarily legumes, that form a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.[1] Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, capable plants form a symbiotic relationship with a host-specific strain of bacteria known as rhizobia.[2] This process has evolved multiple times within the legumes, as well as in other species found within the Rosid clade.[3] Legume crops include beans, peas, and soybeans. Within legum




An endosymbiont or endobiont[1] is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism most often, though not always, in a mutualistic relationship. (The term endosymbiosis is from the Greek: ἔνδον endon "within", σύν syn "together" and βίωσις biosis "living".) Examples are nitrogen-fixing bacteria (called rhizobia), which live in the root nodules of legumes; single-cell algae inside reef-building corals, and bacterial endosymbionts that provide essential nutrients to about 10–15% of insects.[2][3]

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Endosymbiont - Wikipedia
ndosymbiont From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism A representation of the endosymbiotic theory <span>An endosymbiont or endobiont[1] is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism most often, though not always, in a mutualistic relationship. (The term endosymbiosis is from the Greek: ἔνδον endon "within", σύν syn "together" and βίωσις biosis "living".) Examples are nitrogen-fixing bacteria (called rhizobia), which live in the root nodules of legumes; single-cell algae inside reef-building corals, and bacterial endosymbionts that provide essential nutrients to about 10–15% of insects.[2][3] There are two types of symbiont transmissions. In horizontal transmission, each new generation acquires free living symbionts from the environment. An example is the nitrogen-fixing bac




We can distinguish therefore in the body of a polyp the column, circular or oval in section, forming the trunk, resting on a base or foot and surmounted by the crown of tentacles, which enclose an area termed the peristome, in the centre of which again is the mouth. As a rule there is no other opening to the body except the mouth, but in some cases excretory pores are known to occur in the foot, and pores may occur at the tips of the tentacles. Thus it is seen that a polyp is an animal of very simple structure,[1] a living fossil that has not changed significantly for about half a billion years (per generally accepted dating of Cambrian sedimentary rock).

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Polyp (zoology) - Wikipedia
doderm permit tentacles to be protract or thrust out once they are contracted. These muscle fibres belong to the same two systems, thus allows the whole body to retract or protrude outwards.[1] <span>We can distinguish therefore in the body of a polyp the column, circular or oval in section, forming the trunk, resting on a base or foot and surmounted by the crown of tentacles, which enclose an area termed the peristome, in the centre of which again is the mouth. As a rule there is no other opening to the body except the mouth, but in some cases excretory pores are known to occur in the foot, and pores may occur at the tips of the tentacles. Thus it is seen that a polyp is an animal of very simple structure,[1] a living fossil that has not changed significantly for about half a billion years (per generally accepted dating of Cambrian sedimentary rock). The external form of the polyp varies greatly in different cases. The column may be long and slender, or may be so short in the vertical direction that the body becomes disk-like. The t




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Anatomy of a coral polyp

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Polyp (zoology) - Wikipedia
cess again later. With Cubozoans, the planula settles onto a suitable surface, and develops into a polyp. The cubozoan polyp then eventually metamorphoses directly into a Medusa. Anatomy[edit] <span>Anatomy of a coral polyp The body of the polyp may be roughly compared in a structure to a sac, the wall of which is composed of two layers of cells. The outer layer is known technically as the ectoderm, the in




#has-images
Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproducing by budding

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Budding - Wikipedia
books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article is about the form of asexual reproduction. For other uses, see Budding (disambiguation). <span>Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproducing by budding Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The small bulb-like projection coming ou




Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The small bulb-like projection coming out from the yeast cell is called a bud. Since the reproduction is asexual, the newly created organism is a clone and excepting mutations is genetically identical to the parent organism.

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Budding - Wikipedia
w and when to remove this template message) This article is about the form of asexual reproduction. For other uses, see Budding (disambiguation). Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproducing by budding <span>Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The small bulb-like projection coming out from the yeast cell is called a bud. Since the reproduction is asexual, the newly created organism is a clone and excepting mutations is genetically identical to the parent organism. Organisms such as hydra use regenerative cells for reproduction in the process of budding. In hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site. T




It is an almost universal attribute of polyps to reproduce asexually by the method of budding. This mode of reproduction may be combined with sexual reproduction, or may be the sole method by which the polyp produces offspring, in which case the polyp is entirely without sexual organs.[1]

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Polyp (zoology) - Wikipedia
th and a series of radial partitions called mesenteries. Many of the mesenteries project into the enteric cavity but some extend from the body wall to the central stomodaeum. Reproduction[edit] <span>It is an almost universal attribute of polyps to reproduce asexually by the method of budding. This mode of reproduction may be combined with sexual reproduction, or may be the sole method by which the polyp produces offspring, in which case the polyp is entirely without sexual organs.[1] Asexual reproduction[edit] In many cases the buds formed do not separate from the parent but remain in continuity with it, thus forming colonies or stocks, which may reach a great size




A coral "group" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps. Each polyp is a sac-like animal typically only a few millimeters in diameter and a few centimeters in height. A set of tentacles surround a central mouth opening. Each polyp excretes an exoskeleton near the base. Over many generations, the colony thus creates a skeleton characteristic of the species which can measure up to several meters in size. Individual colonies grow by asexual reproduction of polyps. Corals also breed sexually by spawning: polyps of the same species release gametes simultaneously overnight, often around a full moon. Fertilized eggs form planulae, a mobile early form of the coral polyp which when mature settles to form a new colony.

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Coral - Wikipedia
e in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Corals species include the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. <span>A coral "group" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps. Each polyp is a sac-like animal typically only a few millimeters in diameter and a few centimeters in height. A set of tentacles surround a central mouth opening. Each polyp excretes an exoskeleton near the base. Over many generations, the colony thus creates a skeleton characteristic of the species which can measure up to several meters in size. Individual colonies grow by asexual reproduction of polyps. Corals also breed sexually by spawning: polyps of the same species release gametes simultaneously overnight, often around a full moon. Fertilized eggs form planulae, a mobile early form of the coral polyp which when mature settles to form a new colony. Although some corals are able to catch plankton and small fish using stinging cells on their tentacles, most corals obtain the majority of their energy and nutrients from photosynthetic




All prokaryotes are unicellular and are classified into bacteria and archaea. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but many are unicellular such as protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi

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Unicellular organism - Wikipedia
nsists of a single cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of multiple cells. Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. <span>All prokaryotes are unicellular and are classified into bacteria and archaea. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but many are unicellular such as protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago.[1][2] Although some prokaryotes live in colonies, they




Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago.

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Unicellular organism - Wikipedia
prokaryotes are unicellular and are classified into bacteria and archaea. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but many are unicellular such as protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. <span>Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago.[1][2] Although some prokaryotes live in colonies, they are not specialised cells with differing functions. These organisms live together, and each cell must carry out all life processes




Although some corals are able to catch plankton and small fish using stinging cells on their tentacles, most corals obtain the majority of their energy and nutrients from photosynthetic unicellular dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium that live within their tissues. These are commonly known as zooxanthellae and gives the coral color. Such corals require sunlight and grow in clear, shallow water, typically at depths less than 60 metres

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Coral - Wikipedia
species release gametes simultaneously overnight, often around a full moon. Fertilized eggs form planulae, a mobile early form of the coral polyp which when mature settles to form a new colony. <span>Although some corals are able to catch plankton and small fish using stinging cells on their tentacles, most corals obtain the majority of their energy and nutrients from photosynthetic unicellular dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium that live within their tissues. These are commonly known as zooxanthellae and gives the coral color. Such corals require sunlight and grow in clear, shallow water, typically at depths less than 60 metres (200 feet; 33 fathoms). Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of the coral reefs that develop in tropical and subtropical waters, such as the Great Barrier Reef off th




corals are increasingly at risk of bleaching events where polyps expel the zooxanthellae in response to stress such as high water temperature or toxins.

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Coral - Wikipedia
ms). Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of the coral reefs that develop in tropical and subtropical waters, such as the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia. These <span>corals are increasingly at risk of bleaching events where polyps expel the zooxanthellae in response to stress such as high water temperature or toxins. Other corals do not rely on zooxanthellae and can live globally in much deeper water, such as the cold-water genus Lophelia which can survive as deep as 3,300 metres (10,800 feet; 1,800




Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues. Normally, coral polyps live in an endosymbiotic relationship with these algae, which are crucial for the health of the coral and the reef.[1] The algae provides up to 90 percent of the coral's energy. Bleached corals continue to live but begin to starve after bleaching.[2] Some corals recover.

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Coral bleaching - Wikipedia
Coral bleaching - Wikipedia Coral bleaching From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Bleached coral Healthy coral Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues. Normally, coral polyps live in an endosymbiotic relationship with these algae, which are crucial for the health of the coral and the reef.[1] The algae provides up to 90 percent of the coral's energy. Bleached corals continue to live but begin to starve after bleaching.[2] Some corals recover. The leading cause of coral bleaching is rising water temperatures.[3] A temperature about 1 °C (or 2 °F) above average can cause bleaching.[3] According to the United Nations Environmen




The leading cause of coral bleaching is rising water temperatures.[3] A temperature about 1 °C (or 2 °F) above average can cause bleaching.[3] According to the United Nations Environment Programme, between 2014 and 2016 the longest recorded global bleaching events killed coral on an unprecedented scale. In 2016, bleaching of coral on the Great Barrier Reef killed between 29 and 50 percent of the reef's coral

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Coral bleaching - Wikipedia
the health of the coral and the reef.[1] The algae provides up to 90 percent of the coral's energy. Bleached corals continue to live but begin to starve after bleaching.[2] Some corals recover. <span>The leading cause of coral bleaching is rising water temperatures.[3] A temperature about 1 °C (or 2 °F) above average can cause bleaching.[3] According to the United Nations Environment Programme, between 2014 and 2016 the longest recorded global bleaching events killed coral on an unprecedented scale. In 2016, bleaching of coral on the Great Barrier Reef killed between 29 and 50 percent of the reef's coral.[4][5][6] In 2017, the bleaching extended into the central region of the reef.[7][8] The average interval between bleaching events has halved between 1980 and 2016.[9] Contents 1 Proces




Coral belongs to the class Anthozoa in the animal phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish. Unlike sea anemones, corals secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons that support and protect the coral. Most reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated water. Coral reefs first appeared 485 million years ago, at the dawn of the Early Ordovician, displacing the microbial and sponge reefs of the Cambrian.[1]

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Coral reef - Wikipedia
acterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps held together by calcium carbonate. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, whose polyps cluster in groups. <span>Coral belongs to the class Anthozoa in the animal phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish. Unlike sea anemones, corals secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons that support and protect the coral. Most reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated water. Coral reefs first appeared 485 million years ago, at the dawn of the Early Ordovician, displacing the microbial and sponge reefs of the Cambrian.[1] Sometimes called rainforests of the sea,[2] shallow coral reefs form some of Earth's most diverse ecosystems. They occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean area, about half the area o




The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation[1] was an event approximately 541 million years ago in the Cambrian period when practically all major animal phyla started appearing in the fossil record.[2][3] It lasted for about 13[4][5][6] – 25[7][8] million years and resulted in the divergence of most modern metazoan phyla.[9] The event was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms.[a]

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Cambrian explosion - Wikipedia
xiids Opabinia Odontogriphus Small shelly fauna Helcionellids Evolutionary concepts[show] Trends Cambrian substrate revolution Themes Cladistics Convergent evolution Stem and crown groups v t e <span>The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation[1] was an event approximately 541 million years ago in the Cambrian period when practically all major animal phyla started appearing in the fossil record.[2][3] It lasted for about 13[4][5][6] – 25[7][8] million years and resulted in the divergence of most modern metazoan phyla.[9] The event was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms.[a] Before the Cambrian explosion,[b] most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. As the rate of diversification subsequently accelerated,




Before the Cambrian explosion,[b] most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. As the rate of diversification subsequently accelerated, the variety of life began to resemble that of today.[11] Almost all present animal phyla appeared during this period.[12][13]

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Cambrian explosion - Wikipedia
lasted for about 13[4][5][6] – 25[7][8] million years and resulted in the divergence of most modern metazoan phyla.[9] The event was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms.[a] <span>Before the Cambrian explosion,[b] most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. As the rate of diversification subsequently accelerated, the variety of life began to resemble that of today.[11] Almost all present animal phyla appeared during this period.[12][13] Key Cambrian explosion events This box: view talk edit -590 — – -580 — – -570 — – -560 — – -550 — – -540 — – -530 — – -520 — – -510 — – -500 — – -490 — – N e o p r o t e r o z o i c P a




Sometimes called rainforests of the sea,[2] shallow coral reefs form some of Earth's most diverse ecosystems. They occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean area, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for at least 25% of all marine species

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Coral reef - Wikipedia
m, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated water. Coral reefs first appeared 485 million years ago, at the dawn of the Early Ordovician, displacing the microbial and sponge reefs of the Cambrian.[1] <span>Sometimes called rainforests of the sea,[2] shallow coral reefs form some of Earth's most diverse ecosystems. They occupy less than 0.1% of the world's ocean area, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for at least 25% of all marine species,[3][4][5][6] including fish, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, tunicates and other cnidarians.[7] Coral reefs flourish in ocean waters that provide few nutrients. They




#biology #marine_biology
Cyanobacteria / s aɪ ˌ æ n oʊ b æ k ˈ t ɪər i ə / , also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum consisting of both free-living photosynthetic bacteria and the endosymbiotic plastids that are present in the Archaeplastida autotrophic eukaryotes.

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Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia
nhorst, 1865 Cyanophyceae Sachs, 1874 Schizophyceae Cohn, 1879 Cyanophyta Steinecke, 1931 Oxyphotobacteria Gibbons & Murray, 1978 Light microscope view of cyanobacteria from a microbial mat <span>Cyanobacteria /saɪˌænoʊbækˈtɪəriə/, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum consisting of both free-living photosynthetic bacteria and the endosymbiotic plastids that are present in the Archaeplastida autotrophic eukaryotes. The plastids are a sister group to the free-living Gloeomargarita. Cyanobacteria commonly obtain their energy through oxygenic photosynthesis.[4] The oxygen gas in the atmosphere of ear




#biology #marine_biology
Cyanobacteria commonly obtain their energy through oxygenic photosynthesis.[4] The oxygen gas in the atmosphere of earth is produced by cyanobacteria of this phylum, either as free-living bacteria or as the endosymbiotic plastids

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Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia
e-living photosynthetic bacteria and the endosymbiotic plastids that are present in the Archaeplastida autotrophic eukaryotes. The plastids are a sister group to the free-living Gloeomargarita. <span>Cyanobacteria commonly obtain their energy through oxygenic photosynthesis.[4] The oxygen gas in the atmosphere of earth is produced by cyanobacteria of this phylum, either as free-living bacteria or as the endosymbiotic plastids.[5] The name cyanobacteria comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός, romanized: kyanós, lit. 'blue').[6][7] Cyanobacteria, which are prokaryotes, are also called "blue-green




#biology #marine_biology

Phototrophic eukaryotes such as green plants perform photosynthesis in plastids that are thought to have their ancestry in cyanobacteria, acquired long ago via a process called endosymbiosis. These endosymbiotic cyanobacteria in eukaryotes then evolved and differentiated into specialized organelles such as chloroplasts, etioplasts and leucoplasts.

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Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia
or a terrestrial environment.[10] Unlike heterotrophic prokaryotes, cyanobacteria have internal membranes. These are flattened sacs called thylakoids where photosynthesis is performed.[11][12] <span>Phototrophic eukaryotes such as green plants perform photosynthesis in plastids that are thought to have their ancestry in cyanobacteria, acquired long ago via a process called endosymbiosis. These endosymbiotic cyanobacteria in eukaryotes then evolved and differentiated into specialized organelles such as chloroplasts, etioplasts and leucoplasts. By producing and releasing oxygen (as a byproduct of photosynthesis), cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early oxygen-poor, reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, causi




#biology #marine_biology

By producing and releasing oxygen (as a byproduct of photosynthesis), cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early oxygen-poor, reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, causing the Great Oxygenation Event and the "rusting of the Earth",[13] which dramatically changed the composition of the Earth's life forms and led to the near-extinction of anaerobic organisms.[14]

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Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia
via a process called endosymbiosis. These endosymbiotic cyanobacteria in eukaryotes then evolved and differentiated into specialized organelles such as chloroplasts, etioplasts and leucoplasts. <span>By producing and releasing oxygen (as a byproduct of photosynthesis), cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early oxygen-poor, reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, causing the Great Oxygenation Event and the "rusting of the Earth",[13] which dramatically changed the composition of the Earth's life forms and led to the near-extinction of anaerobic organisms.[14] Cyanobacteria produce a range of toxins known as cyanotoxins that can pose a danger to humans and animals. The cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Cyanothece are important model organisms w




#biology #marine_biology

Cyanobacteria produce a range of toxins known as cyanotoxins that can pose a danger to humans and animals.

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Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia
g the Great Oxygenation Event and the "rusting of the Earth",[13] which dramatically changed the composition of the Earth's life forms and led to the near-extinction of anaerobic organisms.[14] <span>Cyanobacteria produce a range of toxins known as cyanotoxins that can pose a danger to humans and animals. The cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Cyanothece are important model organisms with potential applications in biotechnology for bioethanol production, food colorings, as a source of human




Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule.

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Redox - Wikipedia
2] The chemical species from which the electron is removed is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced. In other words: <span>Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. Many reactions in organic chemistry are redox reactions du




  • Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule.

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Redox - Wikipedia
e electron is added is said to have been reduced. In other words: Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. <span>Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. Many reactions in organic chemistry are redox reactions due to changes in oxidation states but without distinct electron transfer. For example, during the combustion of wood with molecu




The Great Oxidation Event (GOE), sometimes also called the Great Oxygenation Event, Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust,[2] or Oxygen Revolution, was a time period when the Earth's atmosphere and the shallow ocean experienced a rise in oxygen, approximately 2.4 billion years ago

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Great Oxidation Event - Wikipedia
gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces. No significant change in oxygen level. Stages 4 and 5 (0.85 Ga – present): Other O2 reservoirs filled; gas accumulates in atmosphere.[1] <span>The Great Oxidation Event (GOE), sometimes also called the Great Oxygenation Event, Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust,[2] or Oxygen Revolution, was a time period when the Earth's atmosphere and the shallow ocean experienced a rise in oxygen, approximately 2.4 billion years ago (2.4 Ga) to 2.1–2.0 Ga during the Paleoproterozoic era.[3] Geological, isotopic, and chemical evidence suggests that biologically produced molecular oxygen (dioxygen, O2) started to acc




Nitrogen fixation is a process by which molecular nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia ( NH
3 ) or related nitrogenous compounds in soil.[1] Atmospheric nitrogen is molecular dinitrogen, a relatively nonreactive molecule that is metabolically useless to all but a few microorganisms. Biological nitrogen fixation converts N
2 into ammonia, which is metabolized by most organisms

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Nitrogen fixation - Wikipedia
xation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Nitrogen-fixing) Jump to navigation Jump to search Conversion of molecular nitrogen into biologically-accessible nitrogen compounds <span>Nitrogen fixation is a process by which molecular nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia (NH 3) or related nitrogenous compounds in soil.[1] Atmospheric nitrogen is molecular dinitrogen, a relatively nonreactive molecule that is metabolically useless to all but a few microorganisms. Biological nitrogen fixation converts N 2 into ammonia, which is metabolized by most organisms. Nitrogen fixation is essential to life because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds, such as amino acids an




Nitrogen fixation is essential to life because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds, such as amino acids and proteins, nucleoside triphosphates and nucleic acids. As part of the nitrogen cycle, it is essential for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer. It is also, indirectly, relevant to the manufacture of all nitrogen chemical compounds, which includes some explosives, pharmaceuticals, and dyes.

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Nitrogen fixation - Wikipedia
a relatively nonreactive molecule that is metabolically useless to all but a few microorganisms. Biological nitrogen fixation converts N 2 into ammonia, which is metabolized by most organisms. <span>Nitrogen fixation is essential to life because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds, such as amino acids and proteins, nucleoside triphosphates and nucleic acids. As part of the nitrogen cycle, it is essential for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer. It is also, indirectly, relevant to the manufacture of all nitrogen chemical compounds, which includes some explosives, pharmaceuticals, and dyes. Nitrogen fixation is carried out naturally in soil by microorganisms termed diazotrophs that include bacteria such as Azotobacter and archaea. Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria have symbiot




Nitrogen fixation is carried out naturally in soil by microorganisms termed diazotrophs that include bacteria such as Azotobacter and archaea. Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria have symbiotic relationships with plant groups, especially legumes

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Nitrogen fixation - Wikipedia
agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer. It is also, indirectly, relevant to the manufacture of all nitrogen chemical compounds, which includes some explosives, pharmaceuticals, and dyes. <span>Nitrogen fixation is carried out naturally in soil by microorganisms termed diazotrophs that include bacteria such as Azotobacter and archaea. Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria have symbiotic relationships with plant groups, especially legumes.[2] Looser non-symbiotic relationships between diazotrophs and plants are often referred to as associative, as seen in nitrogen fixation on rice roots. Nitrogen fixation occurs between




Nitrogen can be fixed by lightning that converts nitrogen and oxygen into NOx (nitrogen oxides). NOx may react with water to make nitrous acid or nitric acid, which seeps into the soil, where it makes nitrate, which is of use to plants. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is highly stable and nonreactive due to the triple bond between atoms in the N2 molecule.[7] Lightning produces enough energy and heat to break this bond[7] allowing nitrogen atoms to react with oxygen, forming NOx . These compounds cannot be used by plants, but as this molecule cools, it reacts with oxygen to form NO2 .[8] This molecule in turn reacts with water to produce HNO3 (nitric acid), or its ion NO 3 (nitrate), which is usable by plants

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Nitrogen fixation - Wikipedia
ction 3 Research 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Fixation[edit] Non-biological[edit] Lightning heats the air around it breaking the bonds of N 2 starting the formation of nitrous acid. <span>Nitrogen can be fixed by lightning that converts nitrogen and oxygen into NO x (nitrogen oxides). NO x may react with water to make nitrous acid or nitric acid, which seeps into the soil, where it makes nitrate, which is of use to plants. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is highly stable and nonreactive due to the triple bond between atoms in the N 2 molecule.[7] Lightning produces enough energy and heat to break this bond[7] allowing nitrogen atoms to react with oxygen, forming NO x. These compounds cannot be used by plants, but as this molecule cools, it reacts with oxygen to form NO 2.[8] This molecule in turn reacts with water to produce HNO 3 (nitric acid), or its ion NO− 3 (nitrate), which is usable by plants.[9][7] Biological[edit] Schematic representation of the nitrogen cycle. Abiotic nitrogen fixation has been omitted. Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by German agronomist Herm




Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include those of the legume family

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Nitrogen fixation - Wikipedia
non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging in Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes fixate significant atmospheric nitrogen.[19] Root nodule symbioses[edit] Main article: Root nodule Legume family[edit] <span>Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include those of the legume family—Fabaceae— with taxa such as kudzu, clover, soybean, alfalfa, lupin, peanut and rooibos. They contain symbiotic rhizobia bacteria within nodules in their root systems, producing nitrogen




#biology #marine_biology
Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria, some of which are nitrogen-fixing, that live in a wide variety of moist soils and water either freely or in a symbiotic relationship with plants or lichen-forming fungi

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Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia
story 9 Biotechnology and applications 10 Health risks 11 Chemical control 12 Dietary supplementation 13 Gallery 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links Description[edit] <span>Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria, some of which are nitrogen-fixing, that live in a wide variety of moist soils and water either freely or in a symbiotic relationship with plants or lichen-forming fungi (as in the lichen genus Peltigera).[15] They range from unicellular to filamentous and include colonial species. Colonies may form filaments, sheets, or even hollow spheres. Some filame




#has-images
Bacteria ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i ə / ( listen ) ; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms

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Bacteria - Wikipedia
tes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Synonyms Eubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[3] <span>Bacteria (/bækˈtɪəriə/ (listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are




Phytoplankton obtain energy through the process of photosynthesis and must therefore live in the well-lit surface layer (termed the euphotic zone) of an ocean, sea, lake, or other body of water. Phytoplankton account for about half of all photosynthetic activity on Earth

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Phytoplankton - Wikipedia
ellates, are able to migrate vertically, they are still incapable of actively moving against currents, so they slowly sink and ultimately fertilize the seafloor with dead cells and detritus.[5] <span>Phytoplankton obtain energy through the process of photosynthesis and must therefore live in the well-lit surface layer (termed the euphotic zone) of an ocean, sea, lake, or other body of water. Phytoplankton account for about half of all photosynthetic activity on Earth.[6][7][8] Their cumulative energy fixation in carbon compounds (primary production) is the basis for the vast majority of oceanic and also many freshwater food webs (chemosynthesis is a




Plankton are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current

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Plankton - Wikipedia
anisms with different sizes, shapes, feeding strategies, ecological functions, life cycle characteristics, and environmental sensitivities.[1] Courtesy of Christian Sardet/CNRS/Tara expeditions <span>Plankton are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.[2] The individual organisms constituting plankton are called plankters.[3] They provide a crucial source of food to many small and large aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, fish and w




Essentially, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than any phylogenetic or taxonomic classification.

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Plankton - Wikipedia
and whales. Planktonic organisms include bacteria, archaea, algae, protozoa and drifting or floating animals that inhabit—for example—the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. <span>Essentially, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than any phylogenetic or taxonomic classification. Though many planktonic species are microscopic in size, plankton includes organisms over a wide range of sizes, including large organisms such as jellyfish.[4] Technically the term does




Nekton or necton, from the Greek nekton meaning "to swim", refers to the actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water. The term was proposed by German biologist Ernst Haeckel to differentiate between the active swimmers in a body of water, and the passive organisms that were carried along by the current, the plankton

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Nekton - Wikipedia
Nekton - Wikipedia Nekton From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search The aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water Nekton or necton, from the Greek nekton meaning "to swim", refers to the actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water. The term was proposed by German biologist Ernst Haeckel to differentiate between the active swimmers in a body of water, and the passive organisms that were carried along by the current, the plankton. As a guideline, nektonic organisms have a high Reynolds number (greater than 1000) and planktonic organisms a low one (less than 10). However, some organisms can begin life as plankton