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ACh is the only neurotransmitter that is utilized at the neuromuscular junction.

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In the nucleus, the gene for the hormone is tran- scribed into an mRNA. Generally, a single gene is responsible for directing the primary structure of each peptide hormone. (Because the genes for almost all peptide hormones have been cloned, recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to synthesize human peptide hormones.) 2. The hormone mRNA is transferred to the cytoplasm and translated on the ribosomes to the first protein pro- duct, a preprohormone. Translation of the mRNA begins with a signal peptide at the N terminus. Translation ceases, and the signal peptide attaches to receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum via “docking proteins.” Translation then continues on the endoplasmic reticulum until the entire peptide sequence is produced (i.e., the preprohormone). 3. The signal peptide is removed in the endoplasmic reticulum, converting the preprohormone to a prohormone. The prohormone contains the complete hormone sequence plus other peptide sequences, which will be removed in a final step. Some of the “other” peptide sequences in the pro- hormone are necessary for proper folding of the hormone (e.g., formation of intramolecular linkages). 4. The prohormone is transferred to the Golgi appa- ratus, where it is packaged in secretory vesicles. In the secretory vesicles, proteolytic enzymes cleave peptide sequences from the prohormone to produce the final hormone. Other functions of the Golgi apparatus include glycosylation and phosphoryla- tion of the hormone. 5. The final hormone is stored in secretory vesicles until the endocrine cell is stimulated. For example, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is synthesized and stored in vesicles in the chief cells of the parathyroid gland. The stimulus for secretion of PTH is low extracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. When sensors on the parathyroid gland detect a low extra- cellular Ca 2+ concentration, the secretory vesicles are translocated to the cell membrane, where they extrude PTH into the blood by exocytosis. The other constituents of the secretory vesicles, including

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The amine hormones are catecholamines and thyroid hormones

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Flashcard 1410883259660

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#obgyn
Question
[...] ​ carriers okay to breastfeed
Answer
HepB and HepC
-(newborns of HepB carriers are vaccinated)


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Feedback mechanisms are more common than neural mechanisms

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#energetyka
Temperatura odczuwalna

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M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors.[10]

In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels.[11][12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M2. This part of the G protein can open K+ channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
is claim instead found no significant association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence. [8] Olfactory behavior[edit] Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating) [9] Mechanism of action[edit] <span>M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. Ligands[edit] Few highly selective M 2 agonists are available at present, although there are several non-selective muscarinic agonists that stimulate M 2 , and a number of selectiv




The M2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
] Contents [hide] 1 Function 1.1 Heart 1.2 IQ 1.3 Olfactory behavior 2 Mechanism of action 3 Ligands 3.1 Agonists 3.2 Antagonists 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links Function[edit] Heart[edit] <span>The M 2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart, where they act to slow the heart rate down to normal sinus rhythm after positive stimulatory actions of the parasympathetic nervous system, by slowing the speed of depolarization. They




ACh is released from all preganglionic and most postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic nervous system.

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ACh is the only neurotransmitter that is utilized at the neuromuscular junction. ACh is released from all preganglionic and most postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Flashcard 1414863916300

Question
[...] is the only neurotransmitter that is utilized at the neuromuscular junction.
Answer
ACh


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ACh is the only neurotransmitter that is utilized at the neuromuscular junction.

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Flashcard 1414865489164

Question
ACh is the only neurotransmitter that is utilized at the [...].
Answer
neuromuscular junction


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ACh is the only neurotransmitter that is utilized at the neuromuscular junction.

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Flashcard 1414867062028

Question
ACh is the only [...] that is utilized at the neuromuscular junction.
Answer
neurotransmitter


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ACh is the only neurotransmitter that is utilized at the neuromuscular junction.

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Flashcard 1414869421324

Question
The amine hormones are [2]
Answer
catecholamines and thyroid hormones


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The amine hormones are catecholamines and thyroid hormones

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Flashcard 1414871780620

Question
The [hormonmolekyl] hormones are catecholamines and thyroid hormones
Answer
amine


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The amine hormones are catecholamines and thyroid hormones

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Flashcard 1414874139916

Question
Vilka klassiska hormoner är aminer?
Answer
catecholamines and thyroid hormones


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The amine hormones are catecholamines and thyroid hormones

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Flashcard 1414877285644

Question
[...] are more common than neural mechanisms
Answer
Feedback mechanisms


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Feedback mechanisms are more common than neural mechanisms

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Flashcard 1414878858508

Question
Feedback mechanisms are more common than [...]
Answer
neural mechanisms


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Feedback mechanisms are more common than neural mechanisms

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In the nucleus, the gene for the hormone is tran- scribed into an mRNA

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In the nucleus, the gene for the hormone is tran- scribed into an mRNA. Generally, a single gene is responsible for directing the primary structure of each peptide hormone. (Because the genes for almost all peptide hormones have b

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he hormone mRNA is transferred to the cytoplasm and translated on the ribosomes to the first protein pro- duct, a preprohormone

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ngle gene is responsible for directing the primary structure of each peptide hormone. (Because the genes for almost all peptide hormones have been cloned, recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to synthesize human peptide hormones.) 2. T<span>he hormone mRNA is transferred to the cytoplasm and translated on the ribosomes to the first protein pro- duct, a preprohormone. Translation of the mRNA begins with a signal peptide at the N terminus. Translation ceases, and the signal peptide attaches to receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum via “docking prote

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The hormone mRNA is transferred to the cytoplasm and translated on the ribosomes to the first protein pro- duct, a preprohormone

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ingle gene is responsible for directing the primary structure of each peptide hormone. (Because the genes for almost all peptide hormones have been cloned, recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to synthesize human peptide hormones.) 2. <span>The hormone mRNA is transferred to the cytoplasm and translated on the ribosomes to the first protein pro- duct, a preprohormone. Translation of the mRNA begins with a signal peptide at the N terminus. Translation ceases, and the signal peptide attaches to receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum via “docking prote

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Flashcard 1414886198540

Question
Steroid hormoner? (6)
Answer
Kortisol, aldosterone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, och vitamin D


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The steroid hormones are cortisol, aldosterone, estradiol and estriol, progesterone, testosterone, and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

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According to Bernard, animals have two environments: the milieu extérieur that physically surrounds the whole organ- ism; and the milieu intérieur, in which the tissues and cells of the organism live

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milleu interiuer = the well-controlled liquid environment

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At still higher concentrations, phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers

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In phospholipid bilayers, the phospholipid molecules arrange themselves into two parallel sheets or leaflets that face each other tail to tail

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An individual phospholipid molecule is free to diffuse within the entire layer of the membrane where it resides

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The rate at which this two-dimensional diffusion occurs is extremely temperature dependent. At high temperatures, the thermal energy of any given lipid molecule is greater than the interaction energy that would tend to hold adjacent lipid molecules together. Under these con- ditions, lateral diffusion can proceed rapidly, and the lipid is said to be in the sol state. At lower temperatures, interac- tion energies exceed the thermal energies of most individual molecules. Thus, phospholipids diffuse slowly because they lack the energy to free themselves from the embraces of their neighbors. This behavior is characteristic of the gel state

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The temperature at which the bilayer membrane converts from the gel to the sol phase (and vice versa) is referred to as the transition temperature.

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The transition temperature is another characteristic that depends on the chemical makeup of the phospholipids in the bilayer. Phospholipids with long, saturated fatty acid chains can extensively interact with one another. Consequently, a fair amount of thermal energy is required to overcome these interactions and permit diffusion. Not surprisingly, such bilayers have relatively high transition temperatures. For example, the transition tem- perature for dioctadecanoic phosphatidylcholine (which has two 18-carbon fatty acid chains, fully saturated) is 55.5°C. In contrast, phospholipids that have shorter fatty acid chains or double bonds (which introduce kinks) cannot line up next to each other as well and hence do not interact as well. Con- siderably less energy is required to induce them to partici- pate in diffusion. For example, if we reduce the length of the carbon chain from 18 to 14, the transition temperature falls to 23°C. If we retain 18 carbons but introduce a single, double bond (making the fatty acid chains monounsaturated), the transition temperature also falls dramatically

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The glycerol-based phospholipids, the most common membrane lipids, include the phosphatidyletha- nolamines described earlier (Fig. 2-1A) as well as the phos- phatidylinositols (Fig. 2-2A), phosphatidylserines (Fig. 2-2B), and phosphatidylcholines

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sphingolipids (deriva- tives of sphingosine), are made up of three subgroups: sphin- gomyelins (Fig. 2-2D), glycosphingolipids such as the galactocerebrosides (Fig. 2-2E), and gangliosides

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Cholesterol molecule rigid steroid ring binds to and partially immobilizes fatty acid side chains.

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Therefore, at modest con- centrations, cholesterol decreases fl uidity. However, when it is present in high concentrations, cholesterol can substan- tially disrupt the ability of the phospholipids to interact among themselves, which increases fl uidity and lowers the gel-sol transition temperature.

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Flashcard 1416759741708

[unknown IMAGE 1416758168844]
Tags
#has-images
Question
what is a process?
Answer


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