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on 03-May-2022 (Tue)

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the PCL provides most of the total restraining force against posterior translation of the tibia relative to the femur, and it supports stability of the knee and the joint space in flexion
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Flashcard 7080346258700

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the PCL provides most of the total restraining force against [...] translation of the tibia relative to the femur, and it supports stability of the knee and the joint space in flex- ion
Answer
posterior

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the PCL provides most of the total restraining force against posterior translation of the tibia relative to the femur, and it supports stability of the knee and the joint space in flex- ion

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Flashcard 7080348617996

Question
the PCL provides most of the total restraining force against posterior translation of the tibia relative to the femur, and it supports stability of the knee and the joint space in [...]
Answer
flexion

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the PCL provides most of the total restraining force against posterior translation of the tibia relative to the femur, and it supports stability of the knee and the joint space in flexion

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#Osteonecrosis
In osteonecrosis of the hip, almost 80% of cases are bilateral, and the eventual joint destruction and loss of function comprise 10% of all total hip arthroplasties (THAs)
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Flashcard 7080360938764

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#Osteonecrosis
Question
In osteonecrosis of the hip, almost [...] of cases are bilateral, and the eventual joint destruction and loss of function comprise 10% of all total hip arthroplasties (THAs)
Answer
80%

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In osteonecrosis of the hip, almost 80% of cases are bilateral, and the eventual joint destruction and loss of function comprise 10% of all total hip arthroplasties (THAs)

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Flashcard 7080362511628

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#Osteonecrosis
Question
In osteonecrosis of the hip, almost 80% of cases are bilateral, and the eventual joint destruction and loss of function comprise [...] of all total hip arthroplasties (THAs)
Answer
10%

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In osteonecrosis of the hip, almost 80% of cases are bilateral, and the eventual joint destruction and loss of function comprise 10% of all total hip arthroplasties (THAs)

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#DAG #causality #statistics
#DAG #causality #has-images #statistics
any additional information
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Flashcard 7080369065228

Tags
#DAG #causality #has-images #statistics

#DAG #causality #statistics

Question
[default - edit me]
Answer
any additional information

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any additional information

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Flashcard 7080373521676

Tags
#causality #statistics
Question
The potential outcomes that you do not (and cannot) observe are known as [...] because they are counter to fact (reality)
Answer
counterfactuals

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The potential outcomes that you do not (and cannot) observe are known as counterfactuals because they are counter to fact (reality)

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Flashcard 7080375356684

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#causality #statistics
Question

Assumptions of causal inference:

1. Unconfoundedness (Assumption 2.2)

2. [...] (Assumption 2.3)

3. No interference (Assumption 2.4)

4. Consistency (Assumption 2.5)

Answer
Positivity

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Assumptions of causal inference: 1. Unconfoundedness (Assumption 2.2) 2. Positivity (Assumption 2.3) 3. No interference (Assumption 2.4) 4. Consistency (Assumption 2.5)

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Flashcard 7080377191692

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#causality #statistics
Question
No interference means that my [...] is unaffected by anyone elseโ€™s treatment.
Answer
outcome

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No interference means that my outcome is unaffected by anyone elseโ€™s treatment.

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#causality #statistics
A potential outcome ๐‘Œ(๐‘ก) is distinct from the observed outcome ๐‘Œ in that not all potential outcomes are observed
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Flashcard 7080380861708

Tags
#causality #statistics
Question
To identify a causal effect is to [...] a causal expression to a purely statistical expression.
Answer
reduce

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To identify a causal effect is to reduce a causal expression to a purely statistical expression.

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Flashcard 7080382958860

Tags
#causality #statistics
Question

Assumption 3.1 (Local Markov Assumption)

Given its parents in the DAG, a node ๐‘‹ is independent of all its [...]

Answer
non-descendants

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Assumption 3.1 (Local Markov Assumption) Given its parents in the DAG, a node ๐‘‹ is independent of all its non-descendants

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Flashcard 7080384793868

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#causality #statistics
Question
The idea is that although the treatment and potential outcomes may be unconditionally associated (due to confounding), within levels of ๐‘‹ , they are [...]
Answer
not associated

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The idea is that although the treatment and potential outcomes may be unconditionally associated (due to confounding), within levels of ๐‘‹ , they are not associated

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Flashcard 7080386628876

Tags
#causality #has-images #statistics


Question
In defining the backdoor criterion (Definition 4.1) for the backdoor adjustment (Theorem 4.2), not only did we specify that the adjustment set ๐‘Š blocks all backdoor paths, but we also specified that ๐‘Š does not contain [...] of ๐‘‡
Answer
any descendants

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criterion (Definition 4.1) for the backdoor adjustment (Theorem 4.2), not only did we specify that the adjustment set ๐‘Š blocks all backdoor paths, but we also specified that ๐‘Š does not contain <span>any descendants of ๐‘‡ <span>

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#causality #statistics
It turns out that much of the work for causal graphical models was done in the field of probabilistic graphical models.
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It turns out that much of the work for causal graphical models was done in the field of probabilistic graphical models. Probabilistic graphical models are statistical models while causal graphical models are causal models.

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Hip dislocation, which can cause osteonecrosis in 5% to 40% of patients, increases with the degree of initial displacement, and possibly with time to reduction (greater than 6 hours)
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Flashcard 7080394493196

Question
Hip dislocation, which can cause osteonecrosis in 5% to 40% of patients, increases with the [...], and possibly with time to reduction (greater than 6 hours)
Answer
degree of initial displacement

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Hip dislocation, which can cause osteonecrosis in 5% to 40% of patients, increases with the degree of initial displacement, and possibly with time to reduction (greater than 6 hours)

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Flashcard 7080395541772

Question
Hip dislocation, which can cause osteonecrosis in 5% to 40% of patients, increases with the degree of initial displacement, and possibly with [...]
Answer
time to reduction (greater than 6 hours)

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Hip dislocation, which can cause osteonecrosis in 5% to 40% of patients, increases with the degree of initial displacement, and possibly with time to reduction (greater than 6 hours)

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The rate of osteonecrosis for femoral neck fracture is as high as 10% in nondisplaced injuries and 30% in displaced injuries
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Flashcard 7080398163212

Question
The rate of osteonecrosis for femoral neck fracture is as high as [...] in nondisplaced injuries and 30% in displaced injuries
Answer
10%

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The rate of osteonecrosis for femoral neck fracture is as high as 10% in nondisplaced injuries and 30% in displaced injuries

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Flashcard 7080399211788

Tags
#Osteonecrosis
Question
The rate of osteonecrosis for femoral neck fracture is as high as 10% in nondisplaced injuries and [...] in displaced injuries
Answer
30%

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The rate of osteonecrosis for femoral neck fracture is as high as 10% in nondisplaced injuries and 30% in displaced injuries

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corticosteroids can impair blood flow by enhancing femoral head arterial constriction, as seen with 24 hours of methylprednisolone treatment
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Flashcard 7080402619660

Tags
#Osteonecrosis
Question
corticosteroids can impair blood flow by [...], as seen with 24 hours of methylprednisolone treatment
Answer
enhancing femoral head arterial constriction

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corticosteroids can impair blood flow by enhancing femoral head arterial constriction, as seen with 24 hours of methylprednisolone treatment

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The four radiographic factors that are useful in evaluation are stage (before/after collapse), lesion size, amount of femoral head depression, and acetabular in- volvement.
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The use of several drug types such as lipid-lowering drugs, antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents, and di- phosphonates can have some benefit with osteonecrosis
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