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Flashcard 1425569877260

Tags
#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
The theory of the firm focuses on the supply of goods and services by [...].
Answer
profit-maximizing firms


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Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation.

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Study Session 4
quantities. Reading 14 covers the theory of the consumer, which addresses the demand for goods and services by individuals who make decisions to maximize the satisfaction they receive from present and future consumption. <span>Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools fo







Flashcard 1431662628108

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question

Tom Warren currently has 50 blueberries and 20 peanuts. His marginal rate of substitution of peanuts for blueberries, MRSpb equals 4, and his indifference curves are strictly convex.

Would Warren would be willing to trade at the rate of 3 of his blueberries in exchange for 1 more peanut?

Answer

MRSpb = 4 He would be willing to give up 4 blueberries for 1 peanut, at that point.

He would be willing to give up blueberries at a rate less than that, namely, 3-to-1.


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f peanuts for blueberries, MRS pb equals 4, and his indifference curves are strictly convex. Determine whether Warren would be willing to trade at the rate of 3 of his blueberries in exchange for 1 more peanut. ​ <span>Solution MRS pb = 4 means that Warren would be willing to give up 4 blueberries for 1 peanut, at that point. He clearly would be willing to give up blueberries at a rate less than that, namely, 3-to-1. <span><body><html>

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
t MRS BW must diminish as he moves toward more bread and less wine—the MRS BW is continuously changing as he moves along his indifference curve. EXAMPLE 2 Understanding the Marginal Rate of Substitution <span>Tom Warren currently has 50 blueberries and 20 peanuts. His marginal rate of substitution of peanuts for blueberries, MRS pb equals 4, and his indifference curves are strictly convex. Determine whether Warren would be willing to trade at the rate of 3 of his blueberries in exchange for 1 more peanut. Suppose that Warren is indifferent between his current bundle and one containing 40 blueberries and 25 peanuts. Describe Warren’s MRS pb evaluated at the new bundle. &#







Flashcard 1432956046604

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is the genus or class to which man, rabbit, horse, oyster, and every other species of [...] belong because the essence or nature of [...] is the same in all of them.
Answer
Animal


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Animal is the genus or class to which man, rabbit, horse, oyster, and every other species of animal belong because the essence or nature of animal is the same in all of them.

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Flashcard 1442125843724

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #factors-that-determine-market-structures #microeconomics #reading-16-the-firm-and-market-structures #section-2-analysis-of-mkt-structures #study-session-4
Question
non-price competition may occur because the few firms in the market feel [...].
Answer
dependent on each other

Each firm fears retaliatory price changes that would reduce total revenue for all of the firms in the market. Therefore, non-price competition becomes a dominant strategy.


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non-price competition may occur because the few firms in the market feel dependent on each other. Each firm fears retaliatory price changes that would reduce total revenue for all of the firms in the market. Because oligopoly industries have so few firms, each firm feels dependent

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2. ANALYSIS OF MARKET STRUCTURES
d monopoly is the local electrical power provider. In most cases, the monopoly power provider is allowed to earn a normal return on its investment and prices are set by the regulatory authority to allow that return. <span>2.2. Factors That Determine Market Structure Five factors determine market structure: The number and relative size of firms supplying the product; The degree of product differentiation; The power of the seller over pricing decisions; The relative strength of the barriers to market entry and exit; and The degree of non-price competition. The number and relative size of firms in a market influence market structure. If there are many firms, the degree of competition increases. With fewer firms supplying a good or service, consumers are limited in their market choices. One extreme case is the monopoly market structure, with only one firm supplying a unique good or service. Another extreme is perfect competition, with many firms supplying a similar product. Finally, an example of relative size is the automobile industry, in which a small number of large international producers (e.g., Ford and Toyota) are the leaders in the global market, and a number of small companies either have market power because they are niche players (e.g., Ferrari) or have little market power because of their narrow range of models or limited geographical presence (e.g., Škoda). In the case of monopolistic competition, there are many firms providing products to the market, as with perfect competition. However, one firm’s product is differentiated in some way that makes it appear better than similar products from other firms. If a firm is successful in differentiating its product, the differentiation will provide pricing leverage. The more dissimilar the product appears, the more the market will resemble the monopoly market structure. A firm can differentiate its product through aggressive advertising campaigns; frequent styling changes; the linking of its product with other, complementary products; or a host of other methods. When the market dictates the price based on aggregate supply and demand conditions, the individual firm has no control over pricing. The typical hog farmer in Nebraska and the milk producer in Bavaria are price takers . That is, they must accept whatever price the market dictates. This is the case under the market structure of perfect competition. In the case of monopolistic competition, the success of product differentiation determines the degree with which the firm can influence price. In the case of oligopoly, there are so few firms in the market that price control becomes possible. However, the small number of firms in an oligopoly market invites complex pricing strategies. Collusion, price leadership by dominant firms, and other pricing strategies can result. The degree to which one market structure can evolve into another and the difference between potential short-run outcomes and long-run equilibrium conditions depend on the strength of the barriers to entry and the possibility that firms fail to recoup their original costs or lose money for an extended period of time and are therefore forced to exit the market. Barriers to entry can result from very large capital investment requirements, as in the case of petroleum refining. Barriers may also result from patents, as in the case of some electronic products and drug formulas. Another entry consideration is the possibility of high exit costs. For example, plants that are specific to a special line of products, such as aluminum smelting plants, are non-redeployable, and exit costs would be high without a liquid market for the firm’s assets. High exit costs deter entry and are therefore also considered barriers to entry. In the case of farming, the barriers to entry are low. Production of corn, soybeans, wheat, tomatoes, and other produce is an easy process to replicate; therefore, those are highly competitive markets. Non-price competition dominates those market structures where product differentiation is critical. Therefore, monopolistic competition relies on competitive strategies that may not include pricing changes. An example of non-price competition is product differentiation through marketing. In other circumstances, non-price competition may occur because the few firms in the market feel dependent on each other. Each firm fears retaliatory price changes that would reduce total revenue for all of the firms in the market. Because oligopoly industries have so few firms, each firm feels dependent on the pricing strategies of the others. Therefore, non-price competition becomes a dominant strategy. Exhibit 1. Characteristics of Market Structure Market Structure Number of Sellers Degree of Product Differentiation Barriers to Entry Pricing Power of Firm Non-price Competition Perfect competition Many Homogeneous/ Standardized Very Low None None Monopolistic competition Many Differentiated Low Some Advertising and Product Differentiation Oligopoly Few Homogeneous/ Standardized High Some or Considerable Advertising and Product Differentiation Monopoly One Unique Product Very High Considerable Advertising From the perspective of the owners of the firm, the most desirable market structure is that with the most control over price, because this control can lead to large profits. Monopoly and oligopoly markets offer the greatest potential control over price; monopolistic competition offers less control. Firms operating under perfectly competitive market conditions have no control over price. From the consumers’ perspective, the most desirable market structure is that with the greatest degree of competition, because prices are generally lower. Thus, consumers would prefer as many goods and services as possible to be offered in competitive markets. As often happens in economics, there is a trade-off. While perfect competition gives the largest quantity of a good at the lowest price, other market forms may spur more innovation. Specifically, there may be high costs in researching a new product, and firms will incur such costs only if they expect to earn an attractive return on their research investment. This is the case often made for medical innovations, for example—the cost of clinical trials and experiments to create new medicines would bankrupt perfectly competitive firms but may be acceptable in an oligopoly market structure. Therefore, consumers can benefit from less-than-perfectly-competitive markets. PORTER’S FIVE FORCES AND MARKET STRUCTURE A financial analyst aiming to establish market conditions and consequent profitability of incumbent firms should start with the questions framed by Exhibit 1: How many sellers are there? Is the product differentiated? and so on. Moreover, in the case of monopolies and quasi monopolies, the analyst should evaluate the legislative and regulatory framework: Can the company set prices freely, or are there governmental controls? Finally, the analyst should consider the threat of competition from potential entrants. This analysis is often summarized by students of corporate strategy as “Porter’s five forces,” named after Harvard Business School professor Michael E. Porter. His book, Competitive Strategy, presented a systematic analysis of the practice of market strategy. Porter (2008) identified the five forces as: Threat of entry; Power of suppliers; Power of buyers (customers); Threat of substitutes; and Rivalry among existing competitors. It is easy to note the parallels between four of these five forces and the columns in Exhibit 1. The only “orphan” is the power of suppliers, which is not at the core of the theoretical economic analysis of competition, but which has substantial weight in the practical analysis of competition and profitability. Some stock analysts (e.g., Dorsey 2004) use the term “economic moat” to suggest that there are factors protecting the profitability of a firm that are similar to the moats (ditches full of water) that used to protect some medieval castles. A deep moat means that there is little or no threat of entry by invaders, i.e. competitors. It also means that customers are locked in because of high switching costs. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1446747966732

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit #study-session-4
Question

Together, price and quantity constitute the firm’s [...], which becomes the basis for calculating the total, average, and marginal revenue.

Answer
demand curve


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e market is influenced strictly by price, while non-price factors are not important. Once consumer preferences are established in the market, price determines the quantity demanded by buyers. Together, price and quantity constitute the firm’s <span>demand curve, which becomes the basis for calculating the total, average, and marginal revenue. <span><body><html>

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3. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE, COSTS, AND PROFITS
(AR) Marginal Revenue (MR) 0 100 0 — — 1 100 100 100 100 2 100 200 100 100 3 100 300 100 100 4 100 400 100 100 5 100 500 100 100 6 100 600 100 100 7 100 700 100 100 8 100 800 100 100 9 100 900 100 100 10 100 1,000 100 100 <span>The quantity or quantity demanded variable is the amount of the product that consumers are willing and able to buy at each price level. The quantity sold can be affected by the business through such activities as sales promotion, advertising, and competitive positioning of the product that would take place under the market model of imperfect competition. Under perfect competition, however, total quantity in the market is influenced strictly by price, while non-price factors are not important. Once consumer preferences are established in the market, price determines the quantity demanded by buyers. Together, price and quantity constitute the firm’s demand curve, which becomes the basis for calculating the total, average, and marginal revenue. In Exhibit 4, price is the market price as established by the interactions of the market demand and supply factors. Since the firm is a price taker, price is fixed at 100







Flashcard 1447300566284

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The [...] is merely the [...] with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.
Answer
generic essence

specific essence


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The generic essence is merely the specific essence with the more definite characteristics of t he latter omitted.

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Flashcard 1448438533388

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Human intellectual powers need [...] to work upon.
Answer
material


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Human intellectual powers need material to work upon.

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Flashcard 1480351943948

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #implications-for-financial-analysis #reading-25-understanding-income-statement #revenue-recognition
Question
It is generally possible to qualitatively assess how differences in revenue recognition policies might affect [...].
Answer
financial ratios


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it is generally possible to characterize the relative conservatism of a company’s policies and to qualitatively assess how differences in policies might affect financial ratios.

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3.3. Implications for Financial Analysis
estimates. In order to analyze a company’s financial statements, and particularly to compare one company’s financial statements with those of another company, it is helpful to understand any differences in their revenue recognition policies. <span>Although it may not be possible to calculate the monetary effect of differences between particular companies’ revenue recognition policies and estimates, it is generally possible to characterize the relative conservatism of a company’s policies and to qualitatively assess how differences in policies might affect financial ratios. <span><body><html>







In most patients with known struvite stones, removal of the stones is indicated.

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Flashcard 1648929934604

Question
In most patients with known [...] stones, removal of the stones is indicated.
Answer
struvite


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In most patients with known struvite stones, removal of the stones is indicated.

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occur only when ammonium production is increased, which elevates the urine pH and decreases the solubility of phosphate

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Flashcard 1648933342476

Question
how struvate stones performed ?
Answer
occur only when ammonium production is increased, which elevates the urine pH and decreases the solubility of phosphate


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occur only when ammonium production is increased, which elevates the urine pH and decreases the solubility of phosphate

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chronic upper urinary tract infection (UTI) with a urease-producing organism, such as Proteus or Klebsiella. Struvite stones can grow rapidly and become large, filling the entire renal pelvis and taking on a characteristic “staghorn” shape.

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Flashcard 1648937274636

Question
chronic upper urinary tract infection (UTI) with a urease-producing organism, such as [...]. Struvite stones can grow rapidly and become large, filling the entire renal pelvis and taking on a characteristic “staghorn” shape.
Answer
Proteus or Klebsiella


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chronic upper urinary tract infection (UTI) with a urease-producing organism, such as Proteus or Klebsiella. Struvite stones can grow rapidly and become large, filling the entire renal pelvis and taking on a characteristic “staghorn” shape.

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Flashcard 1648938847500

Question
chronic upper urinary tract infection (UTI) with a urease-producing organism, such as Proteus or Klebsiella. Struvite stones can grow rapidly and become large, filling the entire renal pelvis and taking on a characteristic “[...]” shape.
Answer
staghorn


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pper urinary tract infection (UTI) with a urease-producing organism, such as Proteus or Klebsiella. Struvite stones can grow rapidly and become large, filling the entire renal pelvis and taking on a characteristic “<span>staghorn” shape.<span><body><html>

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HIV infection is typically associated with the collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; in the early stages, antiretroviral therapy and angiotensin system blockers may halt disease progression.

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Flashcard 1648941993228

Question
HIV infection is typically associated with the collapsing form of [...]; in the early stages, antiretroviral therapy and angiotensin system blockers may halt disease progression.
Answer
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis


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HIV infection is typically associated with the collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; in the early stages, antiretroviral therapy and angiotensin system blockers may halt disease progression.

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FSGS may also be secondary to another process, including hyperfiltration injury to the glomerulus as may occur in chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and conditions in which kidney mass is reduced (progressive kidney disease, obesity, sickle cell disease, reflux nephropathy, or after nephrectomy). Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, interferon) and infections, including HIV.

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Flashcard 1648945138956

Question
FSGS may also be secondary to another process, including hyperfiltration injury to the glomerulus as may occur in chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and conditions in which kidney mass is reduced (progressive kidney disease, obesity, [...] disease, reflux nephropathy, or after nephrectomy). Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, interferon) and infections, including HIV.
Answer
sickle cell


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lso be secondary to another process, including hyperfiltration injury to the glomerulus as may occur in chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and conditions in which kidney mass is reduced (progressive kidney disease, obesity, <span>sickle cell disease, reflux nephropathy, or after nephrectomy). Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, interferon) and infections, includi

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Flashcard 1648946711820

Question
FSGS may also be secondary to another process, including hyperfiltration injury to the glomerulus as may occur in chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and conditions in which kidney mass is reduced (progressive kidney disease, obesity, sickle cell disease, reflux nephropathy, or after nephrectomy). Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, [...]) and infections, including HIV.
Answer
interferon


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conditions in which kidney mass is reduced (progressive kidney disease, obesity, sickle cell disease, reflux nephropathy, or after nephrectomy). Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, <span>interferon) and infections, including HIV. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1648948284684

Question
FSGS may also be secondary to another process, including hyperfiltration injury to the glomerulus as may occur in chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and conditions in which kidney mass is reduced (progressive kidney disease, obesity, sickle cell disease, reflux nephropathy, or after nephrectomy). Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, interferon) and infections, including [...].
Answer
HIV


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ed (progressive kidney disease, obesity, sickle cell disease, reflux nephropathy, or after nephrectomy). Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, interferon) and infections, including <span>HIV. <span><body><html>

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Hepatitis B is typically associated with membranous glomerulopathy, and hepatitis C with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis

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Flashcard 1648951430412

Question
Hepatitis B is typically associated with [...], and hepatitis C with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis
Answer
membranous glomerulopathy


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Hepatitis B is typically associated with membranous glomerulopathy, and hepatitis C with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis

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Flashcard 1648953003276

Question
Hepatitis B is typically associated with membranous glomerulopathy, and hepatitis C with [...] glomerulonephritis
Answer
cryoglobulinemic


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Hepatitis B is typically associated with membranous glomerulopathy, and hepatitis C with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis

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reponemal antibody test is used to test for syphilis, which is typically associated with membranous nephropathy

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Flashcard 1648956149004

Question
reponemal antibody test is used to test for syphilis, which is typically associated with [...] nephropathy
Answer
membranous


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reponemal antibody test is used to test for syphilis, which is typically associated with membranous nephropathy

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Urgent serologic evaluation and kidney biopsy are indicated to diagnose the cause of glomerulonephritis and guide management.

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Flashcard 1648960081164

Question
Urgent serologic evaluation and [...] are indicated to diagnose the cause of glomerulonephritis and guide management.
Answer
kidney biopsy


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Urgent serologic evaluation and kidney biopsy are indicated to diagnose the cause of glomerulonephritis and guide management.

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Flashcard 1648961654028

Question
Urgent serologic evaluation and kidney biopsy are indicated to diagnose the cause of [...] and guide management.
Answer
glomerulonephritis


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Urgent serologic evaluation and kidney biopsy are indicated to diagnose the cause of glomerulonephritis and guide management.

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Overcorrection of chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia is associated with the development of osmotic demyelination syndrome and should be reversed using desmopressin with 5% dextrose.

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Flashcard 1648964799756

Question
Overcorrection of chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia is associated with the development of [...] syndrome and should be reversed using desmopressin with 5% dextrose.
Answer
osmotic demyelination


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Overcorrection of chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia is associated with the development of osmotic demyelination syndrome and should be reversed using desmopressin with 5% dextrose.

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Flashcard 1648966372620

Question
Overcorrection of chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia is associated with the development of osmotic demyelination syndrome and should be reversed using [...].
Answer
desmopressin with 5% dextrose


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Overcorrection of chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia is associated with the development of osmotic demyelination syndrome and should be reversed using desmopressin with 5% dextrose.

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Overcorrection is considered to be an increase of >8.0 mEq/L (8.0 mmol/L) of the serum sodium within the first 24 hours or >16 mEq/L (16 mmol/L) within the first 48 hours

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Flashcard 1648969780492

Question
Overcorrection is considered to be an increase of >[...] of the serum sodium within the first 24 hours or >16 mEq/L (16 mmol/L) within the first 48 hours
Answer
8.0 mEq/L (8.0 mmol/L)


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Overcorrection is considered to be an increase of >8.0 mEq/L (8.0 mmol/L) of the serum sodium within the first 24 hours or >16 mEq/L (16 mmol/L) within the first 48 hours

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Flashcard 1648971353356

Question
Overcorrection is considered to be an increase of >8.0 mEq/L (8.0 mmol/L) of the serum sodium within the first 24 hours or >[...] within the first 48 hours
Answer
16 mEq/L (16 mmol/L)


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Overcorrection is considered to be an increase of >8.0 mEq/L (8.0 mmol/L) of the serum sodium within the first 24 hours or >16 mEq/L (16 mmol/L) within the first 48 hours

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For patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, screening for intracranial cerebral aneurysms using MR angiography is only recommended for those with a family history of aneurysm or subarachnoid hemorrhage, those with a previous rupture, or those with high-risk occupations in which a rupture would affect the lives of others.

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Flashcard 1648974761228

Question
For patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, screening for intracranial cerebral aneurysms using MR angiography is only recommended for those with [...].
Answer
a family history of aneurysm or subarachnoid hemorrhage, those with a previous rupture, or those with high-risk occupations in which a rupture would affect the lives of others


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For patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, screening for intracranial cerebral aneurysms using MR angiography is only recommended for those with a family history of aneurysm or subarachnoid hemorrhage, those with a previous rupture, or those with high-risk occupations in which a rupture would affect the lives of others.

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The initial treatment of asymptomatic patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion includes management of the underlying cause if possible and fluid restriction without limiting sodium intake.

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Flashcard 1648977906956

Question
The initial treatment of asymptomatic patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion includes management of the underlying cause if possible and [...] without limiting sodium intake.
Answer
fluid restriction


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The initial treatment of asymptomatic patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion includes management of the underlying cause if possible and fluid restriction without limiting sodium intake.

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She is euvolemic and has hyponatremia with a decreased plasma osmolality and an inappropriately increased urine osmolality. This clinical and laboratory presentation is highly suggestive of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

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Flashcard 1648981052684

Question
She is euvolemic and has hyponatremia with a decreased plasma osmolality and an inappropriately increased urine osmolality. This clinical and laboratory presentation is highly suggestive of the [...]
Answer
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)


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She is euvolemic and has hyponatremia with a decreased plasma osmolality and an inappropriately increased urine osmolality. This clinical and laboratory presentation is highly suggestive of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

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Rapid normalization of this patient's serum sodium with hypertonic saline would place her at risk for osmotic demyelination syndrome, which may result in severe neurologic symptoms such as paraplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, and locked-in syndrome.

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Flashcard 1648984722700

Question
Rapid normalization of this patient's serum sodium with hypertonic saline would place her at risk for [...] syndrome, which may result in severe neurologic symptoms such as paraplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, and locked-in syndrome.
Answer
osmotic demyelination


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Rapid normalization of this patient's serum sodium with hypertonic saline would place her at risk for osmotic demyelination syndrome, which may result in severe neurologic symptoms such as paraplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, and locked-in syndrome.

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Flashcard 1648986295564

Question
Rapid normalization of this patient's serum sodium with hypertonic saline would place her at risk for osmotic demyelination syndrome, which may result in severe neurologic symptoms such as [...]
Answer
paraplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, and locked-in syndrome.


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Rapid normalization of this patient's serum sodium with hypertonic saline would place her at risk for osmotic demyelination syndrome, which may result in severe neurologic symptoms such as paraplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, and locked-in syndrome.

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Multiplication Rule of Counting.
#reading-9-probability-concepts
If one task can be done in n1 ways, and a second task, given the first, can be done in n2ways, and a third task, given the first two tasks, can be done in n3 ways, and so on for k tasks, then the number of ways the ktasks can be done is (n1)(n2)(n3) … (nk).

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Flashcard 1648995994892

Tags
#reading-9-probability-concepts
Question
[...] =n(n−1)(n−2)(n−3)…1
Answer
n!


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Flashcard 1648998092044

Tags
#reading-9-probability-concepts
Question
  • 4! = [...]
    Answer
    4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24


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    Flashcard 1648999927052

    Tags
    #reading-9-probability-concepts
    Question
    • By convention, 0! = [...]
      Answer
      1


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      #reading-9-probability-concepts
      The shortest explanation of n factorial is that it is the number of ways to order n objects in a row. In all the problems to which we apply this counting method, we must use up all the members of a group (sampling without replacement).

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      #reading-9-probability-concepts

      Multinomial Formula (General Formula for Labeling Problems). The number of ways that n objects can be labeled with kdifferent labels, with n1 of the first type, n2 of the second type, and so on, with n1 + n2 + … + nk = n, is given by

      \(n!\over n1!n2!…nk!\)

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      Flashcard 1649007004940

      Tags
      #reading-9-probability-concepts
      Question
      The multinomial formula with two different labels (k = 2) is especially important. This special case is called the [...]
      Answer
      combination formula.


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      Oral demeclocycline results in renal resistance to antidiuretic hormone and can be effective in treating patients with SIADH. However, it has been associated with acute kidney injury and is generally reserved for patients who have failed other therapies. It should be used with caution in patients with preexisting kidney or liver disease.

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      Flashcard 1649011461388

      Question
      Oral demeclocycline results in renal resistance to antidiuretic hormone and can be effective in treating patients with SIADH. However, it has been associated with acute [...] and is generally reserved for patients who have failed other therapies. It should be used with caution in patients with preexisting kidney or liver disease.
      Answer
      kidney injury


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      Oral demeclocycline results in renal resistance to antidiuretic hormone and can be effective in treating patients with SIADH. However, it has been associated with acute kidney injury and is generally reserved for patients who have failed other therapies. It should be used with caution in patients with preexisting kidney or liver disease.

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      Flashcard 1649013034252

      Question
      Oral demeclocycline results in renal resistance to antidiuretic hormone and can be effective in treating patients with [...]. However, it has been associated with acute kidney injury and is generally reserved for patients who have failed other therapies. It should be used with caution in patients with preexisting kidney or liver disease.
      Answer
      SIADH


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      Oral demeclocycline results in renal resistance to antidiuretic hormone and can be effective in treating patients with SIADH. However, it has been associated with acute kidney injury and is generally reserved for patients who have failed other therapies. It should be used with caution in patients with pree

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      Flashcard 1649014607116

      Question
      Oral demeclocycline results in renal resistance to antidiuretic hormone and can be effective in treating patients with SIADH. However, it has been associated with acute kidney injury and is generally reserved for patients who have failed other therapies. It should be used with caution in patients with preexisting [...] disease.
      Answer
      kidney or liver


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      can be effective in treating patients with SIADH. However, it has been associated with acute kidney injury and is generally reserved for patients who have failed other therapies. It should be used with caution in patients with preexisting <span>kidney or liver disease.<span><body><html>

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      Tolvaptan, a vasopressin receptor antagonist, results in the excretion of electrolyte free water and is effective in raising the serum sodium in patients with SIADH. It should be used with caution in the treatment of severe, symptomatic hyponatremia,

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      Flashcard 1649017752844

      Question
      Tolvaptan, a [...] receptor antagonist, results in the excretion of electrolyte free water and is effective in raising the serum sodium in patients with SIADH. It should be used with caution in the treatment of severe, symptomatic hyponatremia,
      Answer
      vasopressin


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      Tolvaptan, a vasopressin receptor antagonist, results in the excretion of electrolyte free water and is effective in raising the serum sodium in patients with SIADH. It should be used with caution

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      Flashcard 1649019325708

      Question
      Tolvaptan, a vasopressin receptor antagonist, results in the excretion of electrolyte free water and is effective in raising the serum sodium in patients with [...]. It should be used with caution in the treatment of severe, symptomatic hyponatremia,
      Answer
      SIADH


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      Tolvaptan, a vasopressin receptor antagonist, results in the excretion of electrolyte free water and is effective in raising the serum sodium in patients with SIADH. It should be used with caution in the treatment of severe, symptomatic hyponatremia,

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      The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with clinical euvolemia, hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, and urine osmolality inappropriately greater than plasma osmolality.

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      Flashcard 1649022733580

      Question
      The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with clinical euvolemia, hy[...]-osmolar hyponatremia, and urine osmolality inappropriately greater than plasma osmolality.
      Answer
      po


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      The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with clinical euvolemia, hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, and urine osmolality inappropriately greater than plasma osmolality.

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      Flashcard 1649024306444

      Question
      The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with clinical euvolemia, hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, and urine osmolality inappropriately [...] than plasma osmolality.
      Answer
      greater


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      The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with clinical euvolemia, hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, and urine osmolality inappropriately greater than plasma osmolality.

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      he most common renal consequence of chronic lithium ingestion is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; this disorder presents with polyuria and hypernatremia,

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      Flashcard 1649027452172

      Question
      he most common renal consequence of chronic lithium ingestion is nephrogenic [...]; this disorder presents with polyuria and hypernatremia,
      Answer
      diabetes insipidus


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      he most common renal consequence of chronic lithium ingestion is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; this disorder presents with polyuria and hypernatremia,

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      Flashcard 1649029025036

      Question
      he most common renal consequence of chronic lithium ingestion is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; this disorder presents with polyuria and [...],
      Answer
      hypernatremia


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      he most common renal consequence of chronic lithium ingestion is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; this disorder presents with polyuria and hypernatremia,

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      Primary polydipsia presents with hyponatremia, decreased plasma osmolality, and decreased urine osmolality, reflecting suppressed ADH levels in response to water overload.

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      Flashcard 1649032170764

      Question
      Primary polydipsia presents with hyponatremia, [...] plasma osmolality, and decreased urine osmolality, reflecting suppressed ADH levels in response to water overload.
      Answer
      decreased


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      Primary polydipsia presents with hyponatremia, decreased plasma osmolality, and decreased urine osmolality, reflecting suppressed ADH levels in response to water overload.

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      Flashcard 1649033743628

      Question
      Primary polydipsia presents with hyponatremia, decreased plasma osmolality, and [...] urine osmolality, reflecting suppressed ADH levels in response to water overload.
      Answer
      decreased


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      Primary polydipsia presents with hyponatremia, decreased plasma osmolality, and decreased urine osmolality, reflecting suppressed ADH levels in response to water overload.

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      Type 1 (hypokalemic distal) renal tubular acidosis results from a defect in urine acidification in the distal tubule with impaired excretion of hydrogen ions.

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      Flashcard 1649036889356

      Question
      Type 1 (hypokalemic distal) renal tubular acidosis results from a defect in [...] in the distal tubule with impaired excretion of hydrogen ions.
      Answer
      urine acidification


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      Type 1 (hypokalemic distal) renal tubular acidosis results from a defect in urine acidification in the distal tubule with impaired excretion of hydrogen ions.

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      Flashcard 1649038462220

      Question
      Type 1 (hypokalemic distal) renal tubular acidosis results from a defect in urine acidification in the distal tubule with impaired [...].
      Answer
      excretion of hydrogen ions


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      Type 1 (hypokalemic distal) renal tubular acidosis results from a defect in urine acidification in the distal tubule with impaired excretion of hydrogen ions.

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      patients develop a metabolic acidosis with compensatory hyperchloremia, resulting in a normal anion gap (8 mEq/L [8 mmol/L] in this patient) and the inability to acidify urine below a pH of 6.0, even after an acid load.

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      Flashcard 1649041607948

      Question
      what happens in RTA 1 ?
      Answer
      patients develop a metabolic acidosis with compensatory hyperchloremia, resulting in a normal anion gap (8 mEq/L [8 mmol/L] in this patient) and the inability to acidify urine below a pH of 6.0, even after an acid load.


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      patients develop a metabolic acidosis with compensatory hyperchloremia, resulting in a normal anion gap (8 mEq/L [8 mmol/L] in this patient) and the inability to acidify urine below a pH of 6.0, even after an acid load.

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      cause potassium wasting, and the increased proximal resorption of citrate that occurs with metabolic acidosis leads to hypocitraturia and increased risk of calcium phosphate kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis.

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      Flashcard 1649045540108

      Question
      how the RTA 1 can increase the risk of developing calcium phosphate stone ?
      Answer
      cause potassium wasting, and the increased proximal resorption of citrate that occurs with metabolic acidosis leads to hypocitraturia and increased risk of calcium phosphate kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis.


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      cause potassium wasting, and the increased proximal resorption of citrate that occurs with metabolic acidosis leads to hypocitraturia and increased risk of calcium phosphate kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis.

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      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal phosphate wasting.

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      Flashcard 1649049734412

      Question
      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a [...] anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal phosphate wasting.
      Answer
      normal


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      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal phosphate wasting.

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      Flashcard 1649051307276

      Question
      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, [...]kalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal phosphate wasting.
      Answer
      hypo


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      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal phosphate wasting.

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      Flashcard 1649052880140

      Question
      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, [...] (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal phosphate wasting.
      Answer
      glycosuria


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      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal phosphate wasting.

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      Flashcard 1649054453004

      Question
      Type 2 (proximal) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal [...] wasting.
      Answer
      phosphate


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      ) RTA involves a defect in regenerating bicarbonate in the proximal tubule and is characterized by a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, glycosuria (without hyperglycemia), low- molecular-weight proteinuria, and renal <span>phosphate wasting.<span><body><html>

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      distal urine acidification mechanisms are intact, and the urine pH is usually less than 5.5 without alkali therapy

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      Flashcard 1649057598732

      Question
      what about urine acidification and urine PH in RTA 2 ?
      Answer
      distal urine acidification mechanisms are intact, and the urine pH is usually less than 5.5 without alkali therapy


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      distal urine acidification mechanisms are intact, and the urine pH is usually less than 5.5 without alkali therapy

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      this risk of graft loss and overall mortality increase with the length of dialysis prior to transplant

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      Flashcard 1649061530892

      Question
      this risk of graft loss and overall mortality increase with the length of [...] prior to transplant
      Answer
      dialysis


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      this risk of graft loss and overall mortality increase with the length of dialysis prior to transplant

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