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Flashcard 149468938

Question
How many species of living insects have been described?
Answer
more than a million!


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Insect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. They are among the most diverse groups of animals on the planet, <span>including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms.[2][3] The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million,[2][4][5] and potentially represent over 90







Flashcard 1438519004428

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-2-basic-principles-of-capital-budgeting
Question

Which of the following is not a relevant cash flow for evaluating a new project?

A. An increase in accounts payable from initial orders placed with suppliers

B. An increase in cash balances to cover start-up costs

C. Interest expense on funds borrowed to finance the project

D. Increased wear and tear on previously purchased assembly equipment

Answer
Correct Answer: C

Financing costs such as interest payments are not explicitly included since they are implicitly included in the firm's cost of capital.


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ties create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are <span>a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. &#13

Original toplevel document

Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
d in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. <span>Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they should not be included in the capital budgeting analysis. For example, a small bookstore is considering opening a coffee shop within its store, which will generate an annual net cash outflow of $10,000 from selling coffee. That is, the coffee shop will always be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent $5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the $5,000 is spent. Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project. Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the bookstore example, the space to be occupied by the coffee shop is an opportunity cost - it could be used to sell books and generate a $5,000 annual net cash inflow. Externalities are the effects of a project on cash flows in other parts of a firm. Although they are difficult to quantify, they should be considered. Externalities can be either positive or negative: Positive externalities create benefits for other parts of the firm. For example, the coffee shop may generate some additional customers for the bookstore (who otherwise may not buy books there). Future cash flows generated by positive externalities occur with the project and do not occur without the project, so they are incremental. Negative externalities create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. Future cash flows represented by negative externalities occur regardless of the project, so they are non-incremental. Such cash flows represent a transfer from existing projects to new projects, and thus should be subtracted from the new projects' cash flows. Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows. A conventional cash flow pattern is one with an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. Some project interactions: Indepe







Flashcard 1438869753100

Tags
#algebra-baldor
Question
Los signos empleados en Algebra son de tres clases: Signos de Operación, [...] y Signos de Agrupación.
Answer
Signos de Relación


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Los signos empleados en Algebra son de tres clases: Signos de Ope ración, Signos de Relación y Signos de Agrupación.

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Flashcard 1439158635788

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
The NPV and IRR methods will usually lead to [...] decisions.
Answer
the same accept or reject

But not always


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The NPV and IRR methods will usually lead to the same accept or reject decisions.

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Subject 3. Investment Decision Criteria
ject's NPV to equal zero. Note that this formula is simply the NPV formula solved for the particular discount rate that forces the NPV to equal zero. The IRR on a project is its expected rate of return. <span>The NPV and IRR methods will usually lead to the same accept or reject decisions. Decision rules: The higher the IRR, the better. Define the hurdle rate, which typically is the cost of capital. Reject if IRR is less than or equal to the hurd







Flashcard 1439718313228

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #microeconomics #reading-16-the-firm-and-market-structures #study-session-4
Question

An understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s [...] and its potential to increase profitability.

Answer
pricing of its products


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erstanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s <span>pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it

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1. INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market struc







Flashcard 1477979278604

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-23-financial-reporting-mechanics
Question
In the cashflow statement [...] refers to the operating cash section appearing simply as operating cash receipts less operating cash disbursements.
Answer


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In the cashflow statement direct format , which refers to the operating cash section appearing simply as operating cash receipts less operating cash disbursements. An alternative format for the operating cash section, which b







Flashcard 1613890456844

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #understanding-cashflow-statements
Question
Investments in joint ventures and affiliates and long-term investments in securities are [...] activities
Answer
Investing Activities


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Subject 1. Classification of Cash Flows and Non-Cash Activities
ent. In general, these items relate to the long-term asset items on the balance sheet. Investing cash flows reflect how a company plans its expansions. Examples are: Sale or purchase of property, plant and equipment. <span>Investments in joint ventures and affiliates and long-term investments in securities. Loans to other entities or collection of loans from other entities. Financing Activities These involve liability and owner's equity items, and include: &







Flashcard 1615945141516

Question
Net income differs from net operating cash flows because [...] enter into the determination of net income, but the related cash flows are classified as investing or financing activities, not operating activities.
Answer
non-operating gains and losses


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Subject 2. Preparing the Cash Flow Statement
which require no cash outlays, reduce net income but do not affect net cash flows. Another reason is the many timing differences existing between the recognition of revenue and expense and the occurrence of the underlying cash flows. Finally, <span>non-operating gains and losses enter into the determination of net income, but the related cash flows are classified as investing or financing activities, not operating activities. There are two methods of converting the income statement from an accrual basis to a cash basis. Companies can use either the direct or the indirect method for reporting the







A recent report by the Modern Language Association (MLA) calls this abil ity to understand another culture on its own terms "translingual and transcultural competence" and suggests it should be the goal of every college foreign language major.

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The available critical perspective on the modernist project establishes metapoesis as only applicable to a "modem" Arabic literary movement, where "modem" is understood in terms of time as "recent." I would like to depart from this prevalent critical perspective to argue for a deeper understanding and examination of the metapoesis of the Abbasid mufldathun (modernizers), where the term "modem" should be understood as a literary term, rather than an historical one.

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Flashcard 1616896724236

[unknown IMAGE 1616898034956]
Tags
#2 #brain #chapter #chapter2 #has-images #parts #pp #psychprep
Question
Major Brain Sections


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Flashcard 1616901704972

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Flashcard 1616905374988

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Flashcard 1616909045004

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Flashcard 1616912715020

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Flashcard 1616918744332

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Flashcard 1616933948684

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Flashcard 1616937880844

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Flashcard 1616941550860

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Flashcard 1616945220876

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Flashcard 1616945745164

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Flashcard 1616946269452

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Flashcard 1616957017356

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Flashcard 1616958852364

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro
Question
An [...] makes analysis of the financial statements easy: Do not bother analyzing these statements, because the company’s financial statements cannot be relied on.
Answer
adverse opinion


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An adverse opinion makes analysis of the financial statements easy: Do not bother analyzing these statements, because the company’s financial statements cannot be relied on.

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3.1.7. Auditor’s Reports
aragraphs so that the analyst can determine the importance of the exception. An adverse audit opinion is issued when an auditor determines that the financial statements materially depart from accounting standards and are not fairly presented. <span>An adverse opinion makes analysis of the financial statements easy: Do not bother analyzing these statements, because the company’s financial statements cannot be relied on. Finally, a disclaimer of opinion occurs when, for some reason, such as a scope limitation, the auditors are unable to issue an opinion. Exhibit 10 presents the independent auditor’s rep