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Materials such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and molybdenum diselenide are being studied keenly for their opto-electronic properties – a combination of optics and electronics. A key property of these materials is photoluminescence, in which the material absorbs light and re-emits it as a spectrum.

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g aspect was the controlled photoluminescence measurement from room temperature down to 100 K. Drop-casting gold nanoparticles on tungsten diselenide effectively ‘brightens’ the ‘dark excitons’ <span>Materials such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and molybdenum diselenide are being studied keenly for their opto-electronic properties – a combination of optics and electronics. A key property of these materials is photoluminescence, in which the material absorbs light and re-emits it as a spectrum. Researchers from IIT Madras have found a way of enhancing this property about 30 times in tungsten diselenide, by drop-casting gold nanoparticles on to a two-dimensional film. The work




Materials such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and molybdenum diselenide are being studied keenly for their opto-electronic properties – a combination of optics and electronics. A key property of these materials is photoluminescence, in which the material absorbs light and re-emits it as a spectrum. Researchers from IIT Madras have found a way of enhancing this property about 30 times in tungsten diselenide, by drop-casting gold nanoparticles on to a two-dimensional film. The work is published in Applied Physics Letters.

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g aspect was the controlled photoluminescence measurement from room temperature down to 100 K. Drop-casting gold nanoparticles on tungsten diselenide effectively ‘brightens’ the ‘dark excitons’ <span>Materials such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and molybdenum diselenide are being studied keenly for their opto-electronic properties – a combination of optics and electronics. A key property of these materials is photoluminescence, in which the material absorbs light and re-emits it as a spectrum. Researchers from IIT Madras have found a way of enhancing this property about 30 times in tungsten diselenide, by drop-casting gold nanoparticles on to a two-dimensional film. The work is published in Applied Physics Letters. Two-dimensional material Consisting of practically one layer of atoms, these materials are two-dimensional in structure. Photoluminescence properties can be used in various devices such




When an electron jumps from the valence to the conduction band, it leaves behind a shadow called a “hole.” The electron in the conduction band and the hole in the valence band can bind together and form a composite object ( or pseudoparticle) known as an exciton. Photoluminescence in tungsten selenide is a result of such excitons.

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n. If excited by a small energy input, they get kicked into what is called the conduction band where they can actually be delocalised and contribute to the conduction by moving around. Excitons <span>When an electron jumps from the valence to the conduction band, it leaves behind a shadow called a “hole.” The electron in the conduction band and the hole in the valence band can bind together and form a composite object ( or pseudoparticle) known as an exciton. Photoluminescence in tungsten selenide is a result of such excitons. There can be two ways in which an exciton can form – when the spins of the component electron and hole are opposite to each other and when they are aligned in teh same direction. The fo




When they drop-cast gold nanoparticles on the surface of the monolayer tungsten diselenide, they find that the dark excitons couple to the surface fields generated and recombine to give off light quanta. Thus, the dark excitons are “brightened” with the help of the gold nanoparticles.

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d than the bright excitons. The dark excitons need an external influence to help them recombine. In their work, the IIT Madras researchers find exactly such an external influence. Power of gold <span>When they drop-cast gold nanoparticles on the surface of the monolayer tungsten diselenide, they find that the dark excitons couple to the surface fields generated and recombine to give off light quanta. Thus, the dark excitons are “brightened” with the help of the gold nanoparticles. “That plasmonic effect arises due to gold nanoparticles is a well known concept. But, its application to 2D systems is in nascent stage. So, I thought that if we drop-cast gold nanopart




“The primary excuses for not including females in your research was first that hormones just made everything so complicated that you were... going to have a difficult time if you tried to study the brain in females animals,” said Shansky, explaining the conventional wisdom at the time.

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lt’ was to study males as women were ‘complicated’ U.S. neurobiologist Rebecca Shansky recalled her first experiences studying mice in the lab two decades ago: the “default” was to study males. <span>“The primary excuses for not including females in your research was first that hormones just made everything so complicated that you were... going to have a difficult time if you tried to study the brain in females animals,” said Shansky, explaining the conventional wisdom at the time. Ms. Shansky’s article published in the journal Science on Thursday denounces that practice as based on outdated gender stereotypes from the 19th century that are continuing to influence




The sleep aid Ambien is a famous example: it caused more side effects in women than in men.

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t were later found to be a poor fit for many women’s bodies or brains, especially when it comes to mental illnesses such as depression or anxiety, which affect more women than men. Side effects <span>The sleep aid Ambien is a famous example: it caused more side effects in women than in men. “It turns out that women should actually be taking half the dose that men do because they metabolize the drug really differently,” Ms. Shansky said. Dosage recommendations were changed




Water finds its way to the petals where the polypyrrole material coating on the flower turns the water into steam. Impurities naturally separate when condensed in this way.

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d in Advanced Materials, they outline how an origami rose provided the inspiration for developing a new kind of solar-steaming system made from layered, black paper sheets shaped into petals. . <span>Water finds its way to the petals where the polypyrrole material coating on the flower turns the water into steam. Impurities naturally separate when condensed in this way. A letter from the Editor Dear reader, We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, ou




Rice blast, caused by a fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the major diseases of the rice crop. Now, researchers from ICAR-National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Odisha have mapped out the diverse genes in rice that help in disease resistance.

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a constant challenge to the success of existing blast-resistant rice varieties, says Manoj Kumar Yadav (left). From 1980-1987, seven blast endemics have occurred in India causing severe losses <span>Rice blast, caused by a fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the major diseases of the rice crop. Now, researchers from ICAR-National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Odisha have mapped out the diverse genes in rice that help in disease resistance. By characterising over 150 rice varieties from nine States across the country they also identified new markers associated with blast resistance. Blast endemics From 1980-1987, seven bla




ICICI Bank has announced the introduction of usage of satellite data—imagery from earth observation satellites—to assess credit worthiness of its customers belonging to the farm sector.

The bank, the first in India and among few globally, will use satellite data to measure an array of parameters related to land, irrigation and crop patterns and use it in combination with demographic and financial parameters to make faster lending decisions for farmers, it said.

“This use of technology helps farmers with existing credit to enhance their eligibility, while new-to-credit farmers can now get better access to credit,” it added.

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it up to over 63,000 villages across the country in two to three months. The practice will employ satellite data to measure an array of parameters related to land, irrigation and crop patterns. <span>ICICI Bank has announced the introduction of usage of satellite data—imagery from earth observation satellites—to assess credit worthiness of its customers belonging to the farm sector. The bank, the first in India and among few globally, will use satellite data to measure an array of parameters related to land, irrigation and crop patterns and use it in combination with demographic and financial parameters to make faster lending decisions for farmers, it said. “This use of technology helps farmers with existing credit to enhance their eligibility, while new-to-credit farmers can now get better access to credit,” it added. Additionally, since the land verification is done in a contactless manner with the help of satellite data, credit assessments can be done within a few days as against the industry pract




Additionally, since the land verification is done in a contactless manner with the help of satellite data, credit assessments can be done within a few days as against the industry practice of upto 15 days.

The bank has been using satellite data for the past few months as a pilot basis in over 500 villages in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat and will now scale it up to over 63,000 villages across the country in two to three months.

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isions for farmers, it said. “This use of technology helps farmers with existing credit to enhance their eligibility, while new-to-credit farmers can now get better access to credit,” it added. <span>Additionally, since the land verification is done in a contactless manner with the help of satellite data, credit assessments can be done within a few days as against the industry practice of upto 15 days. The bank has been using satellite data for the past few months as a pilot basis in over 500 villages in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat and will now scale it up to over 63,000 villages across the country in two to three months. Anup Bagchi, executive director, ICICI Bank, said, “Time has come to link Vigyan [technology] with kisan [farmers].Earlier, one had to visit remote locations to manually assess a host o




A decision to increase the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane for 2020-21 marketing year (October-September) was taken in the meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) held in New Delhi.

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mills pay to sugarcane growers by ₹10 to ₹285 per quintal for the next marketing year starting October 2020, according to official sources. Also read | Lockdown deepens sugarcane farmers crisis <span>A decision to increase the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane for 2020-21 marketing year (October-September) was taken in the meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) held in New Delhi. According to the sources, the CCEA has approved the Food Ministry’s proposal on increasing the sugarcane FRP by ₹10 per quintal from the existing ₹275 per quintal. As sugarcane dries up




The FRP, which is determined under Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966, is the minimum price that sugar mills have to pay to sugarcane farmers.

Major sugarcane producing States such as Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana fix their own sugarcane price called ‘State advisory prices’ (SAPs), which are usually higher than the Centre’s FRP.

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in line with the recommendation of the Commission of Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), a statutory body that advises the government on the pricing policy for major farm produce, they added. <span>The FRP, which is determined under Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966, is the minimum price that sugar mills have to pay to sugarcane farmers. Major sugarcane producing States such as Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana fix their own sugarcane price called ‘State advisory prices’ (SAPs), which are usually higher than the Centre’s FRP. Sugarcane farmers in Rajapalayam, Srivilliputtur area a worried lot The government estimates the country’s total sugar production to be 28-29 million tonne in the current year ending ne




‘Uber for tractors’: Government to launch app to aid farmers

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o launch app to aid farmers Share On 4 Business Agri-Business Industry Economy Markets Budget 2020 Stock Quotes Watch | All about Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine Business Agri-Business Agri-Business <span>‘Uber for tractors’: Government to launch app to aid farmers Priscilla Jebaraj NEW DELHI, August 12, 2019 00:17 IST Updated: August 12, 2019 00:17 IST Priscilla Jebaraj NEW DELHI, August 12, 2019 00:17 IST Updated: August 12, 2019 00:17 IST Expen




Flashcard 5864908524812

Question
aponeurosis
Answer
[default - edit me]


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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
theorems and truths correspond—that is, an isomor phism exists between theorems and some portion of reality.

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter

There is a "lower level" of our isomorphism—that is, a mapping between the parts of the two structures:

  • P <==> plus
  • q <==> equals
  • - <==> one
  • -- <==> two
  • ---<==> three etc.

This symbol-word correspondence has a name: interpretation.

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Flashcard 5864912456972

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
Question

There is a "lower level" of our isomorphism—that is, a mapping between the parts of the two structures:

  • P <==> plus
  • q <==> equals
  • - <==> one
  • -- <==> two
  • ---<==> three etc.

This symbol-word correspondence has a name: [...].

Answer
interpretation


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a mapping between the parts of the two structures: P <==> plus q <==> equals - <==> one -- <==> two ---<==> three etc. This symbol-word correspondence has a name: <span>interpretation. <span>

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
The word "isomorphism" applies when two complex structures can be mapped onto each other, in such a way that to each part of one structure there is a corresponding part in the other structure, where "corresponding" means that the two parts play similar roles in their respective structures.

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Flashcard 5864915078412

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
Question
The word "[...]" applies when two complex structures can be mapped onto each other, in such a way that to each part of one structure there is a corresponding part in the other structure, where "corresponding" means that the two parts play similar roles in their respective structures.
Answer
isomorphism


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The word "isomorphism" applies when two complex structures can be mapped onto each other, in such a way that to each part of one structure there is a corresponding part in the other structure, where "corresp

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
in a language, when we have learned a meaning for a word, we then make new statements based on the meaning of the word. In a sense the meaning becomes active, since it brings into being a new rule for creating sentences. This means that our command of language is not like a finished product: the rules for making sentences increase when we learn new meanings. On the other hand, in a formal system, the theorems are predefined, by the rules of production. We can choose "meanings" based on an isomorphism (if we can find one) between theorems and true statements. But this does not give us the license to go out and add new theorems to the established theorems. That is what the Requirement of Formality

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
When different aspects of the real world are isomorphic to each other (in this case, additions and subtractions), one single formal system can be isomorphic to both, and therefore can take on two passive meanings.

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
The idea of well-formed strings in any formal system is that they are those strings which, when interpreted symbol for symbol, yield grammatical sentences. (Of course, it depends on the interpretation, but usually, there is one in mind.)

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
Suppose that in an excavation somewhere, we actually did discover some mysterious formal system. We would try out various interpretations and perhaps eventually hit upon one which seemed to make every theorem come out true, and every nontheorem come out false.

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
We use the word "all" in a few wayswhich are defined by the thought processes of reasoning. That is, there are rules which our usage of "all" obeys. We may be unconscious of them, and tend to claim we operate on the basis of the meaning of the word; but that, after all, is only a circumlocu tion for saying that we are guided by rules which we never make explicit. We have used words all our lives in certain patterns, and instead of calling the patterns "rules", we attribute the courses of our thought processes to the "meanings" of words. That discovery was a crucial recognition in the long path towards the formalization of number theory

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