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Nitrogen can be fixed by lightning that converts nitrogen and oxygen into NOx (nitrogen oxides). NOx may react with water to make nitrous acid or nitric acid, which seeps into the soil, where it makes nitrate, which is of use to plants. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is highly stable and nonreactive due to the triple bond between atoms in the N2 molecule.[7] Lightning produces enough energy and heat to break this bond[7] allowing nitrogen atoms to react with oxygen, forming NOx . These compounds cannot be used by plants, but as this molecule cools, it reacts with oxygen to form NO2 .[8] This molecule in turn reacts with water to produce HNO3 (nitric acid), or its ion NO 3 (nitrate), which is usable by plants
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Nitrogen fixation - Wikipedia
ction 3 Research 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Fixation[edit] Non-biological[edit] Lightning heats the air around it breaking the bonds of N 2 starting the formation of nitrous acid. <span>Nitrogen can be fixed by lightning that converts nitrogen and oxygen into NO x (nitrogen oxides). NO x may react with water to make nitrous acid or nitric acid, which seeps into the soil, where it makes nitrate, which is of use to plants. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is highly stable and nonreactive due to the triple bond between atoms in the N 2 molecule.[7] Lightning produces enough energy and heat to break this bond[7] allowing nitrogen atoms to react with oxygen, forming NO x. These compounds cannot be used by plants, but as this molecule cools, it reacts with oxygen to form NO 2.[8] This molecule in turn reacts with water to produce HNO 3 (nitric acid), or its ion NO− 3 (nitrate), which is usable by plants.[9][7] Biological[edit] Schematic representation of the nitrogen cycle. Abiotic nitrogen fixation has been omitted. Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by German agronomist Herm




Guano (Spanish from Quechua: wanu) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats. As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium: key nutrients essential for plant growth. Guano was also, to a lesser extent, sought for the production of gunpowder and other explosive materials.

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Guano - Wikipedia
n). The nest of the Peruvian booby is made of almost pure guano. The Guanay cormorant has historically been the most important producer of guano. Man-made Bird Island near Walvis Bay in Namibia <span>Guano (Spanish from Quechua: wanu) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats. As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium: key nutrients essential for plant growth. Guano was also, to a lesser extent, sought for the production of gunpowder and other explosive materials. The 19th-century guano trade played a pivotal role in the development of modern input-intensive farming, but its demand began to decline after the discovery of the Haber–Bosch process o




Guano is ecologically important due to its role in dispersing nutrients. Cave ecosystems, in particular, are often wholly dependent on bats to provide nutrients via their guano, which supports bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The loss of bats from a cave can result in the extinction of species that rely on their guano. Guano also has a role in shaping caves, as its high acidity results in erosion.
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Guano - Wikipedia
lters cave shape, causing bats to abandon the roost. Guano mining also involved the poor treatment and enslavement of workers such as Chinese immigrants, Native Hawaiians, and African diaspora. <span>Guano is ecologically important due to its role in dispersing nutrients. Cave ecosystems, in particular, are often wholly dependent on bats to provide nutrients via their guano, which supports bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The loss of bats from a cave can result in the extinction of species that rely on their guano. Guano also has a role in shaping caves, as its high acidity results in erosion. Contents 1 Composition and properties 1.1 Bird guano 1.2 Bat guano 2 History of human use 2.1 Bird guano 2.1.1 Indigenous use 2.1.2 Western discovery and the Guano Age (1802–1884) 2.1.3




Some natural solid substances without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids.[4] If a chemical compound may occur naturally with different crystal structures, each structure is considered a different mineral species. Thus, for example, quartz and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide.

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Mineral - Wikipedia
homogeneous at a large enough scale. A rock may consist of one type of mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different types of minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases.[3] <span>Some natural solid substances without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids.[4] If a chemical compound may occur naturally with different crystal structures, each structure is considered a different mineral species. Thus, for example, quartz and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide. The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is the generally recognized standard body for the definition and nomenclature of mineral species. As of March 2020[update], the IMA rec




The concept of mineral is distinct from rock, any bulk solid geologic material that is relatively homogeneous at a large enough scale. A rock may consist of one type of mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different types of minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases.[3]

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Mineral - Wikipedia
as calcite) or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry (such as mellite). Moreover, living beings often synthesize inorganic minerals (such as hydroxylapatite) that also occur in rocks. <span>The concept of mineral is distinct from rock, any bulk solid geologic material that is relatively homogeneous at a large enough scale. A rock may consist of one type of mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different types of minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases.[3] Some natural solid substances without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids.[4] If a chemical compound may occur naturally wit




The geological definition of mineral normally excludes compounds that occur only in living beings. However some minerals are often biogenic (such as calcite) or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry (such as mellite). Moreover, living beings often synthesize inorganic minerals (such as hydroxylapatite) that also occur in rocks.

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Mineral - Wikipedia
l or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure, that occurs naturally in pure form.[1].[2] <span>The geological definition of mineral normally excludes compounds that occur only in living beings. However some minerals are often biogenic (such as calcite) or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry (such as mellite). Moreover, living beings often synthesize inorganic minerals (such as hydroxylapatite) that also occur in rocks. The concept of mineral is distinct from rock, any bulk solid geologic material that is relatively homogeneous at a large enough scale. A rock may consist of one type of mineral, or may




In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure, that occurs naturally in pure form.[1].[2]

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Mineral - Wikipedia
alline, formed as a result of geological processes For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada <span>In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure, that occurs naturally in pure form.[1].[2] The geological definition of mineral normally excludes compounds that occur only in living beings. However some minerals are often biogenic (such as calcite) or are organic compounds in




Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−NO2). The nitro group is one of the most common explosophores (functional group that makes a compound explosive) used globally. The nitro group is also strongly electron-withdrawing. Because of this property, C−H bonds alpha (adjacent) to the nitro group can be acidic
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Nitro compound - Wikipedia
Nitro compound - Wikipedia Nitro compound From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Nitro group) Jump to navigation Jump to search The structure of the nitro group Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−NO2). The nitro group is one of the most common explosophores (functional group that makes a compound explosive) used globally. The nitro group is also strongly electron-withdrawing. Because of this property, C−H bonds alpha (adjacent) to the nitro group can be acidic. For similar reasons, the presence of nitro groups in aromatic compounds retards electrophilic aromatic substitution but facilitates nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Nitro groups are




Nitro groups are rarely found in nature, being almost invariably produced by nitration reactions starting with nitric acid
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Nitro compound - Wikipedia
itro group can be acidic. For similar reasons, the presence of nitro groups in aromatic compounds retards electrophilic aromatic substitution but facilitates nucleophilic aromatic substitution. <span>Nitro groups are rarely found in nature, being almost invariably produced by nitration reactions starting with nitric acid. Contents 1 Synthesis 1.1 Preparation of aromatic nitro compounds 1.2 Preparation of aliphatic nitro compounds 1.2.1 Ter Meer Reaction 2 Occurrence 2.1 In nature 2.2 In pharmaceuticals




Scientists Ott et al.[12] estimated that each flash of lightning on average in the several mid-latitude and subtropical thunderstorms studied turned 7 kg (15 lb) of nitrogen into chemically reactive NO
x . With 1.4 billion lightning flashes per year, multiplied by 7 kilograms per lightning strike, they estimated the total amount of NO
x produced by lightning per year is 8.6 million tonnes. However, NO
x emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion are estimated at 28.5 million tonnes.[13]

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NOx - Wikipedia
the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) during summer months.[11] This area migrates slightly as seasons change. NOx production from lightning can be observed through satellite observations. <span>Scientists Ott et al.[12] estimated that each flash of lightning on average in the several mid-latitude and subtropical thunderstorms studied turned 7 kg (15 lb) of nitrogen into chemically reactive NO x . With 1.4 billion lightning flashes per year, multiplied by 7 kilograms per lightning strike, they estimated the total amount of NO x produced by lightning per year is 8.6 million tonnes. However, NO x emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion are estimated at 28.5 million tonnes.[13] A recent discovery indicated that cosmic ray and solar flares can significantly influence the number of lightning strikes occurring on Earth. Therefore, space weather can be a major dri




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Question
In some papers the term ‘neuronal cells’ is used to denote nervous system cells in general.
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In addition to portraits and lyrical genre scenes, Cameron also participated in another of photography’s earliest genres: ethnographic images. The emergence of photography coin- cided with the expansion of colonialism by European coun- tries, especially Britain and France. This imperialism mani- fested itself culturally in the form of Orientalism: Western representations—literary and visual—of the Near East,
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