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Flashcard 149623499

Tags
#bonds #finance
Question
What is another name of dirty price?
Answer
full price / invoice price


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Flashcard 149623553

Tags
#asset-swap #finance
Question
In the market asset swap, the net upfront payment is zero. Instead the notional on the Libor side equals the [...]and there is an exchange of notionals at maturity.
Answer
(dirty I guess) price of the bond


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In the market asset swap, the net upfront payment is zero. Instead the notional on the Libor side equals the price of the bond and there is an exchange of notionals at maturity.

Original toplevel document

Asset swap - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
een floating side coupons, the floating payment received is half of the Libor plus asset swap spread. This feature prevents the calculated asset swap spread from jumping as we move forward in time through coupon dates. Market Asset Swap[edit] <span>In the market asset swap, the net upfront payment is zero. Instead the notional on the Libor side equals the price of the bond and there is an exchange of notionals at maturity. See also[edit] Government debtInterestSwap (finance) References[edit] ^ "Asset Swap - Investopedia". Investopedia. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-0







Flashcard 149669184

Tags
#finance #steiner-mastering-financial-calculations-3ed
Question
a "flat" short-term yield curve - in our example, the 3-month and 6-month rates are the same at 10.0% - does it imply that the market expects interest rates to remain stable?
Answer
No, it implies the market expects rates to fall (geometric average, reinvestment; also rate compounded twice has to be smaller than equivalent non-compounded rate over the same period). In other words, 6 month is equivalent to 3 months from now (known) and next 3 months unknown. for this compounding to work out to 10%, next 3 months (unknown) must be lower than 10%.


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a "flat" short-term yield curve - in our example, the 3-month and 6-month rates are the same at 10.0% - does not imply that the market expects interest rates to remain stable. Rather, it expects them to fall.

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#m249 #mathematics #open-university #statistics #time-series
Transformations of time series that are commonly used include the power transformations:
Yt = Xta , where a = ... 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2, 3, 4, ....

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Flashcard 150890411

Tags
#m249 #mathematics #open-university #statistics #time-series
Question
Transformations of time series that are commonly used include the power transformations:
Yt = [...] , where a = ... 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2, 3, 4, ....
Answer
Xta


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Transformations of time series that are commonly used include the power transformations: Y t = X t a , where a = ... 1/4, 1/3, 2, 3, 4, ....

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Flashcard 150890417

Tags
#m249 #mathematics #open-university #statistics #time-series
Question
Transformations of time series that are commonly used include the power transformations:
Yt = Xta , where a = [...].
Answer
... 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2, 3, 4, ...


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Transformations of time series that are commonly used include the power transformations: Y t = X t a , where a = ... 1/4, 1/3, 2, 3, 4, ....

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Article 1341030272268



KKP przypadki a uprawa warzyw korzeniowych na przykładzie buraka ćwikłowego Beta vulgaris varietas esculenta, traktat prawie poetycki. Pytanie zasadnicze: Czy pudel o umaszczeniu białym, w przeciwieństwie do pudla o umaszczeniu niebiałym, powinien nosić rękawice ochronne podczas polowego zbioru buraków? Karolina żyje z uprawy buraka ćwikłowego. Ma 16.73 hektara (plus 0.84 na boku) i rok w rok uzyskuje wyrównane plony. Uprawia te same buraki, technicznie tej samej odmiany, czasami tylko różniące się średnicą, a więc nie takie same, gdyby na cały ten interes spojrzeć z perspwktywy kilku lat. W zeszłym roku opchnęła towar o średnicy jednostkowej 5.54 cm, a w tym roku ma zamówienie na 11,94. Karolina ma dziwny przymus kupowania nasion buraka ćwikłowego. Jak tylko forsa wpłynie na jej konto, leci kupować nasiona na następny sezon. To oczywiście nie wszystko jeśli chodzi o Karolinę. Wracając do nawiasu, ma ona na boku 0.84 hektara z którymi nie wiadomo co wyczynia. Nikt nie wie, gdzie to poletko się



Flashcard 1342319234316



Tags
#atlas-ryb #has-images
Question
Co to za ryba?
Answer
makrela


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Semilunar valves Aortic and pulmonic valves Typically three cusps (not leaflets!) Lay at the interface between the ventricle (outflow tract) and the respective great artery Sinuses of Valsalva Mobility passive (pressure and flow changes) Aortic has annulus – pulmonary valve has no true annulus

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Atrioventricular valves are leaflets not cusps.
Both valves have partial annuli (ring structure).
Valves are attached to the subvalvular apparatus (chorda and papillary muscles).
Mobility is passive – chorda and papillary muscles tether and provide structural support.

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Valvular disease can be acute (endocarditis) or chronic (chronic rheumatic valvulitis) disease.
It can be a primary disease or secondary to some other pathological process (e.g. MR with atherosclerotic heart disease b/c impedes ability of leaflets to come together and form a good seal).
May be associated with systemic conditions (e.g. Marfan Syndrome).

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Valvular disease may be associated with stenosis, insufficiency (regurgitation) or both Chronic pressure and volume changes can lead to hypertrophy and remodelling of ventricles and atria

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Valvular disease may be associated with multiple other secondary pathologies such as atrial and ventricular dilation, “jet lesions”, mural thrombi, endocardial fibrosis in ventricle and arrhythmias.

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Congenital or acquired Congenital = Bicuspid Congenital typically presents at a younger age vs. acquired Associated with concentric LVH as well as “SAD” –syncope, angina and dyspnea Associated with increased risk of sudden death

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Pathophysiology of how AS can lead to LV hypertrophy, increased oxygen consumption & decreased oxygen supply, LV dysfunction and ultimately cardiac failure

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Aortic Insufficiency is associated with:
-Lesions of the valve
-Lesions with adjoining ascending aorta causing annular dilatation and loss of sufficient coapting of valve cusps (valves get moved farther and farther away)
-Acute or chronic insufficiency
-Associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling (esp. dilatation)

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Aortic insufficiency:
chronic aortitis or aortopathy often associated with ascending aortic aneurysms. The aneurysm pulls the root apart so valve cusps can't touch each other.

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Aortic Insufficiency Ascending aortic aneurysms and AI can be caused by: Aortitis Rheumatoid aortitis Luetic aortitis Ankylosing Spondylitis Aortitis Giant Cell Aortitis Aortopathy Marfan Syndrome Ehlers‐Danlos Disease Loeys‐Dietz Syndrome Bicuspid aortopathy Other: Atherosclerotic aneurysm

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Trauma & bacterial endocarditis are most common causes of acute aortic insufficiency.

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Mitral stenosis: most common cause is chronic rheumatic valvulitis. Fibrous thickening of leaflets with thickening, shortening and fusion of chordae tendinae (as consequence of fibrous tissue thickening) – commissural fusion also common.

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Post‐inflammatory mitral valvular stenosis -> “Fish mouth” deformity of Mitral valve.

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In mitral stenosis, chronic rheumatic valve disease typically takes decades to develop.

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Mitral Stenosis can be associated with enlarged left atrium, mural thrombi, pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias.

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Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation: most common cause is myxomatous mitral valve disease – associated with mitral valve prolapse

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Mitral Regurgitation Mitral valve prolapse Valve thickening with redundancy and “hooding” of redundant portions of valve leaflets Markedly increased ground substance deposition in spongiosa (middle layer) of leaflets Associated with multiple connective tissue disorders including Marfan Syndrome

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Other causes for mitral insufficiency include: Mitral annular calcification, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Cardiac myxoma interfering with valve orifice, Endocarditis, Papillary muscle rupture

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Mitral Regurgitation Papillary muscle rupture

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Mitral Regurgitation Ischemic MR –post dilatation of LV Ischemic MR –worse with inferior wall myocardial infarctions of left ventricle e. g. Chronic MR

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Infectious Endocarditis: aortic valve vegetations -> abn functioning cusps (might get better with abx)
-even after healing, can end up with healed perforation
-septic vegetations can be very destructive

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Pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: Abnormal valves (focal disruption of valvular endothelium) lead to increased risk of endocarditis.
With endothelial disruption, thrombus is likely to develop. Then transient bacteremia allows bacteria to colonize the thrombus. More thrombus will develop and bacteria continue to grow, causing injury to underlying structures.

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Non‐bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (marantic endocarditis): Mitral valve vegetations are sterile and non‐inflamed. Vegetations are smaller and doesn't destroy underlying structures. Forms as consequence of multiple conditions but often associated with hypercoagulable state or mucin secreting cancers or collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus – called Limban‐Sacks endocarditis)

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5 types of Bioprosthetic Valves: Porcine valves, Bovine pericardial valves, Stentless valves, Homograft valves (allograft), Autograft valves

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mechanical valves generally put in younger pt's because they're more prone to form fibrous tissue & calcium, which leads to acceleration of valve degeneration

pts will need significant anticoagulation with mechanical valves

most common = bi-leaflet

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Homograft valves are seen where aortic annulus has been heavily dmg'd d/t something like bacterial endocarditis. It replaces not just the valves, but also the aortic annulus.

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Percutaneous Valves

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Prosthetic Valve Complications: Mechanical valve thrombosis (if not properly anticoagulated), Pannus overgrowth (fibrous tissue) causing stenosis (slow reaction against foreign object)

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#artificial-intelligence #common-lisp #norvig
symbols in Common Lisp are not case sensitive.

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Flashcard 1342979837196

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #common-lisp #norvig
Question
symbols in Common Lisp [are / are not] case sensitive.
Answer
are not


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symbols in Common Lisp are not case sensitive.

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Flashcard 1342983245068

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #common-lisp #norvig
Question
a wide varietyof characters are allowedin symbols: numbers, letters, and other punctuation marks like
Answer
'+' or' i'


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