# on 11-May-2017 (Thu)

#### Flashcard 1481616264460

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #doubtful-accounts #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Question
Is direct write off method consistent with generally accepted accounting principles?
No

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ell on credit to that customer.) One possible approach to recognizing credit losses on customer receivables would be for the company to wait until such time as a customer defaulted and only then recognize the loss ( direct write-off method ). <span>Such an approach would usually not be consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. Under the matching principle, at the time revenue is recognized on a sale, a company is required to record an estimate of how much of the revenue will ultimately be uncolle

#### Original toplevel document

4.2. Issues in Expense Recognition
4.2.1. Doubtful Accounts When a company sells its products or services on credit, it is likely that some customers will ultimately default on their obligations (i.e., fail to pay). At the time of the sale, it is not known which customer will default. (If it were known that a particular customer would ultimately default, presumably a company would not sell on credit to that customer.) One possible approach to recognizing credit losses on customer receivables would be for the company to wait until such time as a customer defaulted and only then recognize the loss ( direct write-off method ). Such an approach would usually not be consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. Under the matching principle, at the time revenue is recognized on a sale, a company is required to record an estimate of how much of the revenue will ultimately be uncollectible. Companies make such estimates based on previous experience with uncollectible accounts. Such estimates may be expressed as a proportion of the overall amount of sales, the overall amount of receivables, or the amount of receivables overdue by a specific amount of time. The company records its estimate of uncollectible amounts as an expense on the income statement, not as a direct reduction of revenues. 4.2.2. Warranties At times, companies offer warranties on the products they sell. If the product proves deficient in some respect that is covered

#### Flashcard 1481624915212

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #doubtful-accounts #expense-recognition #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Question
The company records its estimate of uncollectible amounts as an [...] on the income statement, not as a direct [...].
expense

reduction of revenues

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es based on previous experience with uncollectible accounts. Such estimates may be expressed as a proportion of the overall amount of sales, the overall amount of receivables, or the amount of receivables overdue by a specific amount of time. <span>The company records its estimate of uncollectible amounts as an expense on the income statement, not as a direct reduction of revenues. <span><body><html>

#### Original toplevel document

4.2. Issues in Expense Recognition
4.2.1. Doubtful Accounts When a company sells its products or services on credit, it is likely that some customers will ultimately default on their obligations (i.e., fail to pay). At the time of the sale, it is not known which customer will default. (If it were known that a particular customer would ultimately default, presumably a company would not sell on credit to that customer.) One possible approach to recognizing credit losses on customer receivables would be for the company to wait until such time as a customer defaulted and only then recognize the loss ( direct write-off method ). Such an approach would usually not be consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. Under the matching principle, at the time revenue is recognized on a sale, a company is required to record an estimate of how much of the revenue will ultimately be uncollectible. Companies make such estimates based on previous experience with uncollectible accounts. Such estimates may be expressed as a proportion of the overall amount of sales, the overall amount of receivables, or the amount of receivables overdue by a specific amount of time. The company records its estimate of uncollectible amounts as an expense on the income statement, not as a direct reduction of revenues. 4.2.2. Warranties At times, companies offer warranties on the products they sell. If the product proves deficient in some respect that is covered

#### Flashcard 1481662401804

Tags
Question
IFRS allow two alternative models for valuing property, plant, and equipment: [...] model and the [...] model.
the cost model

revaluation model

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acquired copyright with a set legal life. The term “amortisation” is also commonly applied to the systematic allocation of a premium or discount relative to the face value of a fixed-income security over the life of the security. <span>IFRS allow two alternative models for valuing property, plant, and equipment: the cost model and the revaluation model.33 Under the cost model, the depreciable amount of that asset (cost less residual value) is allocated on a systematic basis over the remaining useful life of the asset. Under the cost mo

#### Original toplevel document

4.2. Issues in Expense Recognition
the amount of future expenses resulting from its warranties, to recognize an estimated warranty expense in the period of the sale, and to update the expense as indicated by experience over the life of the warranty. <span>4.2.3. Depreciation and Amortisation Companies commonly incur costs to obtain long-lived assets. Long-lived assets are assets expected to provide economic benefits over a future period of time greater than one year. Examples are land (property), plant, equipment, and intangible assets (assets lacking physical substance) such as trademarks. The costs of most long-lived assets are allocated over the period of time during which they provide economic benefits. The two main types of long-lived assets whose costs are not allocated over time are land and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Depreciation is the process of systematically allocating costs of long-lived assets over the period during which the assets are expected to provide economic benefits. “Depreciation” is the term commonly applied to this process for physical long-lived assets such as plant and equipment (land is not depreciated), and amortisation is the term commonly applied to this process for intangible long-lived assets with a finite useful life.32 Examples of intangible long-lived assets with a finite useful life include an acquired mailing list, an acquired patent with a set expiration date, and an acquired copyright with a set legal life. The term “amortisation” is also commonly applied to the systematic allocation of a premium or discount relative to the face value of a fixed-income security over the life of the security. IFRS allow two alternative models for valuing property, plant, and equipment: the cost model and the revaluation model.33 Under the cost model, the depreciable amount of that asset (cost less residual value) is allocated on a systematic basis over the remaining useful life of the asset. Under the cost model, the asset is reported at its cost less any accumulated depreciation. Under the revaluation model, the asset is reported at its fair value. The revaluation model is not permitted under US GAAP. Here, we will focus only on the cost model. There are two other differences between IFRS and US GAAP to note: IFRS require each component of an asset to be depreciated separately and US GAAP do not require component depreciation; and IFRS require an annual review of residual value and useful life, and US GAAP do not explicitly require such a review. The method used to compute depreciation should reflect the pattern over which the economic benefits of the asset are expected to be consumed. IFRS do not prescribe a particular method for computing depreciation but note that several methods are commonly used, such as the straight-line method, diminishing balance method (accelerated depreciation), and the units of production method (depreciation varies depending upon production or usage). The straight-line method allocates evenly the cost of long-lived assets less estimated residual value over the estimated useful life of an asset. (The term “straight line” derives from the fact that the annual depreciation expense, if represented as a line graph over time, would be a straight line. In addition, a plot of the cost of the asset minus the cumulative amount of annual depreciation expense, if represented as a line graph over time, would be a straight line with a negative downward slope.) Calculating depreciation and amortisation requires two significant estimates: the estimated useful life of an asset and the estimated residual value (also known as “salvage value”) of an asset. Under IFRS, the residual value is the amount that the company expects to receive upon sale of the asset at the end of its useful life. Example 9 assumes that an item of equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method and illustrates how the annual depreciation expense varies under different estimates of the useful life and estimated residual value of an asset. As shown, annual depreciation expense is sensitive to both the estimated useful life and to the estimated residual value. <span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1481671838988

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Question
The [...] of depreciation is not permitted under US GAAP.
revaluation model

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) is allocated on a systematic basis over the remaining useful life of the asset. Under the cost model, the asset is reported at its cost less any accumulated depreciation. Under the revaluation model, the asset is reported at its fair value. <span>The revaluation model is not permitted under US GAAP. Here, we will focus only on the cost model. There are two other differences between IFRS and US GAAP to note: IFRS require each component of an asset to be depreciated separately and US

#### Original toplevel document

4.2. Issues in Expense Recognition
the amount of future expenses resulting from its warranties, to recognize an estimated warranty expense in the period of the sale, and to update the expense as indicated by experience over the life of the warranty. <span>4.2.3. Depreciation and Amortisation Companies commonly incur costs to obtain long-lived assets. Long-lived assets are assets expected to provide economic benefits over a future period of time greater than one year. Examples are land (property), plant, equipment, and intangible assets (assets lacking physical substance) such as trademarks. The costs of most long-lived assets are allocated over the period of time during which they provide economic benefits. The two main types of long-lived assets whose costs are not allocated over time are land and those intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Depreciation is the process of systematically allocating costs of long-lived assets over the period during which the assets are expected to provide economic benefits. “Depreciation” is the term commonly applied to this process for physical long-lived assets such as plant and equipment (land is not depreciated), and amortisation is the term commonly applied to this process for intangible long-lived assets with a finite useful life.32 Examples of intangible long-lived assets with a finite useful life include an acquired mailing list, an acquired patent with a set expiration date, and an acquired copyright with a set legal life. The term “amortisation” is also commonly applied to the systematic allocation of a premium or discount relative to the face value of a fixed-income security over the life of the security. IFRS allow two alternative models for valuing property, plant, and equipment: the cost model and the revaluation model.33 Under the cost model, the depreciable amount of that asset (cost less residual value) is allocated on a systematic basis over the remaining useful life of the asset. Under the cost model, the asset is reported at its cost less any accumulated depreciation. Under the revaluation model, the asset is reported at its fair value. The revaluation model is not permitted under US GAAP. Here, we will focus only on the cost model. There are two other differences between IFRS and US GAAP to note: IFRS require each component of an asset to be depreciated separately and US GAAP do not require component depreciation; and IFRS require an annual review of residual value and useful life, and US GAAP do not explicitly require such a review. The method used to compute depreciation should reflect the pattern over which the economic benefits of the asset are expected to be consumed. IFRS do not prescribe a particular method for computing depreciation but note that several methods are commonly used, such as the straight-line method, diminishing balance method (accelerated depreciation), and the units of production method (depreciation varies depending upon production or usage). The straight-line method allocates evenly the cost of long-lived assets less estimated residual value over the estimated useful life of an asset. (The term “straight line” derives from the fact that the annual depreciation expense, if represented as a line graph over time, would be a straight line. In addition, a plot of the cost of the asset minus the cumulative amount of annual depreciation expense, if represented as a line graph over time, would be a straight line with a negative downward slope.) Calculating depreciation and amortisation requires two significant estimates: the estimated useful life of an asset and the estimated residual value (also known as “salvage value”) of an asset. Under IFRS, the residual value is the amount that the company expects to receive upon sale of the asset at the end of its useful life. Example 9 assumes that an item of equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method and illustrates how the annual depreciation expense varies under different estimates of the useful life and estimated residual value of an asset. As shown, annual depreciation expense is sensitive to both the estimated useful life and to the estimated residual value. <span><body><html>

#### Annotation 1601764723980

 On Tuesday, U.S. President Donald Trump dismissed James Comey from his position as head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Officially, Comey was fired for mishandlingformer presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's alleged misuse of private email servers, but Senate Democrats and the ACLU have raised concerns over whether the real reason may have been that Comey was leading the investigation into the Trump campaign's alleged ties to Russia and possible tampering with the election that placed Trump in high office.

Wikinews, the free news source
• Newsroom • Mission statement • Report breaking news • Donate Audio Wikinews • Social networking • Chat • Best of Wikinews [imagelink] President Trump fires FBI Director James Comey, raising questions about Russia investigation <span>On Tuesday, U.S. President Donald Trump dismissed James Comey from his position as head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Officially, Comey was fired for mishandlingformer presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's alleged misuse of private email servers, but Senate Democrats and the ACLU have raised concerns over whether the real reason may have been that Comey was leading the investigation into the Trump campaign's alleged ties to Russia and possible tampering with the election that placed Trump in high office. [ML] [ ± ] - Image credit - Read more... Latest news [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] ± President Trump fires FBI Director James Comey, raising qu

#### Flashcard 1601766821132

Question
On Tuesday, U.S. President Donald Trump dismissed [...] from his position as head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Officially, Comey was fired for mishandlingformer presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's alleged misuse of private email servers, but Senate Democrats and the ACLU have raised concerns over whether the real reason may have been that Comey was leading the investigation into the Trump campaign's alleged ties to Russia and possible tampering with the election that placed Trump in high office.
James Comey

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Wikinews, the free news source
• Newsroom • Mission statement • Report breaking news • Donate Audio Wikinews • Social networking • Chat • Best of Wikinews [imagelink] President Trump fires FBI Director James Comey, raising questions about Russia investigation <span>On Tuesday, U.S. President Donald Trump dismissed James Comey from his position as head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Officially, Comey was fired for mishandlingformer presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's alleged misuse of private email servers, but Senate Democrats and the ACLU have raised concerns over whether the real reason may have been that Comey was leading the investigation into the Trump campaign's alleged ties to Russia and possible tampering with the election that placed Trump in high office. [ML] [ ± ] - Image credit - Read more... Latest news [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] [imagelink] ± President Trump fires FBI Director James Comey, raising qu

#### Flashcard 1601771801868

Question
On Sunday, En Marche! candidate [...] won the second round 2017 French Presidential election, winning about [...] percent of the votes, defeating Front national 's Marine Le Pen with the final result declared yesterday. Winning the race with a significant vote difference, Marcon tweeted, "Everyone told us that it was impossible. But they did not know France!"
Emmanuel Macron 66%

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Emmanuel Macron wins French presidential election race - Wikinews, the free news source
omb kills at least 50 in Gao, Mali 15 December 2016: UEFA Champions League 2016-2017: Draw for Last 16 held at Nyon Location of France [imagelink] Collaborate! Pillars of Wikinews writing Writing an article [imagelink] <span>On Sunday, En Marche! candidate Emmanuel Macron won the second round 2017 French Presidential election, winning about 66.1 percent of the votes, defeating Front national's Marine Le Pen with the final result declared yesterday. Winning the race with a significant vote difference, Marcon tweeted, "Everyone told us that it was impossible. But they did not know France!" ((fr)) French language: Tout le monde nous disait que c’était impossible. Mais ils ne connaissaient pas la France ! [imagelink] Distribution of votes. Yellow represents En March

#### Annotation 1601790151948

 The Senate is barreling toward one of the most highly-charged confirmation battles yet over who will replace axed FBI Director James Comey.

Partisan brawl shaping up on Comey replacement - POLITICO
<span>The Senate is barreling toward one of the most highly-charged confirmation battles yet over who will replace axed FBI Director James Comey. Democrats are increasingly demanding the confirmation of Comey’s successor be put on pause until a special prosecutor is appointed to oversee the federal probe into possible collusio

#### Annotation 1601838910732

 It would be very interesting to apply our framework to Condorcet-based rules.

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#### Annotation 1601840483596

 Plurality score The Plurality score of a candidate c is the number of votes where c is ranked first.

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#### Annotation 1601842056460

 Single transferable vote (STV) STV is a multistage elimination rule that works as follows. In each stage, if there is a candidate c whose Plurality score is at least q = V k+1 +1 (the so-called Droop quota), we do the following: (a) include c in the winning committee, (b) delete q votes where c is ranked first, so that each of these votes is ‘transferred’ to the candidate currently ranked right after c, and (c) remove c from all the remaining votes. If each candidate’s Plurality score is less than q, a candidate with the lowest Plurality score is deleted from all votes. We repeat this process until k candidates are selected. Note that parallel-universes tie-breaking requires us to consider all possible ways to select a candidate among those whose score meets or exceeds the quota, to identify q votes to be deleted among those where this candidate is ranked first (note that this determines the ‘transfers’, i.e., how many extra votes will be gained by each surviving candidate), and to pick a candidate to be eliminated among those with the lowest score; a committee wins under STV if it can be obtained by the procedure described above for some sequence of such choices. There are also many other variants of STV; we point the reader to the work of Tideman and Richardson (2000) for details. In particular, the reader can verify that all results in our paper continue to hold if we require that the number of the ‘extra’ votes of a selected candidate c that are transferred to another candidate a is proportional to the number of votes of the form c a ··· at the respective stage.

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#### Annotation 1601845726476

 Single nontransferable vote (SNTV) SNTV returns k candidates with the highest Plurality scores (thus one can think of SNTV as simply k-Plurality).

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#### Annotation 1601847299340

 Nonimposition For each set of candidates C and each k-element subset W of C, there is an election E = (C, V ) such that R(E, k) ={W }. The next three axioms—consistency, homogeneity, and monotonicity—are adapted from the single-winner setting. For the first two, the adaptation is straightforward. Consistency For every pair of elections E 1 = (C, V 1 ), E 2 = (C, V 2 ) over a candidate set C and each k ∈[ C ],ifR(E 1 , k) ∩ R(E 2 , k) =∅then R(E 1 + E 2 , k) = R(E 1 , k) ∩ R(E 2 , k). Homogeneity For every election E = (C, V ), each k ∈[ C ], and each t ∈ N it holds that R(tE, k) = R(E, k).

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#### Flashcard 1601894747404

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
Always get someone to [...] about their previous actions in the direction you want.
speak out loud

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Always get someone to speak out loud about their previous actions in the direction you want.

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#### Flashcard 1601897106700

Tags
#consensus-recommendation #multiwinner-elections #social-choice
Question
What is the Plurality score of a candidate c?
The Plurality score of a candidate c is the number of votes where c is ranked first.

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#### Flashcard 1601902087436

Tags
#consensus-recommendation #multiwinner-election #social-choice
Question
What's the t -approval score of a candidate c?
Let t be a positive integer. The t-approval score of a candidate c is the number of votes where c is ranked in top t positions

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#### Flashcard 1601903136012

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
If someone makes a joke at your expense, simply agree with them and [...]
really exaggerate it

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If someone makes a joke at your expense, simply agree with them and exaggerate it to the 10 th degree.

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#### Flashcard 1601906806028

Tags
#consensus-recommendation #multiwinner-election #social-choice
Question
What is the Borda score of a candidate?
Let v be a vote in an election (C, V ). The Borda score that candidate c ∈ C receives from v is |C| −pos v (c).The Borda score of c in (C, V ) is the sum of c’s Borda scores from all votes in V .

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#### Flashcard 1601910213900

Tags
#consensus-recommendation #multiwinner-election #social-choice
Question
In multiwinner elections, what is parallel-universes tie-breaking?
The voting rule returns all the committees that could result from breaking the ties that arise during the (repeated) application of the rule.

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#### Flashcard 1601912573196

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
Simply by reminding someone that [...], will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action.
they have acted a certain way

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Simply by reminding someone that they have acted a certain way in the past, will start to cement their minds onto that track of thought and action.

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#### Flashcard 1601914932492

Question
How does Single transferable vote (STV) work in multiwinner elections?
STV is a multistage elimination rule that works as follows. In each stage, if there is a candidate c whose Plurality score is at least $$q=\frac{|V|}{k+1}+1$$ (the so-called Droop quota), we do the following: (a) include c in the winning committee, (b) delete q votes where c is ranked first, so that each of these votes is ‘transferred’ to the candidate currently ranked right after c, and (c) remove c from all the remaining votes. If each candidate’s Plurality score is less than q, a candidate with the lowest Plurality score is deleted from all votes.

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#### Flashcard 1601916767500

Question
Single nontransferable vote (SNTV)
Single nontransferable vote (SNTV)

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#### Flashcard 1601917816076

Question
What is Single Nontransferable Vote in Multiwinner elections?
Single nontransferable vote (SNTV) SNTV returns k candidates with the highest Plurality scores (thus one can think of SNTV as simply k-Plurality).

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Single nontransferable vote (SNTV) SNTV returns k candidates with the highest Plurality scores (thus one can think of SNTV as simply k-Plurality).

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

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#### Flashcard 1601920175372

Question
Bloc
Bloc returns k candidates with the highest k-approval scores.

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#### Flashcard 1601921223948

Question
k-Borda
k-Borda returns k candidates with the highest Borda scores.

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#### Annotation 1601922272524

 Monotonicity For every election E = (C, V ), each c ∈ C, and each k ∈[ C ],if c ∈ W for some W ∈ R(E, k), then for every E obtained from E by shifting c one position forward in some vote v it holds that: (1) for candidate monotonicity: c ∈ W for some W ∈ R(E , k), and (2) for non-crossing monotonicity:ifc was rankedimmediately below some b /∈ W , then W ∈ R(E , k)

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#### Annotation 1601923845388

 Committee monotonicity For every election E = (C, V ) the following conditions hold: (1) for each k ∈[ C −1],ifW ∈ R(E, k) then there exists a W ∈ R(E, k + 1) such that W ⊆ W ; (2) for each k ∈[ C −1],ifW ∈ R(E, k + 1) then there exists a W ∈ R(E, k) such that W ⊆ W

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#### Annotation 1601925418252

 olid coalitions For every election E = (C, V ) and each k ∈[ C ],ifatleast V k voters rank some candidate c first then c belongs to every committee in R(E, k). Consensus committee For every election E = (C, V ) and each k ∈[ C ], if there is a k-element set W , W ⊆ C, such that each voter ranks some member of W first and each member of W is ranked first by either V k or V k voters then R(E, k) ={W }. Unanimity For every election E = (C, V ) and each k ∈[ C ], if each voter ranks the same k candidates W on top (possibly in different order), then R(E, k) ={W } (strong unanimity) or W ∈ R(E, k) (weak unanimity)

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#### Annotation 1601926991116

 Fixed majority For every election E = (C, V ) and each k ∈[ C ],ifthereisa k-element set W , W ⊆ C, such that a strict majority of voters rank all members of W above all non-members of W , then R(E, k) ={W }.

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#### Annotation 1601928563980

 able 1 Summary of results Rule Committee Solid Consensus Unanimity Monotonicity Homogeneity Consistency Monotonicity Coalitions Committee STV × √ ( ) √ ( ) Strong × √ (♥) × SNTV √√√ Weak C+NC √√ Bloc ×××Fix maj. C+NC √√ k-Borda √ ×× Strong C+NC √√ 1 -CC ×× √ Weak C √√ min -CC ×× √ Weak C √ × Greedy-CC √ ×× Weak × √ × 1 -Monroe ×× √ Strong × √ (♣) × min -Monroe ×× √ Strong × √ (♣) × Greedy-Monroe × √√ Strong × √ (♠)

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#### Annotation 1601931709708

Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions

#### Annotation 1601980206348

 To our knowledge, no studies have been devoted to naqa'id poetry in the Umayyad era in European languages, except for the entry by G.J.H. van Gelder in the Encyclopaedia of Islarn as wellvas the brief, but profound, sub-chapter written by Salma Jayyusi on this issue.

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#### Annotation 1601993575692

 and that some women are closer to our ideal than others. But the problem is that there’s no endpoint. There is no 100% perfect girl out there for you or for any of us, and there never will be. If there’s one thing I’ve learned from the unreasonable amount of women I’ve been involved with, it’s that you’re never going to find “the complete package.” It doesn’t exist. The most beautiful girls have annoying ticks, the smartest girls have emotional problems, the sweetest and most caring women have bad personal habits. People are flawed. Accept it. What’s going to determine the success of a relationship is not how good the 85% perfection is, or even how much perfection there is, but it’s in how you deal with the 15% imperfection togethe

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#### Annotation 1601995148556

 ut let’s start with the first one: this idea that there’s a potentially “perfect girl” out there waiting for all of us. This is a common romantic fantasy that’s as old as love stories themselves. But I’ve actually found that men who have a history within the pick up artist movement struggle with this even more than average. In the PUA movement, it’s hammered into our brains that our emotional and romantic lives are quantifiable and skill-based goals that can be measured and achieved. There are “better” and “better” women out there, and striving to attain the closest version of your ideal woman is very much the yardstick of success and improvement. This isn’t to say that there isn’t some truth to the idea that some women are “better” romantic fits for us than others, [emptylink] [emptylink] [emptylink] [emptylink] [emptylink] [emptylink] [emptylink]