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Flashcard 1429049576716

Tags
#trivium
Question
Sister Miriam Joseph acknowledges her debt to [...] John Milton, and Jacques Maritain.
Answer
Aristotle,

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Sister Miriam Joseph acknowledges her debt to Aristotle, John Milton, and Jacques Maritain.

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Flashcard 1441797115148

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
Economic income is based on the changes in the market value of the company, not [...]
Answer
changes in its book value (accounting depreciation).

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Economic income does not subtract the cost of debt financing, and it is based on the changes in the market value of the company, not changes in its book value (accounting depreciation).

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3. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
net income. (No subtraction is made for the cost of equity financing in arriving at accounting net income.) Accounting net income also differs from economic income, which is the cash inflow plus the change in the market value of the company. <span>Economic income does not subtract the cost of debt financing, and it is based on the changes in the market value of the company, not changes in its book value (accounting depreciation). In assumption 5 above, we referred to the rate used in discounting the cash flows as the “required rate of return.” The required rate of return is the discount rate







Flashcard 1450230549772

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm
Question
Total costs (TC) are the summation of all costs, where costs are classified according to [...] or [...] .
Answer
fixed

variable

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Total costs (TC) are the summation of all costs, where costs are classified according to fixed or variable. Total costs increase as the firm expands output and decrease when production is cut. The rate of increase in total costs declines up to a certain output level and, thereaft

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Costs
Total costs (TC) are the summation of all costs, where costs are classified according to fixed or variable. Total costs increase as the firm expands output and decrease when production is cut. The rate of increase in total costs declines up to a certain output level and, thereafter, accelerates as the firm gets closer to full utilization of capacity. The rate of change in total costs mirrors the rate of change in total variable cost. In Exhibit 13, TC at 5 units is 400—of which 300 is variable cost and 100 is fixed cost. At 10 units, total costs are 1,650, which is the sum of 1,550 in variable cost and 100 in fixed cost. Total fixed cost (TFC) is the summation of all expenses that do not change when production varies. It can be a sunk or unavoidable cost that a firm has to cover whether it







Flashcard 1473686408460

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro
Question
The basic equation underlying the income statement is [...] + [...] [...] = Net income.
Answer
Revenue + Other income -Expenses = Income


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The basic equation underlying the income statement is Revenue + Other income – Expenses = Income – Expenses = Net income.

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3.1.2.1. Income Statement
ning that they include the income and expenses of subsidiary companies under the control of the parent (reporting) company. The income statement is sometimes referred to as a statement of operations or profit and loss (P&L) statement . <span>The basic equation underlying the income statement is Revenue + Other income – Expenses = Income – Expenses = Net income. In general terms, when one company (the parent) controls another company (the subsidiary), the parent presents its own financial statement information consolidated with tha







Flashcard 1479163645196

Tags
#daniel-goleman #emotional-brain #emotional-iq #how-the-brain-grew #what-are-emotions-for #when-passions-overwhelm-reasons
Question
The [...] and the [...] make distinctions among smells and recognizing them, and so discriminating good from bad.

Answer
olfactory bulb

limbic system

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The olfactory bulb and the limbic system make distinctions among smells and recognizing them, and so discriminating good from bad. This was done by the "rhinencephalon," literally, th

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Flashcard 1480349584652

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #implications-for-financial-analysis #reading-25-understanding-income-statement #revenue-recognition
Question
It is generally possible to characterize the [...] of a company’s policies.
Answer
relative conservatism

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it is generally possible to characterize the relative conservatism of a company’s policies and to qualitatively assess how differences in policies might affect financial ratios.

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3.3. Implications for Financial Analysis
estimates. In order to analyze a company’s financial statements, and particularly to compare one company’s financial statements with those of another company, it is helpful to understand any differences in their revenue recognition policies. <span>Although it may not be possible to calculate the monetary effect of differences between particular companies’ revenue recognition policies and estimates, it is generally possible to characterize the relative conservatism of a company’s policies and to qualitatively assess how differences in policies might affect financial ratios. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1481050295564

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
Economic income does not subtract the [...]
Answer
cost of debt financing

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Economic income does not subtract the cost of debt financing, and it is based on the changes in the market value of the company, not changes in its book value (accounting depreciation).

Original toplevel document

3. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPITAL BUDGETING
net income. (No subtraction is made for the cost of equity financing in arriving at accounting net income.) Accounting net income also differs from economic income, which is the cash inflow plus the change in the market value of the company. <span>Economic income does not subtract the cost of debt financing, and it is based on the changes in the market value of the company, not changes in its book value (accounting depreciation). In assumption 5 above, we referred to the rate used in discounting the cash flows as the “required rate of return.” The required rate of return is the discount rate







There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water.
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Bacteria - Wikipedia
with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. [5] The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology. <span>There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. There are approximately 5×10 30 bacteria on Earth, [6] forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals. [7] Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by




Article 1481077820684

4.1. General Principles
#cfa-level-1 #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement

In general, a company recognizes expenses in the period that it consumes (i.e., uses up) the economic benefits associated with the expenditure, or loses some previously recognized economic benefit.28 A general principle of expense recognition is the matching principle . Strictly speaking, IFRS do not refer to a “matching principle” but rather to a “matching concept” or to a process resulting in “matching of costs with revenues.”29 The distinction is relevant in certain standard setting deliberations. Under matching, a company recognizes some expenses (e.g., cost of goods sold) when associated revenues are recognized and thus, expenses and revenues are matched. Associated revenues and expenses are those that result directly and jointly from the same transactions or events. Unlike the simple scenario in which a company purchases inventory and sells all of the inventory within the same accounting period, in practice, it is more likely that some of the current period’s sales are made from inventory p



Flashcard 1481079917836

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Question
In general, a company recognizes expenses in the period that it [...] associated with the expenditure.
Answer
consumes the economic benefits

Or loses some past economic benefit

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4.1. General Principles
In general, a company recognizes expenses in the period that it consumes (i.e., uses up) the economic benefits associated with the expenditure, or loses some previously recognized economic benefit.28 A general principle of expense recognition is the matching principle . Strictly speaking, IFRS do not refer to a “matching principle” but rather to a “matching concept”







Flashcard 1481083063564

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Question
A general principle of expense recognition is the [...]

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4.1. General Principles
dy> In general, a company recognizes expenses in the period that it consumes (i.e., uses up) the economic benefits associated with the expenditure, or loses some previously recognized economic benefit.28 A general principle of expense recognition is the matching principle . Strictly speaking, IFRS do not refer to a “matching principle” but rather to a “matching concept” or to a process resulting in “matching of costs with revenues.”29 The distinction is







#cfa-level-1 #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Strictly speaking, IFRS do not refer to a “matching principle” but rather to a “matching concept” or to a process resulting in “matching of costs with revenues.”29 The distinction is relevant in certain standard setting deliberations.
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4.1. General Principles
in the period that it consumes (i.e., uses up) the economic benefits associated with the expenditure, or loses some previously recognized economic benefit.28 A general principle of expense recognition is the matching principle . <span>Strictly speaking, IFRS do not refer to a “matching principle” but rather to a “matching concept” or to a process resulting in “matching of costs with revenues.”29 The distinction is relevant in certain standard setting deliberations. Under matching, a company recognizes some expenses (e.g., cost of goods sold) when associated revenues are recognized and thus, expenses and revenues are matched. Associated revenues an




Flashcard 1481087257868

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Question
Under matching, a company recognizes some expenses when [...]
Answer
associated revenues are recognized

Thus, expenses and revenues are matched.

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4.1. General Principles
ciple . Strictly speaking, IFRS do not refer to a “matching principle” but rather to a “matching concept” or to a process resulting in “matching of costs with revenues.”29 The distinction is relevant in certain standard setting deliberations. <span>Under matching, a company recognizes some expenses (e.g., cost of goods sold) when associated revenues are recognized and thus, expenses and revenues are matched. Associated revenues and expenses are those that result directly and jointly from the same transactions or events. Unlike the simple scenario in which a company purchases inventory and s







Flashcard 1481089617164

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Question
[...] and expenses are those that result directly and jointly from the same transactions or events.
Answer
Associated revenues

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4.1. General Principles
nues.”29 The distinction is relevant in certain standard setting deliberations. Under matching, a company recognizes some expenses (e.g., cost of goods sold) when associated revenues are recognized and thus, expenses and revenues are matched. <span>Associated revenues and expenses are those that result directly and jointly from the same transactions or events. Unlike the simple scenario in which a company purchases inventory and sells all of the inventory within the same accounting period, in practice, it is more likely that some of the curre







#matlab #programming
To see how MATLAB solves this system, first recall that the left division operator \ may be used on scalars, i.e., a\bis the same as b/aif a and b are scalars. However, it can also be used on vectors and matrices, in order to solve linear equations
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#matlab #programming
You can think of the matrix operation A\bas ‘b divided by A’, or as ‘the inverse of A multiplied by b’
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#matlab #programming
Whenever we solve a system of linear equations numerically we need to have some idea of how accurate the solution is. The first thing to check is the residual, defined as r=A*x-b where x is the result of the operation x=A\b.
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#matlab #programming
Theoretically the residual r should be zero, since the expression A*xis supposed to be equal to b
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#matlab #programming
When we have more equations than unknowns, the system is called over- determined
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#matlab #programming
The residual r=A*x-b is now r= -0.3333 -0.3333 0.3333 What happens in this case is that MATLAB produces the least squares best fit. This is the value of x which makes the magnitude of r, i.e., r(1) 2 + r(2) 2 + r(3)2 , as small as possible.
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#matlab #programming
If there are fewer equations than unknowns, the system is called under- determined. In this case there are an infinite number of solutions; MATLAB will find one which has zeros for some of the unknowns.
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#matlab #programming
A system like this is called ill-conditioned, meaning that a small change in the co- efficients leads to a large change in the solution. The MATLAB function rcond returns the condition estimator, which tests for ill conditioning
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#matlab #programming
If A is the coef- ficient matrix, rcond(A) will be close to zero if A is ill-conditioned, but close to 1 if it is well-conditioned.
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#matlab #programming
Some authors suggest the rule of thumb that a matrix is ill-conditioned if its determinant is small compared to the entries in the matrix. In this case the determinant of A is 1 (check with the function det) which is about an order of magnitude smaller than most of its entries
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#matlab #programming
Matrix left division, A\B, is defined whenever B has as many rows as A.
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#matlab #programming
If A is square, matrix left division is done using Gauss elimination. If A is not square the over- or under-determined equations are solved in the least squares sense. The result is an m × n matrix X,wherem is the number of columns of A and n is the number of columns of B.
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#matlab #programming
a system of n simultaneous linear equations requires n 2 matrix entries, and the computing time to solve them is proportional to n 3 .
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#matlab #programming
However, some matrices have relatively few non-zero entries. Such matrices are called sparse as opposed to full.
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#matlab #programming
the matrix representation of a certain type of partial differential equation (a 5-point Laplacian) on a square 64 × 64 grid is a 4096 × 4096 element matrix with 20 224 non-zero elements. The sparse form of this matrix in MATLAB occupies only 250 kB of memory, whereas the full version of the same matrix would occupy 128 MB, which is way beyond the limits of most desktop computers. The solution of the system Ax = b using sparse techniques is about 4000 times faster than solving the full case, i.e., 10 s instead of 12 hours
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#matlab #programming
The form of the sparse function used here is sparse(rows, cols, entries, m, n) This generates an m × n sparse matrix with non-zero entries having subscripts (rows, cols) (which may be vectors),
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#matlab #programming
The function spy provides a neat visualization of sparse matrices.
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Die Schlacht in der Javasee in Südostasien zwischen japanischen und alliierten Flotteneinheiten fand im Zweiten Weltkrieg während des Pazifikkriegs am 27. und 28. Februar 1942 statt.
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Schlacht in der Javasee – Wikipedia
– Malaiische Halbinsel – Borneo – Pearl Harbor – Hongkong – Philippinen – Guam – Wake – Niederländisch-Indien – Burma – Neuguinea – Singapur – Portugiesisch-Timor – Australien – Indischer Ozean – Salomonen – Korallenmeer – Nordamerika <span>Die Schlacht in der Javasee in Südostasien zwischen japanischen und alliierten Flotteneinheiten fand im Zweiten Weltkrieg während des Pazifikkriegs am 27. und 28. Februar 1942 statt. Auf Seiten der Alliierten waren US-amerikanische, britische, niederländische und australische Schiffe beteiligt (ABDA-Flotte). Die Japaner gingen aus der Seeschlacht als Sieger hervor.




Nach der erfolgreichen Eroberung der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliierter Hand befand. Die zentrale Bedeutung der Insel als wirtschaftliches Zentrum von Niederländisch-Indien mit der Hauptstadt Batavia, die Bodenschätze der Insel wie Schwefel aus dem Vulkangestein und Erze sowie der fruchtbare Boden für den Reis-, Tabak-, Mais- sowie Chinarindenanbau und Palmöl sowie die strategisch wichtige Lage als Verteidigungsstellung des Archipels mit der Nähe zu Australien machten Java zu einem äußerst lohnenden Ziel. Zudem befand sich in Bandung der Regierungssitz der Niederländer für Niederländisch-Indien. Spätestens nach dem Fall Südsumatras westlich von Java und der Landung der Japaner auf Bali um den 20. Februar war den Verteidigern klar, dass es demnächst zu einer Invasion der Insel kommen würde.
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Schlacht in der Javasee – Wikipedia
nvasionsflotten 1.2 Die Alliierten 1.3 Zustand der Alliierten 2 Die Schlacht 3 Nach der Schlacht 4 Das Schicksal der USS Langley 5 Die Folgen 6 Siehe auch 7 Literatur 8 Film 9 Weblinks Vorgeschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] <span>Nach der erfolgreichen Eroberung der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliierter Hand befand. Die zentrale Bedeutung der Insel als wirtschaftliches Zentrum von Niederländisch-Indien mit der Hauptstadt Batavia, die Bodenschätze der Insel wie Schwefel aus dem Vulkangestein und Erze sowie der fruchtbare Boden für den Reis-, Tabak-, Mais- sowie Chinarindenanbau und Palmöl sowie die strategisch wichtige Lage als Verteidigungsstellung des Archipels mit der Nähe zu Australien machten Java zu einem äußerst lohnenden Ziel. Zudem befand sich in Bandung der Regierungssitz der Niederländer für Niederländisch-Indien. Spätestens nach dem Fall Südsumatras westlich von Java und der Landung der Japaner auf Bali um den 20. Februar war den Verteidigern klar, dass es demnächst zu einer Invasion der Insel kommen würde. → Hauptartikel: Chronologie des Zweiten Weltkrieges — Erstes Halbjahr 1942 in Asien und dem Pazifik Die japanischen Invasionsflotten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] Zur Bes




Flashcard 1481217019148

Question
Nach der erfolgreichen Eroberung der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliierter Hand befand. [...]u Australien machten Java zu einem äußerst lohnenden Ziel. Zudem befand sich in Bandung der Regierungssitz der Niederländer für Niederländisch-Indien. Spätestens nach dem Fall Südsumatras westlich von Java und der Landung der Japaner auf Bali um den 20. Februar war den Verteidigern klar, dass es demnächst zu einer Invasion der Insel kommen würde.
Answer
Die zentrale Bedeutung der Insel als wirtschaftliches Zentrum von Niederländisch-Indien mit der Hauptstadt Batavia, die Bodenschätze der Insel wie Schwefel aus dem Vulkangestein und Erze sowie der fruchtbare Boden für den Reis-, Tabak-, Mais- sowie Chinarindenanbau und Palmöl sowie die strategisch wichtige Lage als Verteidigungsstellung des Archipels mit der Nähe z

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an>Nach der erfolgreichen Eroberung der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliierter Hand befand. Die zentrale Bedeutung der Insel als wirtschaftliches Zentrum von Niederländisch-Indien mit der Hauptstadt Batavia, die Bodenschätze der Insel wie Schwefel aus dem Vulkangestein und Erze sowie der fruchtbare Boden für den Reis-, Tabak-, Mais- sowie Chinarindenanbau und Palmöl sowie die strategisch wichtige Lage als Verteidigungsstellung des Archipels mit der Nähe zu Australien machten Java zu einem äußerst lohnenden Ziel. Zudem befand sich in Bandung der Regierungssitz der Niederländer für Niederländisch-Indien. Spätestens nach dem Fall Südsumatra

Original toplevel document

Schlacht in der Javasee – Wikipedia
nvasionsflotten 1.2 Die Alliierten 1.3 Zustand der Alliierten 2 Die Schlacht 3 Nach der Schlacht 4 Das Schicksal der USS Langley 5 Die Folgen 6 Siehe auch 7 Literatur 8 Film 9 Weblinks Vorgeschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] <span>Nach der erfolgreichen Eroberung der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliierter Hand befand. Die zentrale Bedeutung der Insel als wirtschaftliches Zentrum von Niederländisch-Indien mit der Hauptstadt Batavia, die Bodenschätze der Insel wie Schwefel aus dem Vulkangestein und Erze sowie der fruchtbare Boden für den Reis-, Tabak-, Mais- sowie Chinarindenanbau und Palmöl sowie die strategisch wichtige Lage als Verteidigungsstellung des Archipels mit der Nähe zu Australien machten Java zu einem äußerst lohnenden Ziel. Zudem befand sich in Bandung der Regierungssitz der Niederländer für Niederländisch-Indien. Spätestens nach dem Fall Südsumatras westlich von Java und der Landung der Japaner auf Bali um den 20. Februar war den Verteidigern klar, dass es demnächst zu einer Invasion der Insel kommen würde. → Hauptartikel: Chronologie des Zweiten Weltkrieges — Erstes Halbjahr 1942 in Asien und dem Pazifik Die japanischen Invasionsflotten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] Zur Bes







Flashcard 1481218592012

Question
Nach der erfolgreichen [...] der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliierter Hand befand. Die zentrale Bedeutung der Insel als wirtschaftliches Zentrum von Niederländisch-Indien mit der Hauptstadt Batavia, die Bodenschätze der Insel wie Schwefel aus dem Vulkangestein und Erze sowie der fruchtbare Boden für den Reis-, Tabak-, Mais- sowie Chinarindenanbau und Palmöl sowie die strategisch wichtige Lage als Verteidigungsstellung des Archipels mit der Nähe zu Australien machten Java zu einem äußerst lohnenden Ziel. Zudem befand sich in Bandung der Regierungssitz der Niederländer für Niederländisch-Indien. Spätestens nach dem Fall Südsumatras westlich von Java und der Landung der Japaner auf Bali um den 20. Februar war den Verteidigern klar, dass es demnächst zu einer Invasion der Insel kommen würde.
Answer
Eroberung

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Nach der erfolgreichen Eroberung der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliiert

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Schlacht in der Javasee – Wikipedia
nvasionsflotten 1.2 Die Alliierten 1.3 Zustand der Alliierten 2 Die Schlacht 3 Nach der Schlacht 4 Das Schicksal der USS Langley 5 Die Folgen 6 Siehe auch 7 Literatur 8 Film 9 Weblinks Vorgeschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] <span>Nach der erfolgreichen Eroberung der südostasiatischen Gebiete und Inseln durch die Japaner Ende 1941 und Anfang 1942 war die niederländische Kolonialbesitzung Java der einzige bedeutende Ort, der sich noch in alliierter Hand befand. Die zentrale Bedeutung der Insel als wirtschaftliches Zentrum von Niederländisch-Indien mit der Hauptstadt Batavia, die Bodenschätze der Insel wie Schwefel aus dem Vulkangestein und Erze sowie der fruchtbare Boden für den Reis-, Tabak-, Mais- sowie Chinarindenanbau und Palmöl sowie die strategisch wichtige Lage als Verteidigungsstellung des Archipels mit der Nähe zu Australien machten Java zu einem äußerst lohnenden Ziel. Zudem befand sich in Bandung der Regierungssitz der Niederländer für Niederländisch-Indien. Spätestens nach dem Fall Südsumatras westlich von Java und der Landung der Japaner auf Bali um den 20. Februar war den Verteidigern klar, dass es demnächst zu einer Invasion der Insel kommen würde. → Hauptartikel: Chronologie des Zweiten Weltkrieges — Erstes Halbjahr 1942 in Asien und dem Pazifik Die japanischen Invasionsflotten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] Zur Bes







#bayes #programming #r #statistics
In real research, the prior distributions are either chosen to be broad and noncommittal on the scale of the data or specifically informed by publicly agreed prior research.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
When scientists disagree about prior beliefs, the analysis can be conducted with multiple priors, to assess the robustness of the posterior against changes in the prior. Or, the multiple priors can be mixed together into a joint prior, with the posterior thereby incorporating the uncertainty in the prior.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Determining the posterior distribution directly from Bayes’ rule involves computing the evidence (a.k.a. marginal likelihood) in Equations 5.8 and 5.9. In the usual case of continuous parameters, the integral in Equation 5.9 can be impossible to solve analytically.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Historically, the difficulty of the integration was addressed by restricting models to relatively simple likelihood functions with corresponding formulas for prior distributions, called conjugate priors, that “played nice” with the likelihood function to produce a tractable integral.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
When the conjugate-prior approach does not work, an alternative is to approximate the actual functions with other functions that are easier to work with, and then show that the approximation is reasonably good under typical conditions.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
This approach goes by the name “variational approximation.”
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Instead of analytical mathematical approaches, another class of methods involves numerical approximation of the integral. When the parameter space is small, one numerical approximation method is to cover the space with a comb or grid of points and compute the integral by exhaustively summing across that grid.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
In many realistic models, there are dozens or even hundreds of parameters.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The space of possibilities is the joint parameter space involving all combinations of parameter values. If we represent each parameter with a comb of, say, 1,000 values, then for P parameters there are 1,000 P combinations of parameter values.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Another kind of approximation involves randomly sampling a large number of representative combinations of parameter values from the posterior distribution.
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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. What makes these methods so useful is that they can generate representative parameter-value combinations from the posterior distribution of complex models without computing the integral in Bayes’ rule.
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#biochem #biology #cell
The α helix is shown in (A) and (B). The N–H of every peptide bond is hydrogen-bonded to the C=O of a neighboring peptide bond located four peptide bonds away in the same chain.
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#biochem #biology #cell
Note that all of the N–H groups point up in this diagram and that all of the C=O groups point down (toward the C-terminus); this gives a polarity to the helix, with the C-terminus having a partial negative and the N-terminus a partial positive charge (
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#biochem #biology #cell
The β sheet is shown in (C) and (D). In this example, adjacent peptide chains run in opposite (antiparallel) directions. Hydrogen-bonding between peptide bonds in different strands holds the individual polypeptide chains (strands) together in a β sheet, and the amino acid side chains in each strand alternately project above and below the plane of the sheet
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#biochem #biology #cell
An α helix is generated when a single polypeptide chain twists around on itself to form a rigid cylinder. A hydrogen bond forms between every fourth peptide bond, linking the C=O of one peptide bond to the N–H of another (see Figure 3–7A). This gives rise to a regular helix with a complete turn every 3.6 amino acids.
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#biochem #biology #cell
Regions of α helix are abundant in proteins located in cell membranes, such as transport proteins and receptors
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#biochem #biology #cell
α helices wrap around each other to form a particularly sta- ble structure, known as a coiled-coil. This structure can form when the two (or in some cases, three or four) α helices have most of their nonpolar (hydrophobic) side chains on one side, so that they can twist around each other with these side chains facing inward
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#biochem #biology #cell
This is the protein domain, a substructure produced by any contiguous part of a polypeptide chain that can fold independently of the rest of the protein into a compact, stable structure.
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#biochem #biology #cell
A domain usually contains between 40 and 350 amino acids, and it is the modular unit from which many larger proteins are constructed
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#biochem #biology #cell
the Src protein kinase, which functions in signaling pathways inside vertebrate cells
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#biochem #biology #cell
The smallest protein molecules contain only a single domain, whereas larger proteins can contain several dozen domains, often connected to each other by short, relatively unstructured lengths of polypeptide chain that can act as flexible hinges between domains.
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#biochem #biology #cell
Since each of the 20 amino acids is chemically distinct and each can, in princi- ple, occur at any position in a protein chain, there are 20 × 20 × 20 × 20 = 160,000 different possible polypeptide chains four amino acids long, or 20 n different pos- sible polypeptide chains n amino acids long. For a typical protein length of about 300 amino acids, a cell could theoretically make more than 10 390 (20 300 ) different polypeptide chains
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#biochem #biology #cell
Once a protein had evolved that folded up into a stable conformation with use- ful properties, its structure could be modified during evolution to enable it to perform new functions. This process has been greatly accelerated by genetic mechanisms that occasionally duplicate genes, allowing one gene copy to evolve independently to perform a new function (discussed in Chapter 4). This type of event has occurred very often in the past; as a result, many present-day proteins can be grouped into protein families, each family member having an amino acid sequence and a three-dimensional conformation that resemble those of the other family members
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#biochem #biology #cell
the serine proteases, a large family of protein-cleaving (proteolytic) enzymes that includes the digestive enzymes chymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase, and several proteases involved in blood clotting.
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#biochem #biology #cell
In many cases, the amino acid sequences have diverged so far that we cannot be certain of a family relationship between two proteins without determining their three-dimensional structures.
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#biochem #biology #cell
Many similar examples show that two pro- teins with more than 25% identity in their amino acid sequences usually share the same overall structure
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The only problem is that traditionally review was not very practical. If you are using paper flashcards, it’s easy to flick through all of them if you only have 30 of them to review, but as the number grows to 300 or 3000, it quickly becomes unwieldy.
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Unknown title
thin a 48 hour period. This can seem pretty depressing when you need to learn a lot of information. The solution is simple, however: review. By reviewing newly-learnt information, we can greatly reduce forgetting. <span>The only problem is that traditionally review was not very practical. If you are using paper flashcards, it’s easy to flick through all of them if you only have 30 of them to review, but as the number grows to 300 or 3000, it quickly becomes unwieldy. Spaced Repetition The spacing effect was reported by a German psychologist in 1885. He observed that we tend to remember things more effectively if we s




#biochem #biology #cell
the determination of the DNA sequence for the entire human genome has revealed that we contain about 21,000 protein-coding genes. (Note, however, that as a result of alternative RNA splicing, human cells can pro- duce much more than 21,000 different proteins
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#biochem #biology #cell
Through sequence comparisons, we can assign the products of at least 40% of our protein-coding genes to known protein structures, belonging to more than 500 different protein families
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#biochem #biology #cell
Most of the proteins in each family have evolved to perform somewhat different functions, as for the enzymes elastase and chy- motrypsin illustrated previously in Figure 3–12. As explained in Chapter 1 (see Figure 1–21), these are sometimes called paralogs to distinguish them from the many corresponding proteins in different organisms (orthologs, such as mouse and human elastase)
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#biochem #biology #cell
we now know the three-di- mensional shapes, or conformations, of more than 100,000 proteins.
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#biochem #biology #cell
there are a limited number of ways in which protein domains fold up in nature—maybe as few as 2000, if we consider all organisms. For most of these so-called protein folds, representative structures have been determined.
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#biochem #biology #cell
The present database of known protein sequences contains more than twenty million entries
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#biochem #biology #cell
The encoded polypeptides range widely in size, from 6 amino acids to a gigantic pro- tein of 33,000 amino acids.
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#biochem #biology #cell
most proteins are composed of a series of protein domains, in which different regions of the polypeptide chain fold independently to form compact structures. Such multidomain proteins are believed to have originated from the accidental joining of the DNA sequences that encode each domain, cre- ating a new gene.
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#biochem #biology #cell
In an evolutionary process called domain shuffling, many large proteins have evolved through the joining of preexisting domains in new com- binations (Figure 3–14). Novel binding surfaces have often been created at the juxtaposition of domains, and many of the functional sites where proteins bind to small molecules are found to be located there.
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#biochem #biology #cell
A subset of protein domains has been especially mobile during evolution; these seem to have particularly versatile structures and are sometimes referred to as protein modules
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#biochem #biology #cell
β-sheet-based domains may have achieved their evolutionary success because they provide a convenient framework for the generation of new binding sites for ligands, requiring only small changes to their protruding loops
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#biochem #biology #cell
A second feature of these protein domains that explains their utility is the ease with which they can be integrated into other proteins
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#biochem #biology #cell
Stiff extended structures composed of a series of domains are especially common in extracellular matrix molecules and in the extracellular portions of cell-surface receptor proteins.
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#biochem #biology #cell
Other frequently used domains, includ- ing the kringle domain illustrated in Figure 3–15 and the SH2 domain, are of a “plug-in” type, with their N- and C-termini close together.
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#biochem #biology #cell
N- and C-terminal ends at opposite poles of the domain. When the DNA encoding such a domain undergoes tandem duplica- tion, which is not unusual in the evolution of genomes (discussed in Chapter 4), the duplicated domains with this “in-line” arrangement can be readily linked in series to form extended structures—either with themselves or with other in-line domains
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#biochem #biology #cell
A comparison of the relative frequency of domain utilization in different eukaryotes reveals that, for many common domains, such as protein kinases, this frequency is similar in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants, worms, flies, and humans.
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#biochem #biology #cell
the human genome contains the DNA sequences for about 1000 immunoglobulin domains, 500 protein kinase domains, 250 DNA-binding homeodomains, 300 SH3 domains, and 120 SH2 domains
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#biochem #biology #cell
more than two-thirds of all proteins consist of two or more domains, and that the same pairs of domains occur repeatedly in the same rela- tive arrangement in a protein
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#biochem #biology #cell
half of all domain families are common to archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes, only about 5% of the two-domain combi- nations are similarly shared.
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#biochem #biology #cell
most proteins containing especially useful two-domain combinations arose through domain shuffling rel- atively late in evolution
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#biochem #biology #cell
our chromosomes contain only about 21,000 protein-coding genes. Based on this number alone, we would appear to be no more complex than the tiny mustard weed, Arabidopsis, and only about 1.3-fold more complex than a nematode worm.
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#biochem #biology #cell
The genome sequences also reveal that vertebrates have inher- ited nearly all of their protein domains from invertebrates—with only 7% of iden- tified human domains being vertebrate-specific
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#biochem #biology #cell
In general, there is a tendency for the proteins in more complex organisms, such as humans, to contain additional domains
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#biochem #biology #cell
we currently lack even the tiniest hint of what the function might be for more than 10,000 of the proteins that have thus far been identified through examining the human genome
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#biochem #biology #cell
extra variety in our proteins greatly increases the range of protein–protein interactions possible (see Figure 3–79), but how it contributes to making us human is not known
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#biochem #biology #cell
combinations of protein domains, with the result that there are nearly twice as many combinations of domains found in human proteins as in a worm or a fly.
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