# on 20-Apr-2017 (Thu)

#### Flashcard 1429287603468

Tags
#means-of-communication #sister-miriam-joseph #special-or-common #symbols #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
[...] or words, such as French, German, Chinese, or Greek words, constitute the common languages.
Common symbols

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Common symbols or words, such as French, German, Chinese, or Greek words, constitute the common languages. A common language is one invented by the common people to meet all their needs of communicati

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#### Flashcard 1429358644492

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Metaphysics or ontology, the science of being, is concerned with [...], with the thing- as-it-exists.
reality

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Metaphysics or ontology, the science of being, is concerned with reality, with the thing- as-it-exists.

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#### Flashcard 1433108352268

Tags
#4-3-the-investment-opportunity-set #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-5-consumer-equilibrium #study-session-4

Question
It is important to note that this equilibrium point represents the tangency between the highest indifference curve and [...]
the budget constraint​

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#### Flashcard 1444554345740

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question
Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos ([...]) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente.
-s, -ita, -era

Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos.

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Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos (-s, -ita, -era) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente. Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos.

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La estructura interna de la palabra

#### Flashcard 1444598385932

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
Unless the firm is a pure [...], there is a difference between market demand and the demand facing an individual firm.
monopolist (i.e., the only seller in its market)

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Unless the firm is a pure monopolist (i.e., the only seller in its market), there is a difference between market demand and the demand facing an individual firm.

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
zation requires that we examine both of those components. Revenue comes from the demand for the firm’s products, and cost comes from the acquisition and utilization of the firm’s inputs in the production of those products. <span>3.1.1. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue This section briefly examines demand and revenue in preparation for addressing cost. Unless the firm is a pure monopolist (i.e., the only seller in its market), there is a difference between market demand and the demand facing an individual firm. A later reading will devote much more time to understanding the various competitive environments (perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly), known as market structure . To keep the analysis simple at this point, we will note that competition could be either perfect or imperfect. In perfect competition , the individual firm has virtually no impact on market price, because it is assumed to be a very small seller among a very large number of firms selling essentially identical products. Such a firm is called a price taker . In the second case, the firm does have at least some control over the price at which it sells its product because it must lower its price to sell more units. Exhibit 4 presents total, average, and marginal revenue data for a firm under the assumption that the firm is price taker at each relevant level of quantity of goods sold. Consequently, the individual seller faces a horizontal demand curve over relevant output ranges at the price level established by the market (see Exhibit 5). The seller can offer any quantity at this set market price without affecting price. In contrast, imperfect competition is where an individual firm has enough share of the market (or can control a certain segment of the market) and is therefore able to exert some influence over price. Instead of a large number of competing firms, imperfect competition involves a smaller number of firms in the market relative to perfect competition and in the extreme case only one firm (i.e., monopoly). Under any form of imperfect competition, the individual seller confronts a negatively sloped demand curve, where price and the quantity demanded by consumers are inversely related. In this case, price to the firm declines when a greater quantity is offered to the market; price to the firm increases when a lower quantity is offered to the market. This is shown in Exhibits 6 and 7. Exhibit 4. Total, Average, and Marginal Revenue under Perfect Competition Quantity Sold (Q) Price (P) Total Revenue (TR) Average Re

#### Flashcard 1446752685324

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question
In a competitive market in which price is constant to the individual firm regardless of the amount of output offered, [...] is equal to average revenue, where both are the same as the [...]
marginal revenue

market price
.

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
e change in quantity sold; it is simply the additional revenue from selling one more unit. For example, in Exhibit 4, MR at 4 units is 100 [calculated as (400 – 300) ÷ (4 – 3)]; at 9 units it is also 100 [calculated as (900 – 800) ÷ (9 – 8)]. <span>In a competitive market in which price is constant to the individual firm regardless of the amount of output offered, marginal revenue is equal to average revenue, where both are the same as the market price. Reviewing the revenue data in Exhibit 4, price, average revenue, and marginal revenue are all equal to 100. In the case of imperfect competition, MR declines with greater output and is

#### Flashcard 1448351239436

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4

Question
Total revenue increases with a greater quantity, but the rate of increase in TR (as measured by marginal revenue) declines as quantity increases.

Average revenue and marginal revenue decrease when output increases, with [...].

Average revenue is equal to price at each quantity level.
MR falling faster than price and AR

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TR, AR,MR under imperfect competition
Total revenue increases with a greater quantity, but the rate of increase in TR (as measured by marginal revenue) declines as quantity increases. Average revenue and marginal revenue decrease when output increases, with MR falling faster than price and AR. Average revenue is equal to price at each quantity level.<body><html>

#### Flashcard 1448401046796

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Question
In the post-audit process how may forecasts look when viewed in isolation ?

Wrong as fuck kid

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Independent versus mutually exclusive projects. Mutually exclusive projects are investments that compete in some way for a company's resources - a firm can select one or another but not both. Independent projects, on the other hand, do not compete for the firm's resources. A company can select one or the other or both, so long

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Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. <span>Some project interactions: Independent versus mutually exclusive projects. Mutually exclusive projects are investments that compete in some way for a company's resources - a firm can select one or another but not both. Independent projects, on the other hand, do not compete for the firm's resources. A company can select one or the other or both, so long as minimum profitability thresholds are met. Project sequencing. How does one sequence multiple projects over time, since investing in project B may depend on the result of investing in project A? Unlimited funds versus capital rationing. Capital rationing occurs when management places a constraint on the size of the firm's capital budget during a particular period. In such situations, capital is scarce and should be allocated to the projects most likely to maximize the firm's aggregate NPV. The firm's capital budget and cost of capital must be determined simultaneously to best allocate the firm's capital. On the other hand, a firm can raise the funds it wants for all profitable projects simply by paying the required rate of return. Learning Outcome Statements b. describe the basic principles of capital budgeting; c. explain how the evaluat

#### Flashcard 1448450854156

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept [...] certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility.
human being

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Lawyer and athlete are constructs, for their definition adds to the simple concept human being certain accidents such as knowledge of law or physical agility, which are essential to the definition of lawyer or of athlete although not essential to the definition of a construct.</s

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#### Flashcard 1532610350348

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
Define general true belief ("everyone believes P") for a KB-model. $$EbP:=...$$
$$\cap_{a\in A}B_aP$$ (The set of worlds in which $$B_aP$$ for all a)

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#### Flashcard 1532678769932

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
What are theories in the AGM-approach to belief revision?
Deductively closed sets of sentences (over some given language)

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#### Flashcard 1532681129228

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
The theory containing all sentences is...
⊥, the inconsistent theory

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#### Annotation 1532683488524

 #conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project In AGM-theory of belief revision, the expansion T + ϕ of a theory T with a sentence ϕ is defined as T + ϕ := {ψ : T ∪ {ϕ} $$\vdash$$ ψ}.

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#### Flashcard 1532686634252

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
In AGM-theory of belief revision, the expansion T + ϕ of a theory T with a sentence ϕ is defined as [...].
T + ϕ := {ψ : T ∪ {ϕ} $$\vdash$$ ψ}

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In AGM-theory of belief revision, the expansion T + ϕ of a theory T with a sentence ϕ is defined as T + ϕ := {ψ : T ∪ {ϕ} $$\vdash$$ ψ}.

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#### Flashcard 1532688207116

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
What's the "success" AGM-postulate for the belief revision operator *?
T ∗ ϕ = ⊥ iff $$\vdash$$ ¬ϕ

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#### Annotation 1532691352844

 AGM-axioms of Belief Revision #conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project (*1) T ∗ ϕ is a theory; (*2) ϕ ∈ T ∗ ϕ; (*3-4) if $$\vdash$$ ϕ then T ∗ ϕ = T ; (*5) T ∗ ϕ = ⊥ iff $$\vdash$$ ¬ϕ ; (*6) if $$\vdash$$ ϕ ↔ ψ then T ∗ ϕ = T ∗ ψ; (*7-8) if ¬ψ $$\notin$$ T ∗ ϕ then T ∗ (ϕ ∧ ψ) = (T ∗ ϕ) + ψ

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#### Annotation 1532694760716

 #conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project (*5e) T ∗ ϕ = ⊥ iff T $$\vdash$$ K¬ϕ (i.e. iff (K¬ϕ) ∈ T )

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#### Flashcard 1532697120012

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
What is the KB-Logic revision for the success postulate of AGM-theory T∗ϕ=⊥ iff $$\vdash$$$$\neg$$ϕ
(*5e) T ∗ ϕ = ⊥ iff T $$\vdash$$ K¬ϕ (i.e. iff (K¬ϕ) ∈ T )

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(*5e) T ∗ ϕ = ⊥ iff T $$\vdash$$ K¬ϕ (i.e. iff (K¬ϕ) ∈ T )

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#### Annotation 1532701052172

 Please check these keyboard shortcuts for Japanese IME. Keyboard shortcuts ALT-~ (tilde): Cycles between kana and direct input mode ALT-SHIFT: Cycles through available languages ALT-CAPS_LOCK: Switches to katakana input mode CTRL-CAPS_LOCK: Switches to hiragana input mode SHIFT-ALT: Switches between English mode and Japanese mode. Control - ~: Switches between the current input mode and the English mode within the Japanese IME. TIP: Switching between Hiragana input mode and Direct Input mode through the language bar is tedious. Instead you can switch by pressing Alt-Tilde (the key below ESC on your keyboard). So, if you need to type Japanese, press Alt-Tilde and start typing. When you are done press Alt-Tilde again to switch back to English. To achieve the same result when in Japanese mode, press Control - ~. Hope this answers your question

Japanese IME hiragana toggle keys? - Microsoft Community
010 Hey moronicus_lithog, <span>Please check these keyboard shortcuts for Japanese IME. Keyboard shortcuts ALT-~ (tilde): Cycles between kana and direct input mode ALT-SHIFT: Cycles through available languages ALT-CAPS_LOCK: Switches to katakana input mode CTRL-CAPS_LOCK: Switches to hiragana input mode SHIFT-ALT: Switches between English mode and Japanese mode. Control - ~: Switches between the current input mode and the English mode within the Japanese IME. TIP: Switching between Hiragana input mode and Direct Input mode through the language bar is tedious. Instead you can switch by pressing Alt-Tilde (the key below ESC on your keyboard). So, if you need to type Japanese, press Alt-Tilde and start typing. When you are done press Alt-Tilde again to switch back to English. To achieve the same result when in Japanese mode, press Control - ~. Hope this answers your question. Regards, Shinmila H - Microsoft Support Visit our Microsoft Answers Feedback Forum and let us know what you think. Be the first person to

#### Annotation 1532703411468

 #conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project So we formulate our revised multi-agent (epistemic) AGM pos tulates, by giving, for every agent a ∈ A: a family T a ⊆ P(BKL) of sets of sentences in the language BKL, called a-theories, and a belief revision operator ∗ a : T a × BKL → T a , taking pairs of a-theories and BKL-sentences into new a-theories; and requiring them to satisfy the following conditions: (T1) ⊥ ∈ T a (where ⊥ := BKL is the inconsistent theory, containing all the sentences in BKL); (T2) every T ∈ T a is deductively closed, w.r.t. the complete proof system of BKL; (T3) for every ϕ ∈ BKL and every T ∈ T a , we have either K a ϕ ∈ T or (¬K a ϕ) ∈ T ; (T4) all the above postulates of epistemic AGM, in which we label with agent names both the knowledge K a and the revision ∗ a operators. Observe that it is not necessary to require an introspective condition corresponding to (T3) for belief, since this follows from the above conditions, given the axioms of BKL. Indeed, one can easily prove that for every ϕ ∈ BKL and every T ∈ T a , we have either B a ϕ ∈ T or (¬B a ϕ) ∈ T

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#### Annotation 1532704984332

 #conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project each S-theory T ⊆ S gives rise to a syntactic theory th(T ) = {φ ∈ BKL : t |= S φ for all t ∈ T }.

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#### Flashcard 1532707343628

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
How do the syntactic and the semantic notion of a theory relate in epistemic AGM theory?
each S-theory T ⊆ S gives rise to a syntactic theory th(T ) = {φ ∈ BKL : t |= S φ for all t ∈ T }.

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each S-theory T ⊆ S gives rise to a syntactic theory th(T ) = {φ ∈ BKL : t |= S φ for all t ∈ T }.

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#### Flashcard 1532710489356

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
How does the partial order on S-Theories translate to syntactic theories in epistemic KBL AGM models?
For S -theories T , T' ⊆ S we have T ⊆ T' iff th ( T' ) ⊆ th ( T ).

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#### Flashcard 1532712848652

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#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
How is expansion T + P defined in semantic terms in a BKL AGM model?
Expansion T + P of a semantic theory T ⊆ S with a semantic proposition P ⊆ S is given b y the intersection T ∩ P

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#### Flashcard 1532715470092

Tags
#conditional-doxastic-models #doxastic-logic #logic-of-conditional-beliefs #private-announcements #public-announcements #serious-possibility-paradox-project
Question
Seman tic V ersion of Epistemic AGM P ostulates . Giv en a K B -mo del S , an AGM b elief r evision the ory for S is defined by giving, for each agent a , a family of S -theories T a ⊆ P ( S ), called a -the ories over S , and an op eration ∗ a : T a × P ( S ) → T a , such that for all T ∈ T a , P ⊆ S , we hav e: