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Flashcard 1429351304460

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The liberal arts, teach one [...]; they train the faculties and bring them to perfection; they enable a person to rise above his material environment to live an intellectual, a rational, and therefore a free life in gaining truth.
Answer
how to live


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The liberal arts, in contrast, teach one how to live; they train the faculties and bring them to perfection; they enable a person to rise above his material environment to live an intellectual, a rational, and therefore a free life in gai

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Flashcard 1433012931852

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Answer


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The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption)<

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1. INTRODUCTION
3; Traditionally, microeconomics classifies private economic units into two groups: consumers (or households) and firms. These two groups give rise, respectively, to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study. <span>The theory of the consumer deals with consumption (the demand for goods and services) by utility-maximizing individuals (i.e., individuals who make decisions that maximize the satisfaction received from present and future consumption). The theory of the firm deals with the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the firm are important because they help u







Flashcard 1434812812556

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
the seven fine arts (architecture, [...], sculpture, painting, literature, [...] , and [...] )
Answer
instrumental music

the drama

the dance


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the seven fine arts (architecture, instrumental music, sculpture, painting, literature, t he drama, and the dance)

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Flashcard 1434877824268

Tags
#italian #italian-grammar
Question
The [...] is the verb mood used to express orders, commands or instructions.
Answer
imperative mood

state fermi ‘keep still’; si accomodi ‘sit down’; andiamo ‘let’s go’. (See also Subjunctive.)


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The imperative mood is the verb mood used to express orders, commands or instructions: state fermi ‘keep still’; si accomodi ‘sit down’; andiamo ‘let’s go’. (See also Subjunctive.)</ht

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#conversation-tactics
All human beings have a need to be respected, even if they objectively don't deserve it

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#conversation-tactics
no human being likes to feel disrespected and like they don’t matter. It’s a negative feeling that can ruin someone’s day. It’s also largely avoidable

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when it comes to getting along with people, it doesn’t really matter if you think someone hasn’t earned your respect or doesn’t deserve respect any at all. You have to project the illusion of respect regardless of how you feel internally sometimes

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#conversation-tactics
If you don’t allow people to feel a baseline of respect, some might even go through great lengths to pay you back in a similar manner.

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#conversation-tactics
Let’s begin with what’s disrespectful: telling and ordering people around

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#conversation-tactics
Choosing whether to ask a question or make a statement impacts respect in a big way

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#conversation-tactics
Asking a question is more respectful than telling a statement. Indeed, when you make a statement or a comment to somebody, this can be perceived as an imposition or an order. It’s a lack of consideration for what they are doing, and creating a dominant tone for them to submit to

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#conversation-tactics
avoid statements in favor of questions whenever possible.

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#conversation-tactics
Stick to the rule: Ask, don't tell

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#conversation-tactics
An additional step to create an even greater illusion of respect is justification.

Hey, can you please take the trash out for me, I can’t because I’m on the stove right now.

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#conversation-tactics
To defuse situations and maximize the illusion of respect, you need to tell people why you are asking or explain why you are telling. Giving someone a justification for your ask turns an order into a reasonable and rational request for assistance.

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#conversation-tactics
The magic word is "because." According to research studies, simply including the word "because" in a request completely defuses a lot of defensiveness and reluctance on the part of the person being requested to do something

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#conversation-tactics
Keep in mind that people can easily feel quite touchy and defensive when there is no pre-existing hierarchy or pecking order between you and that person.

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#conversation-tactics
Observe the two-second rule.

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#conversation-tactics
In the sphere of conversation advice, it’s commonly held that people like to talk about themselves. This is undeniably true. But I’ll add an addendum in the context of this chapter – people aren’t so much interested in talking about themselves as feeling heard and like they matter.

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#conversation-tactics
Most people aren’t by nature inclined to brag about themselves, they talk about themselves so they can feel validated by others.

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#conversation-tactics
So when people have the spotlight, their goal is usually to feel heard and gain validation from others.

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#conversation-tactics
The worst thing you can do to someone who has the spotlight is to seize it from them, and we do this in various ways without even realizing it

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#conversation-tactics
the phrase “stealing someone’s thunder” comes from, where you literally seize their spotlight by continually changing the topic of discussion back to yourself.

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#conversation-tactics
the biggest way that we seize the spotlight is by not appearing to listen to what they are saying

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#conversation-tactics
Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.

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#conversation-tactics
Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.

Why is this negative?

The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that you did not really listen to him or her. You appeared to be so eager to talk that you give that other speaker the impression that whatever they said wasn't that important to you

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#conversation-tactics
Note that this is an entirely different phenomenon from interrupting artfully and gracefully. With positive interruptions, you are interrupting because you agree with them so much, here you are just waiting for them to finish so you can say your

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#conversation-tactics
The two-second rule is simple. After someone speaks, especially longer, more thoughtful, and more personal statements, you pause for two seconds before saying anything

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#conversation-tactics
During those two seconds, be mindful that your facial expression reflects thought and isn’t just a blank stare.

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#conversation-tactics
When somebody stops talking, they usually look at your face. What they're looking for is some sort of cue that you paid attention to them and what they said sank in.

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#conversation-tactics
One common solution that people use in place of a two-second pause is to say That’s really interesting… However, this can get annoying if you habitually do this. It's very easy for this statement to be taken as some throwaway phrase that you are making to cloak the fact that you just want to talk immediately after they stop talking

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#conversation-tactics
The best way to use this phrase (That's really interesting) or similar phrases is to do the two-second pause and then say it.

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Flashcard 1452657478924

Tags
#biochem
Question
Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a [...] helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.
Answer
left-handed


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Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a left-handed helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.

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Flashcard 1452659051788

Tags
#biochem
Question
Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a left-handed helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have [...]
Answer
strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.


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Unlike the A- and B-forms, Z-DNA is a left-handed helix ( Figure 2.20). Th e Z-form is adopted preferentially by segments of DNA that have strictly alternating C and G nucleotides.

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Flashcard 1452660624652

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R, how would you do a sequence from -2 to +2 in 0.1 increments?
Answer
x = seq( from = -2, to = 2, by = 0.1 ) .


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Let’s arbitrarily select x values from −2to+2, separated by intervals of 0.1. We have R set up the list of x values by using the built-in sequence function: x = seq( from = -2, to = 2, by = 0.1 ) .

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Flashcard 1452662983948

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
The [...] principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction.
Answer
DRY


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The DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself co

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i







Flashcard 1452664556812

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
The DRY principle states that [...]; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction.
Answer
multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic


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The DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic; logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functio

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1.4 Designing Functions
mall, and serve as our primary medium to express computational processes in a programming language. So far, we have discussed the formal properties of functions and how they are applied. We now turn to the topic of what makes a good function. <span>Fundamentally, the qualities of good functions all reinforce the idea that functions are abstractions. Each function should have exactly one job. That job should be identifiable with a short name and characterizable in a single line of text. Functions that perform multiple jobs in sequence should be divided into multiple functions. Don't repeat yourself is a central tenet of software engineering. The so-called DRY principle states that multiple fragments of code should not describe redundant logic. Instead, that logic should be implemented once, given a name, and applied multiple times. If you find yourself copying and pasting a block of code, you have probably found an opportunity for functional abstraction. Functions should be defined generally. Squaring is not in the Python Library precisely because it is a special case of the pow function, which raises numbers to arbitrary powers. These guidelines improve the readability of code, reduce the number of errors, and often minimize the total amount of code written. Decomposing a complex task into concise functions i







Flashcard 1452666129676

Tags
#python #sicp
Question
In recurision the body begins with a [...], a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process
Answer
base case


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The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process

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1.7 Recursive Functions
til eventually a single-digit input is reached. This example also illustrates how functions with simple bodies can evolve complex computational processes by using recursion. 1.7.1 The Anatomy of Recursive Functions Video: Show Hide <span>A common pattern can be found in the body of many recursive functions. The body begins with a base case, a conditional statement that defines the behavior of the function for the inputs that are simplest to process. In the case of sum_digits , the base case is any single-digit argument, and we simply return that argument. Some recursive functions will have multiple base cases. The base cases are then followed by one or more recursive calls. Recursive calls always have a certain character: they simplify the original problem. Recursive functions express computation by simplifying problems incrementally. For example, summing the digits of 7 is simpler than summing the digits of 73, which in turn is simpler than summing the digits of 738. For each subsequent call, there is less work lef







Flashcard 1452669275404

Tags
#biochem
Question
the eff ective contribution of hydrogen bonds to the stability of DNA is less than the intrinsic strength of the hydrogen bonds because of [...]
Answer
competition with water.


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the eff ective contribution of hydrogen bonds to the stability of DNA is less than the intrinsic strength of the hydrogen bonds because of competition with water.

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Flashcard 1452670848268

Tags
#biochem
Question
Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the [...], which refers to the diff erent out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides
Answer
sugar pucker


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Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the sugar pucker, which refers to the diff erent out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides

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Flashcard 1452672421132

Tags
#biochem
Question
Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the sugar pucker, which refers to the diff erent [...]
Answer
out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides


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Another important conformational parameter for DNA and RNA is known as the sugar pucker, which refers to the diff erent out-of-plane distortions in the deox- yribose or ribose rings of nucleosides

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Flashcard 1452673993996

Tags
#biochem
Question
RNA cannot adopt the standard Watson-Crick double- helical structure because of [...]
Answer
constraints on its sugar pucker


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RNA cannot adopt the standard Watson-Crick double- helical structure because of constraints on its sugar pucker

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Flashcard 1452675566860

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e B-form helix rises [...] per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.
Answer
~34 Å


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Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.

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Flashcard 1452677139724

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are [...] base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.
Answer
10–11


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Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.

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Flashcard 1452678712588

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~[...] Å.
Answer
3.1–3.4


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Th e B-form helix rises ~34 Å per helical turn and there are 10–11 base pairs per turn, so the rise per base pair is ~3.1–3.4 Å.

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Flashcard 1452680285452

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
ordered list of numerical values is called a [...] in R
Answer
“vector”


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ordered list of numerical values is called a “vector” in R

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Flashcard 1452681858316

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
[...] is called a “vector” in R
Answer
ordered list of numerical values


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ordered list of numerical values is called a “vector” in R

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Flashcard 1452683431180

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A comment in R begins with the [...]
Answer
“ #”symbol, called a number sign or a pound sign.


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A comment in R begins with the “ #”symbol, called a number sign or a pound sign.

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Flashcard 1452685004044

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
R defaults to component-by-component vector operations. In particular, if x and y are two vectors of the same length, then x*y is [...]
Answer
the vector consisting of the products of corresponding components.


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R defaults to component-by-component vector operations. In particular, if x and y are two vectors of the same length, then x*y is the vector consisting of the products of corresponding components.

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Flashcard 1452686576908

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
What does Bayesian analysis do wrt credibility, parameter values and the space of possibilities?
Answer
Bayesian analysis re- allocates credibility among parameter values within a meaningful space of possibilities defined by the chosen model.


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Bayesian analysis re- allocates credibility among parameter values within a meaningful space of possibilities defined by the chosen model.

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Flashcard 1452688936204

Tags
#biochem
Question
Th e structure of double-helical DNA, as originally described by Watson and Crick on the basis of Franklin and Wilkinsʹ x-ray diff raction data, is known as [...]
Answer
B-form DNA or B-DNA


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Th e structure of double-helical DNA, as originally described by Watson and Crick on the basis of Franklin and Wilkinsʹ x-ray diff raction data, is known as B-form DNA or B-DNA

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Flashcard 1452690509068

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R, running a script is called [...], because you are redirecting the source of commands from the command line to the script.
Answer
source-ing the script


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In R, running a script is called source-ing the script, because you are redirecting the source of commands from the command line to the script.

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Flashcard 1452692081932

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
How does R handle scalar operations?
Answer
R automatically applies a scalar operation to all elements of a vector. For example: > 2 * c(1,2,3) [1]246 > 2 + c(1,2,3) [1]345


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R automatically applies a scalar operation to all elements of a vector. For example: > 2 * c(1,2,3) [1]246 > 2 + c(1,2,3) [1]345

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Flashcard 1452694441228

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R, what does the colon do?
Answer
The colon operator, :, makes sequences of integers. For example, 4:7 creates the vector 4, 5, 6, 7 .


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The colon operator, :, makes sequences of integers. For example, 4:7 creates the vector 4, 5, 6, 7 .

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Flashcard 1452696800524

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
In R what is the seq function used for and how is it used?
Answer
The sequence function, seq, is very handy for creating vectors that consist of regular sequences of numbers.
In its basic form, the user specifies the starting value of the sequence, the ending value, and the increment between successive values, like this: > seq( from=0 , to=3 , by=0.5 ) # length not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


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The sequence function, seq, is very handy for creating vectors that consist of regular sequences of numbers. In its basic form, the user specifies the starting value of the sequence, the ending value, and the increment between successive values, like this: > seq( from=0 , to=3 , by=0.5 ) # length not specified [1] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
There are three ways to reference elements: by numerical position, by logical inclusion, and by name.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
We can get the elements of the vector by referring to the rank positions inside square brackets after the vector name. Thus, x[c(2,4)] returns the second and fourth elements, as the vector

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Another way to get at elements is by telling R which position not to include, by using a negative sign. For example, if you want all the elements except the first and third, you can type x[c(-1,-3)].

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Another way to access elements of a vector is by a sequence of logical true and false values that specify whether or not to return the corresponding element. For example, x[c(FALSE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)] also returns the vector 3.14, 47405

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The elements of a vector can also, optionally, have names.Forexample,wecan name the elements of the vector x with the command, names(x)=c( "e" , "pi" , "sqrt2" , "zipcode" ) . Notice that the names are in quotes. Then we get at the components of the vector by specifying their names in square brackets. For example, x[c("pi","zipcode")] returns the vector 3.14, 47405 along with the names of those components

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Factors are a type of vector in R for which the elements are categorical values that could also be ordered. The values are stored internally as integers with labeled levels.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The factor function read the contents of vector x and kept track of all the distinct elements, calling them the levels of the factor. By default, it ordered the levels alphabetically. It then recoded the contents of the vector in terms of the integer indices of the alphabetized levels.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
To see the integer indices of the levels explicitly, we can ask R to show us the factor as a numeric vector: > as.numeric(xf) [1]13213

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
If we want to specify a particular order for the levels, we can do so with additional arguments in the factor function, like this: > xfo = factor( x , levels=c("low","medium","high") , ordered=TRUE ) > xfo [1] high medium low high medium Levels: low < medium < high

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
To reorder, just use the factor function again, explicitly indicating the desired levels and order.

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#matlab #programming
There are two straightforward ways of getting output from MATLAB: Entering a variable name, assignment, or expression on the command line, without a semicolon Using the disp statement (e.g., disp( x ))

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#matlab #programming
we convert the number x to its string representation with the function num2str; read this as “number to string.”

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#conversation-tactics
The whole point behind the 2 second practice is to make you look like a good listener.

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#conversation-tactics
people love great listeners because they want to be heard. They want to feel that they matter. They want other people to acknowledge that what they have to say is important.

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#conversation-tactics
You probably keep hearing the phrase "great listening skills." It's not really a question of whether you're actually listening and processing all this information. A lot of that perception stems from you appearing like a great listener. In other words, you give out signals that make people feel good about themselves

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#conversation-tactics
Give people their full spotlight but make sure that they can continually feel it.

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#conversation-tactics
A conversation is a performance, and social and conversation skills are muscles that aid that performance.

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#conversation-tactics
Runners stretch, singers sing scales. What about people engaging in conversation?

To warm up your social and conversation skills, you just need to do something we’ve done almost every day in our lives: read out loud.

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Reading out loud.
#conversation-tactics
It sounds simple, but reading out loud this time will be different from any other time you’ve previously done it because you will have a purpose.

Here are the steps.

Open a book, find an article, consult your favorite poet. Find an excerpt about 400 words long, preferably with dialogue from different characters. The more exciting and emotional the excerpt the better.


Read the excerpt out loud. Scream parts of it loudly, while exaggerating whispers in other parts. Use different and zany voices for different characters. Exaggerate any emotion you see in the excerpt tenfold – insane laughter, boiling rage, confusion, joy, etc.

Read the excerpt like you’re giving a performance in a contest, and the winner is judged on how emotional and ridiculous they can be! Pretend you’re a voice actor for a movie trailer, and you have only your voice to get a wide range of emotion across.

Pay attention to your voice tonality. Are you accustomed to using a monotone? Well stop it! Use the excerpt to extend your range of vocal tone: loud, quiet, expressive, and emotional mance.


Remember when your childhood teachers used voices when they read stories to you? Have fun with it like they did and realize how you can create a story based on expressive voices.

You need to adopt some of that when talking to adults – there has to be enough diversity in tonality and pronunciation to make the conversation exciting.

Your vocal tone shouldn't be flat when you're talking.

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#conversation-tactics
Here are the steps.

Open a book, find an article, consult your favorite poet. Find an excerpt about 400 words long, preferably with dialogue from different characters. The more exciting and emotional the excerpt the better.


Read the excerpt out loud. Scream parts of it loudly, while exaggerating whispers in other parts. Use different and zany voices for different characters. Exaggerate any emotion you see in the excerpt tenfold – insane laughter, boiling rage, confusion, joy, etc.

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It sounds simple, but reading out loud this time will be different from any other time you’ve previously done it because you will have a purpose. Here are the steps. Open a book, find an article, consult your favorite poet. Find an excerpt about 400 words long, preferably with dialogue from different characters. The more exciting and emotional the excerpt the better. Read the excerpt out loud. Scream parts of it loudly, while exaggerating whispers in other parts. Use different and zany voices for different characters. Exaggerate any emotion you see in the excerpt tenfold – insane laughter, boiling rage, confusion, joy, etc. Read the excerpt like you’re giving a performance in a contest, and the winner is judged on how emotional and ridiculous they can be! Pretend you’re a voice actor for a movie

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Flashcard 1453118590220

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
What should you do to warm up before socializing?
Answer
Read out loud exaggerating emotions.


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Here are the steps. Open a book, find an article, consult your favorite poet. Find an excerpt about 400 words long, preferably with dialogue from different characters. The more exciting and emotional the excerpt the better. Read the excerpt out loud. Scream parts of it loudly, while exaggerating whispers in other parts. Use different and zany voices for different characters. Exaggerate any emotion you see in the excerpt tenfold – insane laughter, boiling rage, confusion, joy, etc.

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#biochem
Th e alternation of sugar pucker gives the helix backbone a zigzag appearance, which gives Z-form DNA its name. Because RNA cannot adopt a C2 ʹ endo sugar pucker, this confor- mation is restricted to DNA.

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#biochem
Th e physiological role of Z-form DNA in the cell is still not completely understood. One possibility is that it triggers the opening of DNA base pairs.

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#biochem
requirement for alternation of C and G is not absolute: substitution of A for G (and correspondingly T for C) destabilizes the Z-form, but with a small number of such substitutions, Z-form conformations can still form.

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#biochem
In the Z-form structure, there are 12 base pairs per turn, the sugars alternate between 2ʹ endo and 3ʹ endo puckers, and the G (or A) residues are in the syn con- formation, while the C (or T) residues are in the normal anti conformation

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#biochem
Z-DNA in vivo has been diffi cult to study since it seems to be a transient structure. Intriguingly, a correlation has been found between transcription and Z-DNA formation at some genes.

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#biochem
In reality, local regions of DNA deviate considerably from the B-form while still maintaining a double-helical structure that preserves the Watson-Crick base pairing and has average helical parameters that correspond well to those of B-form DNA

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#biochem
Molecules containing heterocyclic aromatic rings (usually with N or O atoms in them) can bind to DNA through intercalation—that is, slipping between base pairs of the DNA and stacking with the bases.

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#biochem
the antibiotic distamycin, which binds in the minor groove of DNA segments that have specifi c sequences (Figure 2.22B and C). Up to two molecules of distamycin can bind side by side in a single region of the minor groove, but the minor groove has to expand considerably in order to accommo- date two distamycin molecules. Since both types of complex can form at the same DNA sequence, with similar binding energetics, the change in groove width must be a fairly low-energy process

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#biochem
Th e deformability of double-stranded DNA is critical for its packaging in the cell, for its recognition by other molecules, and for the opening up of base pairs for replication, repair, and transcription. One measure of deformability is how easily DNA can be bent. Th e stiff ness of DNA is characterized by its persistence length. DNA segments that are longer than the persistence length can bend without a signifi cant energy penalty, whereas DNA segments shorter than the persistence length are relatively rigid. Th e persistence length of B-form DNA is approximately 500 Å. Th is corresponds to 14 or 15 helical turns, or roughly 140–150 base pairs

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#biochem
The persistence length of DNA corresponds to the maximum length of a segment of DNA that behaves as a rather rigid rod.

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#biochem
In nucleosomes, which compact chromosomal DNA (discussed in Chapter 1), the DNA is bent much more sharply than would be expected from its the persistence length; roughly 150 base pairs of DNA wrap twice around the nucleosome core

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#biochem
Supercoiling is a large-scale conformational eff ect in DNA in which the whole double helix winds into a superhelix

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#biochem
Th is eff ect is a con- sequence of the elastic deformation of DNA when the ends of the double helix cannot rotate relative to one another.

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#conversation-tactics
How you say something is as important as what you say.

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#conversation-tactics
Another key element of how you say something is, of course, your pacing – the speed at which you talk.

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#conversation-tactics
Have you ever noticed that liars and those with hidden agendas tend to speed up at certain points? Also those who are nervous, uneasy, and uncomfortable. Their pacing tends to implicate their intent.

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#conversation-tactics
Speed can either be your friend or undermine what you're trying to say.

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#conversation-tactics
Speed and pace are how you can emphasize certain points. When you’re making a big point, you should slow down your pace to increase the impact felt

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#conversation-tactics
You can't be a good conversationalist if the key points of the story are easily overlooked. Unfortunately, this is what happens when you zip through them. So it's a good idea, generally speaking, to slow down to emphasize the key points of the story.

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#conversation-tactics
You are also able to consciously pair elements of the story with emotional signals and your body language. By the same token, it's also a good idea to speed up when talking about less important points.

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Flashcard 1453311790348

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
You have to project the illusion of [...] regardless of how you feel internally sometimes
Answer
respect

It doesn’t matter if you think someone hasn’t earned it


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when it comes to getting along with people, it doesn’t really matter if you think someone hasn’t earned your respect or doesn’t deserve respect any at all. You have to project the illusion of respect regardless of how you feel internally sometimes

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Flashcard 1453314673932

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
[...] is more respectful than telling a statement.
Answer
Asking a question


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Asking a question is more respectful than telling a statement. Indeed, when you make a statement or a comment to somebody, this can be perceived as an imposition or an order. It’s a lack of consideration

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Rett syndrome

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Flashcard 1453318081804

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
When you make a statement or a comment to somebody, this can be perceived as [...]
Answer
an imposition or an order.

It’s a lack of consideration for what they are doing, and creating a dominant tone for them to submit to


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Asking a question is more respectful than telling a statement. Indeed, when you make a statement or a comment to somebody, this can be perceived as an imposition or an order. It’s a lack of consideration for what they are doing, and creating a dominant tone for them to submit to

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an autism spectrum disorder caused by loss of the transcriptional factor MeCP2

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Microglia and inflammation

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Peripheral macrophages are known to exist in different activation states, primarily M1 and M2

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Flashcard 1453323586828

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
An additional step to create an even greater illusion of respect is [...]
Answer
justification.

Hey, can you please take the trash out for me, I can’t because I’m on the stove right now.


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An additional step to create an even greater illusion of respect is justification. Hey, can you please take the trash out for me, I can’t because I’m on the stove right now.

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Flashcard 1453325946124

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
When people have the spotlight, their goal is usually to [...] from others.
Answer
feel heard and gain validation


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So when people have the spotlight, their goal is usually to feel heard and gain validation from others.

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Flashcard 1453329091852

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
The worst thing you can do to someone who has the spotlight is [...]
Answer
to seize it from them.

We do this in various ways without even realizing it!


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The worst thing you can do to someone who has the spotlight is to seize it from them, and we do this in various ways without even realizing it

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Flashcard 1453331451148

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
The two-second rule is simple. [...]
Answer
After someone speaks, especially longer, more thoughtful, and more personal statements, you pause for two seconds before saying anything


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The two-second rule is simple. After someone speaks, especially longer, more thoughtful, and more personal statements, you pause for two seconds before saying anything

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Flashcard 1453333024012

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
When somebody stops talking, they usually [...]
Answer
look at your face.

What they're looking for is some sort of cue that you paid attention to them and what they said sank in.


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When somebody stops talking, they usually look at your face. What they're looking for is some sort of cue that you paid attention to them and what they said sank in.

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Flashcard 1453418482956

Tags
#every-word-has-power
Question
“Mirror” neurons are active when a monkey or human is watching someone’s actions: quite possibly the neural beginnings of [...]
Answer
establishing “rapport,”


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“Mirror” neurons are active when a mon- key or human is watching someone’s actions: quite possibly the neural beginnings of establishing “rapport,”







Flashcard 1453454658828

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
If you don’t allow people to feel a baseline of respect, some might even [...]
Answer
go through great lengths to pay you back in a similar manner.


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If you don’t allow people to feel a baseline of respect, some might even go through great lengths to pay you back in a similar manner.

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Flashcard 1453510495500

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
avoid statements in favor of [...] whenever possible.
Answer
questions


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avoid statements in favor of questions whenever possible.

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Flashcard 1453536185612

Tags
#conversation-tactics #imparting-respect
Question
The magic word when you want someone to do something is "[...]."
Answer
because

According to research studies, simply including the word "because" in a request completely defuses a lot of defensiveness and reluctance on the part of the person being requested to do something


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The magic word is "because." According to research studies, simply including the word "because" in a request completely defuses a lot of defensiveness and reluctance on the part of the person being

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Flashcard 1453621906700

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you [...]
Answer
jump in immediately after they have finished speaking.


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Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking. Why is this negative? The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that you did not really listen to him or her. You appeared to b

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#conversation-tactics
Why is jumping right after someone said something important negative?

The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that you did not really listen to him or her. You appeared to be so eager to talk that you give that other speaker the impression that whatever they said wasn't that important to you

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Even if you are listening intently, it’s still easy for others to feel like you are not. Namely, when you jump in immediately after they have finished speaking. Why is this negative? The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that you did not really listen to him or her. You appeared to be so eager to talk that you give that other speaker the impression that whatever they said wasn't that important to you

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Flashcard 1453626101004

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Why is jumping right after someone said something important negative?

The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that [...].
Answer
you did not really listen to him or her

You appeared to be so eager to talk that you give that other speaker the impression that whatever they said wasn't that important to you.


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Why is jumping right after someone said something important negative? The other person who just stopped speaking will likely come to the conclusion that you did not really listen to him or her. You appeared to be so eager to talk that you give that other speaker the impression that whatever they said wasn't that important to you

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The function of a neuron is to transmit and receive action potentials, or stimulate electrical activity in a target tissue such as skeletal or cardiac muscle.

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Flashcard 1453634751756

Question
The function of a neuron
Answer
The function of a neuron is to transmit and receive action potentials, or stimulate electrical activity in a target tissue such as skeletal or cardiac muscle.


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The function of a neuron is to transmit and receive action potentials, or stimulate electrical activity in a target tissue such as skeletal or cardiac muscle.

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Functions of astrocytes BBB1. Energy2. Potassium3. Support4. Guidance5. Trophic6. Water7. Phagocytosis8. Regulating [neurotransmitter]9. Collaboration with neurons10. Synaptogenesis11. Radial Glia12.

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Flashcard 1453637111052

Question
Functions of astrocytes
Answer
BBB1. Energy2. Potassium3. Support4. Guidance5. Trophic6. Water7. Phagocytosis8. Regulating [neurotransmitter]9. Collaboration with neurons10. Synaptogenesis11. Radial Glia12.


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Functions of astrocytes BBB1. Energy2. Potassium3. Support4. Guidance5. Trophic6. Water7. Phagocytosis8. Regulating [neurotransmitter]9. Collaboration with neurons10. Synaptogenesis11. Radial Glia12.

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Flashcard 1453638159628

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
During those two seconds, be mindful that your [...] reflects thought and isn’t just a blank stare.
Answer
facial expression


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During those two seconds, be mindful that your facial expression reflects thought and isn’t just a blank stare.

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Flashcard 1453640518924

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Let’s begin with what’s disrespectful: [...]
Answer
telling and ordering people around


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Let’s begin with what’s disrespectful: telling and ordering people around

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Flashcard 1453642091788

Tags
#conversation-tactics #imparting-respect
Question
Stick to the rule: [...]
Answer
Ask, don't tell


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Stick to the rule: Ask, don't tell

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Flashcard 1453644713228

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
it’s commonly held that people like to talk about themselves, this is kind of truth but the real deal is [...]
Answer
feeling heard and like they matter.


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phere of conversation advice, it’s commonly held that people like to talk about themselves. This is undeniably true. But I’ll add an addendum in the context of this chapter – people aren’t so much interested in talking about themselves as <span>feeling heard and like they matter.<span><body><html>

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#provide-sources #rules-of-formulating-knowledge
Except for well-tested and proven knowledge (such as 2+2=4), it is highly recommended that you include sources from which you have gathered your knowledge. In real-life situation you will often be confronted with challenges to your knowledge

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Provide sources
Except for well-tested and proven knowledge (such as 2+2=4), it is highly recommended that you include sources from which you have gathered your knowledge. In real-life situation you will often be confronted with challenges to your knowledge. Sources can come to your rescue. You will also find that facts and figures differ depending on the source. You can really be surprised how frivolously reputable information agencies pu




#provide-sources #rules-of-formulating-knowledge
Sources should accompany your items but should not be part of the learned knowledge (unless it is critical for you to be able to recall the source whenever asked).

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Provide sources
one is often long forgotten. With sources provided, you will be able to make more educated choices on which pieces of information are more reliable. Adding reliability labels may also be helpful (e.g. Watch out!, Other sources differ!, etc.). <span>Sources should accompany your items but should not be part of the learned knowledge (unless it is critical for you to be able to recall the source whenever asked). <span><body><html>




Flashcard 1453664374028

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question



If you [...] and [...] in your conversation, for the person you're talking to, the conversation never teeters out.
Answer
identify a high point, and you kept recycling that high point


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ou're talking to, the conversation never teeters out. This leads them to perceive you as a very clever, interesting, and intelligent person to talk to. You end up making a very favorable impression to them. In reality, what you just did was <span>identify a high point, and you kept recycling that high point in your conversation.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1453666733324

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
When you talk to someone, there are [...] of communication happening simultaneously.
Answer
several levels

People can feel just fine consciously, yet have a negative feeling subconsciously.


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When you talk to someone, there are several levels of communication happening simultaneously. People can feel just fine consciously, yet have a negative feeling subconsciously

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Flashcard 1453669616908

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
There’s an easy solution forbackfiring in interruption.

You simply [...] but [...]
Answer
interrupt them don’t finish your sentence.

For example: I know! It’s so… And then you allow them to finish the statement with amazing! or horrible! so you can see which direction they are going.



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There’s an easy solution forbackfiring in interruption. You simply interrupt them but don’t finish your sentence. For example: I know! It’s so… And then you allow them to finish the statement with amazing! or horrible! so you can see which direction they are going.</

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Flashcard 1453673024780

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
In an agglutinated language like [...], a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character.
Answer
German

Abwehrflammenwerfer (defensive flame-thrower).


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In an agglutinated language like German, a construct is more commonly symbolized by a compound word which does make explicit its composite character, for example, Abwehrflammenwerfer (defensive flame-thrower).</

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The middle brain links mainly with our emotions: fear, anger, love, affection, and communication. It’s called the family, or limbic brain

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Limbic brain goals are short-term and focus primarily on good/bad, right/wrong, and yours/mine. It’s habitual, hierarchical, and simplistic. It does not have a capacity to visualize or grow because it thinks in terms of polarities

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Limbic brain started to evolve as we began to socialize.

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we unconsciously use body language for 55 percent of all communication.

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the language that we use now still has words that were formulated sixty-five thousand years ago to describe the feelings and emotions that were emerging from the middle brain’s polarity thinking.

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