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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Although the mechanism of action of the general anesthetics remains unknown, the primary site of anesthetic action is now considered to be membrane receptors

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Spinal cord receptors are being dif- ferentiated from receptors in the brain and targeted with specific drugs.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
The current medical economic climate necessitates the optimum selection and use of anesthetic drugs based on their pharmacologic profiles.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
pharmacology refers to the study of processes by which a drug produces one or more measured physiologic responses.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Recent attention has focused on the biosphere, or the protein receptor site, as not only the locus of drug binding but also a primary regulator of the measured pharmacologic response.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
A re ceptor is a protein or other substance that binds to an endog- enous chemical or a drug

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Receptors have three common proper- ties: sensitivity, selectivity, and specificity.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
These receptors properties are characterized by the fact that a drug response occurs from a low concentration (sensitivity) produced by structurally similar chemicals (selectivity), and the response from a given set of receptors is always the same because the cells themselves determine the response (specificity).

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
The bonds that form between drugs and receptors typically fall into these categories from weak- est to strongest: van der Waals, hydrophobic, hydrogen, ionic, and covalent

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#5 #jrs #nagelhount
For intravenously administered drugs, sufficient drug for a max- imal tissue response is delivered to the receptor site within the time required for a single complete circulation (approximately 1 minute), provided an adequate drug dose was administered initially.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
The alignment of a drug with its receptor is aided by various bonding forces, of which van der Waals forces and ionic bonding are prominent

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Albumin contains numerous acceptor sites and generally binds to acidic drugs.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein and β-globulin favor basic drugs.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
signal transduction refers to processes by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most often, these involve ordered sequences or cascades of biochemi- cal reactions inside the cell. They are commonly referred to as second messenger pathways.

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ultimate intracellular actions

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Flashcard 1677882428684

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
The current medical economic climate necessitates the optimum selection and use of anesthetic drugs based on their [what profile].
Answer
pharmacologic profiles


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The current medical economic climate necessitates the optimum selection and use of anesthetic drugs based on their pharmacologic profiles.

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Flashcard 1677885574412

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
the study of processes by which a drug produces one or more measured physiologic responses.
Answer
pharmacology


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pharmacology refers to the study of processes by which a drug produces one or more measured physiologic responses.

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Flashcard 1677887933708

Question
Is the correlation unitless?
Answer
No


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Flashcard 1677889768716

Question
Is the covariance matrix always symmetric with regard to its diagonal.
Answer
No


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Flashcard 1677892390156

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
Recent attention has focused on the biosphere, or the [protein receptor site/membrane receptor site], as not only the locus of drug binding but also a primary regulator of the measured pharmacologic response.
Answer
protein receptor site


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Recent attention has focused on the biosphere, or the protein receptor site, as not only the locus of drug binding but also a primary regulator of the measured pharmacologic response.

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Flashcard 1677897108748

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
the primary site of anesthetic action
Answer
membrane receptors


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Although the mechanism of action of the general anesthetics remains unknown, the primary site of anesthetic action is now considered to be membrane receptors

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Flashcard 1677899468044

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
A [...] is a protein or other substance that binds to an endog- enous chemical or a drug
Answer
re ceptor


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A re ceptor is a protein or other substance that binds to an endog- enous chemical or a drug

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Flashcard 1677901040908

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
A re ceptor is a protein or other substance that binds to an endog- enous chemical or a [...]
Answer
drug


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A re ceptor is a protein or other substance that binds to an endog- enous chemical or a drug

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Flashcard 1677903400204

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
True/False: The Spinal cord receptors are being differentiated from receptors in the brain and targeted with specific drugs.
Answer
True


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Spinal cord receptors are being dif- ferentiated from receptors in the brain and targeted with specific drugs.

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Flashcard 1677906021644

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
Spinal cord receptors are being dif- ferentiated from receptors in the brain and targeted with [...] drugs.
Answer
specific


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Spinal cord receptors are being dif- ferentiated from receptors in the brain and targeted with specific drugs.

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Flashcard 1677908380940

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
Receptors have three common proper- ties:
Answer
sensitivity, selectivity, and specificity.


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Receptors have three common proper- ties: sensitivity, selectivity, and specificity.

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Flashcard 1677910740236

Tags
#anesthesia #edition #fifth #j #john #nagelhout #nurse #p53
Question
These receptors properties are characterized by the fact that a drug response occurs from a low concentration ([...]) produced by structurally similar chemicals (selectivity), and the response from a given set of receptors is always the same because the cells themselves determine the response (specificity).
Answer
sensitivity


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These receptors properties are characterized by the fact that a drug response occurs from a low concentration (sensitivity) produced by structurally similar chemicals (selectivity), and the response from a given set of receptors is always the same because the cells themselves determine the response (specifi

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Flashcard 1677912313100

Tags
#anesthesia #edition #fifth #j #john #nagelhout #nurse #p53
Question
These receptors properties are characterized by the fact that a drug response occurs from a low concentration (sensitivity) produced by structurally similar chemicals ([...]), and the response from a given set of receptors is always the same because the cells themselves determine the response (specificity).
Answer
selectivity


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These receptors properties are characterized by the fact that a drug response occurs from a low concentration (sensitivity) produced by structurally similar chemicals (selectivity), and the response from a given set of receptors is always the same because the cells themselves determine the response (specificity).

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Flashcard 1677913361676

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#anesthesia #edition #fifth #j #john #nagelhout #nurse #p53
Question
These receptors properties are characterized by the fact that a drug response occurs from a low concentration (sensitivity) produced by structurally similar chemicals (selectivity), and the response from a given set of receptors is always the same because the cells themselves determine the response ([...]).
Answer
specificity


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hat a drug response occurs from a low concentration (sensitivity) produced by structurally similar chemicals (selectivity), and the response from a given set of receptors is always the same because the cells themselves determine the response (<span>specificity).<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1677915720972

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
α 2 -agonists and analgesics
Answer
are the targets of new classes of anesthetic drugs


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Receptor super families with definable amino acid subunits are the targets of new classes of anesthetic drugs such as α 2 -agonists and analgesics

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Flashcard 1677918080268

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
α 2 -agonists and analgesics are
Answer
Receptor super families with definable amino acid subunits


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Receptor super families with definable amino acid subunits are the targets of new classes of anesthetic drugs such as α 2 -agonists and analgesics

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Flashcard 1677920439564

Question
[...] with definable amino acid subunits are the targets of new classes of anesthetic drugs such as α 2 -agonists and analgesics
Answer
Receptor super families


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Receptor super families with definable amino acid subunits are the targets of new classes of anesthetic drugs such as α 2 -agonists and analgesics

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Flashcard 1677922012428

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#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
The potentiation of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors is considered a primary mechanism of action of [2 types] anesthetics
Answer
inhalation and intra- venous


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The poten- tiation of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors is considered a primary mechanism of action of inhalation and intra- venous anesthetics

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Flashcard 1677924371724

Question
The poten- tiation of the [...]) receptors is considered a primary mechanism of action of inhalation and intra- venous anesthetics
Answer
inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA


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The poten- tiation of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors is considered a primary mechanism of action of inhalation and intra- venous anesthetics

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Flashcard 1677926206732

Question
The poten- tiation of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors is considered a primary [...] of inhalation and intra- venous anesthetics
Answer
mechanism of action


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The poten- tiation of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors is considered a primary mechanism of action of inhalation and intra- venous anesthetics

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Flashcard 1677927255308

Question
Apart from van der Waals and hydrophobic bonds, what are the other bonds that form between drugs and receptors?
Answer
hydrogen, ionic, and covalent


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The bonds that form between drugs and receptors typically fall into these categories from weak- est to strongest: van der Waals, hydrophobic, hydrogen, ionic, and covalent

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Flashcard 1677931449612

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
anesthetists will continue to administer anesthesia based
Answer
on age-indexed population drug profiles adjusted for individ- ual pathologies


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anesthetists will continue to administer anesthesia based on age-indexed population drug profiles adjusted for individ- ual pathologies (i.e., general principles of pharmacology)

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Flashcard 1677934071052

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#5 #nagelhount #rs
Question
Complete saturation of available receptors with drug molecules is [necessary/not necessary] for a desired tissue response to be elicited.
Answer
not necessary


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Complete saturation of available receptors with drug molecules is not necessary for a desired tissue response to be elicited.

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Flashcard 1677935906060

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#5 #jrs #nagelhount
Question
The choice of anesthetic agents will be based on [factor] receptor profiles and the patient’s genetic ability to rapidly clear and recover from anes- thetic drugs once their administration has been terminated
Answer
age-related


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The choice of anesthetic agents will be based on age-related receptor profiles and the patient’s genetic ability to rapidly clear and recover from anes- thetic drugs once their administration has been terminated

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Flashcard 1677939313932

Question
The choice of anesthetic agents will be based on age-related receptor profiles and the patient’s [...] ability to rapidly clear and recover from anes- thetic drugs once their administration has been terminated
Answer
genetic


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The choice of anesthetic agents will be based on age-related receptor profiles and the patient’s genetic ability to rapidly clear and recover from anes- thetic drugs once their administration has been terminated

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Flashcard 1677941935372

Question
Studies of acetylcholine and its receptor at the neuromuscular junction indicate that less than [...]% of the cell surface binds drug to receptor protein to achieve the tissue response
Answer
1


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Studies of acetylcholine and its receptor at the neuromuscular junction indicate that less than 1% of the cell surface binds drug to receptor protein to achieve the tissue response

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Flashcard 1677942983948

Question
Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related [...] in most receptor populations and an overall decrease in pharmacodynamic responses
Answer
decline


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Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related decline in most receptor populations and an overall decrease in pharmacodynamic responses

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Flashcard 1677944032524

Question
Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related decline in most [...] populations and an overall decrease in pharmacodynamic responses
Answer
receptor


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Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related decline in most receptor populations and an overall decrease in pharmacodynamic responses

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Flashcard 1677945081100

Question
Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related decline in most receptor populations and an overall [...] in pharmacodynamic responses
Answer
decrease


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Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related decline in most receptor populations and an overall decrease in pharmacodynamic responses

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Flashcard 1677946129676

Question
Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related decline in most receptor populations and an overall decrease in [...] responses
Answer
pharmacodynamic


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Studies to date in elderly patients, although limited, demonstrate an age-related decline in most receptor populations and an overall decrease in pharmacodynamic responses

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Flashcard 1677947178252

Question
Drug receptor proteins may be located within the [...] membrane and at the surface of the ionic channel.
Answer
luminal


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Drug receptor proteins may be located within the luminal membrane and at the surface of the ionic channel.

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Flashcard 1677948226828

Question
Drug receptor proteins may be located within the luminal membrane and at the surface of the [...] channel.
Answer
ionic


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Drug receptor proteins may be located within the luminal membrane and at the surface of the ionic channel.

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Flashcard 1677949275404

Question
Clinical experience has shown that the response to anesthetic drugs in elderly patients [...] from that in younger patients.
Answer
differs


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Clinical experience has shown that the response to anesthetic drugs in elderly patients differs from that in younger patients.

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Flashcard 1677950323980

Question
There are [...] classes of drug receptor proteins based on genetic characterization and similarity of structure and functions.
Answer
seven


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There are seven classes of drug receptor proteins based on genetic characterization and similarity of structure and functions.

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Flashcard 1677951372556

Question
There are seven classes of drug receptor proteins based on [...] characterization and similarity of structure and functions.
Answer
genetic


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There are seven classes of drug receptor proteins based on genetic characterization and similarity of structure and functions.

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Flashcard 1677952421132

Question
There are seven classes of drug receptor proteins based on genetic characterization and similarity of [...] and functions.
Answer
structure


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There are seven classes of drug receptor proteins based on genetic characterization and similarity of structure and functions.

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Flashcard 1677953469708

Question
There are seven classes of drug receptor proteins based on genetic characterization and similarity of structure and [...].
Answer
functions


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There are seven classes of drug receptor proteins based on genetic characterization and similarity of structure and functions.

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Flashcard 1677954518284

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#5 #jrs #nagelhount
Question
The recovery from [inhaled/IV] anesthesia is described in terms of context-sensitive half-time, which in addi- tion to the usual concept of drug half-life takes into consideration the duration of anesthetic administration rather than just drug redistribution and elimination profiles
Answer
intravenous


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The recovery from intravenous anesthesia is described in terms of context-sensitive half-time, which in addi- tion to the usual concept of drug half-life takes into consideration the duration of anesthetic adm

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Flashcard 1677956353292

Question
The recovery from intravenous anesthesia is described in terms of [...] half-time, which in addi- tion to the usual concept of drug half-life takes into consideration the duration of anesthetic administration rather than just drug redistribution and elimination profiles
Answer
context-sensitive


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The recovery from intravenous anesthesia is described in terms of context-sensitive half-time, which in addi- tion to the usual concept of drug half-life takes into consideration the duration of anesthetic administration rather than just drug redistribution a

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Flashcard 1677957401868

Question
The recovery from intravenous anesthesia is described in terms of context-sensitive half-time, which in addi- tion to the usual concept of drug half-life takes into consideration the duration of anesthetic [...] rather than just drug redistribution and elimination profiles
Answer
administration


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The recovery from intravenous anesthesia is described in terms of context-sensitive half-time, which in addi- tion to the usual concept of drug half-life takes into consideration the duration of anesthetic administration rather than just drug redistribution and elimination profiles<html>

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Flashcard 1677961858316

Question
For intravenously administered drugs, sufficient drug for a max- imal tissue response is delivered to the receptor site within the time required for a single complete circulation (approximately 1 minute), provided an [...] drug dose was administered ini- tially.
Answer
adequate


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body>For intravenously administered drugs, sufficient drug for a max- imal tissue response is delivered to the receptor site within the time required for a single complete circulation (approximately 1 minute), provided an adequate drug dose was administered ini- tially. <body><html>

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Flashcard 1677963693324

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhount
Question
For intravenously administered drugs, sufficient drug for a max- imal tissue response is delivered to the receptor site within the time required for a single complete circulation (approximately 1 minute), provided an adequate drug dose was administered [...].
Answer
initially


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enously administered drugs, sufficient drug for a max- imal tissue response is delivered to the receptor site within the time required for a single complete circulation (approximately 1 minute), provided an adequate drug dose was administered <span>initially.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1677964741900

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
Current understanding of molecular pharmacology suggests that the delay recorded from initial drug administration to the onset of the tissue response reflects
Answer
the time required for molecu- lar orientation and attachment to the receptor


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Current understanding of molecular pharmacology suggests that the delay recorded from initial drug administration to the onset of the tissue response reflects the time required for molecu- lar orientation and attachment to the receptor—that is, the time course of the receptor protein conformational change and the tis- sue response time

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Flashcard 1677966576908

Question
Current understanding of molecular pharmacology suggests that the delay recorded from initial drug administration to the onset of the tissue response reflects the time required for molecu- lar orientation and attachment to the receptor—that is, the time course of the receptor protein [...] change and the tis- sue response time
Answer
conformational


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ts that the delay recorded from initial drug administration to the onset of the tissue response reflects the time required for molecu- lar orientation and attachment to the receptor—that is, the time course of the receptor protein <span>conformational change and the tis- sue response time<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1677967625484

Question
Current understanding of molecular pharmacology suggests that the delay recorded from initial drug administration to the onset of the tissue response reflects the time required for molecu- lar orientation and attachment to the receptor—that is, the time course of the receptor protein conformational change and the tis- sue [...]
Answer
response time


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nitial drug administration to the onset of the tissue response reflects the time required for molecu- lar orientation and attachment to the receptor—that is, the time course of the receptor protein conformational change and the tis- sue <span>response time<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1677968674060

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
As long as both the drug and the receptor are [...], bonding occurs
Answer
hydrophobic


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As long as both the drug and the receptor are hydrophobic, bonding occurs

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Flashcard 1677970509068

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
Intravenous anesthetics act by binding to [receptor type] channel proteins
Answer
membrane receptor


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Intravenous anesthetics act by binding to membrane receptor channel proteins

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Flashcard 1677973130508

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
The GABA A (ionotropic receptor family A) inhibitory receptor has been impli- cated and suggested as a primary site of [IV/inhale/IM] anesthetic action, except in the case of ketamine.
Answer
intravenous


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The GABA A (ionotropic receptor family A) inhibitory receptor has been impli- cated and suggested as a primary site of intravenous anesthetic action, except in the case of ketamine.

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Flashcard 1677974965516

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
The GABA A (ionotropic receptor family A) inhibitory receptor has been impli- cated and suggested as a primary site of intravenous anesthetic action, except in the case of [ketamine/succ].
Answer
ketamine


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The GABA A (ionotropic receptor family A) inhibitory receptor has been impli- cated and suggested as a primary site of intravenous anesthetic action, except in the case of ketamine.

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Flashcard 1677976800524

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause [...] by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels
Answer
inhibition of signal transduction


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inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels

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Flashcard 1677978635532

Question
inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of [...] ions through membrane channels
Answer
chloride


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inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels

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Flashcard 1677979684108

Question
inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through [...] channels
Answer
membrane


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inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels

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Flashcard 1677980732684

Question
[...] anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels
Answer
inhalation


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inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane

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Flashcard 1677981781260

Question
inhalation anesthetics, like [...] anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels
Answer
intravenous


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inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels</

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Flashcard 1677982829836

Question
inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to [...] recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels
Answer
GABA A


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inhalation anesthetics, like intravenous anesthetics, bind to GABA A recep- tor proteins and cause inhibition of signal transduction by increas- ing the influx of chloride ions through membrane channels

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Flashcard 1677983878412

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a [...] of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
pen- tamer


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The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involve

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Flashcard 1677984926988

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of [2/5/4] peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
five


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The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in ace

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Flashcard 1677986761996

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided [...], with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
ring


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The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits

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Flashcard 1677987810572

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the [...] ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
transduction


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The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves

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Flashcard 1677988859148

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only [#s] of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
two


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html> The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tion

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Flashcard 1677990694156

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the [first/central] portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
central


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The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the s

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Flashcard 1677992529164

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in [...] binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
acetylcho- line


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acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in <span>acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions thr

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Flashcard 1677993577740

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein [...] shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
conforma- tional


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entral portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein <span>conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the opened ion channel. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1677994626316

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of [...] ions through the opened ion channel.
Answer
sodium


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channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of <span>sodium ions through the opened ion channel. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1677995674892

Question
The acetylcholine receptor protein is a pen- tamer of five peptide subunits conceptually forming a five-sided ring, with the central portion serving as the transduction ion channel. Only two of the five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the [closed/opened] ion channel.
Answer
opened


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e five subunits are involved in acetylcho- line binding. The remaining three peptide subunits participate in the signal transduction process that involves a protein conforma- tional shift, allowing inward movement of sodium ions through the <span>opened ion channel. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1677997772044

Question
Individual agonist drugs have at least [2/3] configuration points for attachment to their receptors
Answer
three


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ndividual agonist drugs have at least three configuration points for attachment to their receptors

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Flashcard 1678000393484

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
With more points of attachment, a more perfect drug-receptor fit occurs. Agonist drugs can induce receptor proteins to alter their [...] to achieve a more exacting fit with the drug.
Answer
topography


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With more points of attachment, a more perfect drug-receptor fit occurs. Agonist drugs can induce receptor proteins to alter their topography to achieve a more exacting fit with the drug.

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Flashcard 1678002228492

Question
With more points of attachment, a more perfect drug-receptor fit occurs. Agonist drugs can induce receptor proteins to alter their topography to achieve a more exacting [...] with the drug.
Answer
fit


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With more points of attachment, a more perfect drug-receptor fit occurs. Agonist drugs can induce receptor proteins to alter their topography to achieve a more exacting fit with the drug.

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Flashcard 1678003277068

Question
The alignment of a drug with its receptor is aided by various bonding forces, of which [...] forces and ionic bonding are prominent
Answer
van der Waals


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The alignment of a drug with its receptor is aided by various bonding forces, of which van der Waals forces and ionic bonding are prominent

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Flashcard 1678004325644

Question
The alignment of a drug with its receptor is aided by various bonding forces, of which van der Waals forces and [...] bonding are prominent
Answer
ionic


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The alignment of a drug with its receptor is aided by various bonding forces, of which van der Waals forces and ionic bonding are prominent

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Flashcard 1678006160652

Question
It is interesting to note that the GABA A receptor also has been shown to be composed of [#] peptide sub- units arranged to form a pentameric ring
Answer
five


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It is interesting to note that the GABA A receptor also has been shown to be composed of five peptide sub- units arranged to form a pentameric ring

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Flashcard 1678007995660

Question
It is interesting to note that the GABA A receptor also has been shown to be composed of five peptide sub- units arranged to form a [...] ring
Answer
pentameric


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It is interesting to note that the GABA A receptor also has been shown to be composed of five peptide sub- units arranged to form a pentameric ring

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Flashcard 1678009044236

Question
It is interesting to note that the [...] receptor also has been shown to be composed of five peptide sub- units arranged to form a pentameric ring
Answer
GABA A


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It is interesting to note that the GABA A receptor also has been shown to be composed of five peptide sub- units arranged to form a pentameric ring

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Flashcard 1678010092812

Question
Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to [cell/molecule] receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism
Answer
cell


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Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism

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Flashcard 1678011927820

Question
Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a [...] hydrophobic bonding mechanism
Answer
nonspecific


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Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism

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Flashcard 1678012976396

Question
Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., [...], sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism
Answer
desflurane


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Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism

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Flashcard 1678014024972

Question
Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, [...], isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism
Answer
sevoflurane


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Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism

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Flashcard 1678015073548

Question
Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, [...], and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism
Answer
isoflurane


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Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism

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Flashcard 1678016122124

Question
Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and [...]) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism
Answer
nitrous oxide


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Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism

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Flashcard 1678017170700

Question
Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific [...] bonding mechanism
Answer
hydrophobic


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Volatile anesthet- ics (e.g., desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) bond to cell receptors by means of a nonspecific hydrophobic bonding mechanism

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Flashcard 1678018219276

Question
signal transduction refers to
Answer
processes by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another.


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signal transduction refers to processes by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most often, these involve ordered sequences or cascades of biochemi- cal reactions inside the cell. They are commonly referred to as second messenger pathways.</h

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Flashcard 1678020054284

Question
Receptor signaling translates changes to [...] proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ultimate intracellular actions
Answer
G


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Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes

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Flashcard 1678021102860

Question
Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a [...] messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ultimate intracellular actions
Answer
second


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Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatase

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Flashcard 1678022151436

Question
Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as [...] (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ultimate intracellular actions
Answer
cyclic AMP


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Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ulti

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Flashcard 1678023200012

Question
Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or [...] (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ultimate intracellular actions
Answer
cyclic GMP


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Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ultimate intracellular actions<

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Flashcard 1678024248588

Question
Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as [2 enzymes], which drive their ultimate intracellular actions
Answer
protein kinases and phosphatases


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Receptor signaling translates changes to G proteins that are then linked to a second messenger such as cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) or cyclic GMP (guanosine mono- phosphate). These second messengers regulate enzymes such as <span>protein kinases and phosphatases, which drive their ultimate intracellular actions<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678026870028

Question
Many of the actions of the common anesthetic drugs are transduced through [...] receptors that are linked to GPCRs.
Answer
cell-surface


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Many of the actions of the common anesthetic drugs are transduced through cell-surface receptors that are linked to GPCRs.

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Flashcard 1678027918604

Question
Many of the actions of the common anesthetic drugs are transduced through cell-surface receptors that are linked to [...].
Answer
GPCRs


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Many of the actions of the common anesthetic drugs are transduced through cell-surface receptors that are linked to GPCRs.

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Flashcard 1678028967180

Question
Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein and β-globulin favor [basic/complicated] drugs.
Answer
basic


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Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein and β-globulin favor basic drugs.

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Flashcard 1678032637196

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
Albumin contains numerous acceptor sites and generally binds to [ph] drugs.
Answer
acidic


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Albumin contains numerous acceptor sites and generally binds to acidic drugs.

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Flashcard 1678034472204

Question
Some endogenous proteins provide alternative drug-binding sites. These sites are more correctly termed [...]; the acceptor reduces the amount of unbound drug available for receptor com- plexing.
Answer
acceptors


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Some endogenous proteins provide alternative drug-binding sites. These sites are more correctly termed acceptors; the acceptor reduces the amount of unbound drug available for receptor com- plexing.

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Flashcard 1678035520780

Question
Some endogenous proteins provide alternative drug-binding sites. These sites are more correctly termed acceptors; the acceptor [increases/reduces] the amount of unbound drug available for receptor com- plexing.
Answer
reduces


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Some endogenous proteins provide alternative drug-binding sites. These sites are more correctly termed acceptors; the acceptor reduces the amount of unbound drug available for receptor com- plexing.

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Flashcard 1678037355788

Question
Some endogenous proteins provide alternative drug-binding sites. These sites are more correctly termed acceptors; the acceptor reduces the amount of [...] drug available for receptor com- plexing.
Answer
unbound


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Some endogenous proteins provide alternative drug-binding sites. These sites are more correctly termed acceptors; the acceptor reduces the amount of unbound drug available for receptor com- plexing.

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Flashcard 1678038404364

Question
Signal transduction for the GABA A receptor, for example, involves inward [Na/Cl] ion movement through the opened central channel.
Answer
chloride


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ignal transduction for the GABA A receptor, for example, involves inward chloride ion movement through the opened central channel.

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Flashcard 1678040239372

Question
ignal transduction for the [...] receptor, for example, involves inward chloride ion movement through the opened central channel.
Answer
GABA A


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ignal transduction for the GABA A receptor, for example, involves inward chloride ion movement through the opened central channel.

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Flashcard 1678041287948

Question
Signal transduction for the GABA A receptor, for example, involves inward chloride ion movement through the [closed/opened] central channel.
Answer
opened


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ignal transduction for the GABA A receptor, for example, involves inward chloride ion movement through the opened central channel.

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Flashcard 1678043122956

Question
he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are [...], despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an inhibitory signal
Answer
remarkably similar


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he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an inhibitory signal</

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Flashcard 1678044171532

Question
he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an [...] signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an inhibitory signal
Answer
excitatory


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he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an inhibitory signal

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Flashcard 1678045220108

Question
he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an [...] signal
Answer
inhibitory


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he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an <span>inhibitory signal<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678046268684

Question
he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, [...] ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an inhibitory signal
Answer
acetylcholine and sodium


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he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an inhibitory signal

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Flashcard 1678047317260

Question
he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and [...] ion transduce an inhibitory signal
Answer
GABA and chloride


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he protein compositions of acetylcholine and GABA receptors are remarkably similar, despite their functional differences—specifically, acetylcholine and sodium ion transduce an excitatory signal, and GABA and chloride ion transduce an inhibitory signal

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Flashcard 1678048365836

Question
The specific [...] subunits are ultimately responsible for the phar- macologic properties of specificity, affinity, and potency
Answer
peptide


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The specific peptide subunits are ultimately responsible for the phar- macologic properties of specificity, affinity, and potency

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Flashcard 1678049414412

Question
Drugs such as [3 drugs] are selective in their receptor binding and thus achieve a better clinical side effect profile
Answer
dexmedetomi- dine, ropivacaine, and cisatracurium


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Drugs such as dexmedetomi- dine, ropivacaine, and cisatracurium are selective in their receptor binding and thus achieve a better clinical side effect profile

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Flashcard 1678051511564

Question
Drugs such as dexmedetomi- dine, ropivacaine, and cisatracurium are [...] in their receptor binding and thus achieve a better clinical side effect profile
Answer
selective


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Drugs such as dexmedetomi- dine, ropivacaine, and cisatracurium are selective in their receptor binding and thus achieve a better clinical side effect profile

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Flashcard 1678052560140

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhout
Question
Drugs that are selective in their receptor binding are
Answer
dexmedetomidine, ropivacaine, and cisatracurium


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Drugs such as dexmedetomi- dine, ropivacaine, and cisatracurium are selective in their receptor binding and thus achieve a better clinical side effect profile

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Flashcard 1678054395148

Question
The drug response equation is derived from the law of [...] and is shown in the following equation, where drug (D) combines with receptor (R) to form a drug receptor complex (DRC) that elicits a tissue response (TR)
Answer
mass action


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The drug response equation is fundamental to pharmacologic principles. 35 It is derived from the law of mass action and is shown in the following equation, where drug (D) combines with receptor (R) to form a drug receptor complex (DRC) that elicits a tissue response (TR)

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Flashcard 1678056754444

Question
With dose-response relationship, the theoretic normal distribution of quantal (desired) responses to increasing drug dose takes the shape of a [...] curve.
Answer
Gaussian


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html>A graphic description of the dose-response relationship is dis- played in Figure 5-2. The theoretic normal distribution of quan- tal (desired) responses to increasing drug dose takes the shape of a Gaussian curve.<html>

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Flashcard 1678058589452

Question
This is the occupancy theory. Simply stated, the magnitude of a drug’s effect is [...] to the number of receptors occu- pied.
Answer
proportional


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This is the occupancy theory. Simply stated, the magnitude of a drug’s effect is proportional to the number of receptors occu- pied.

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Flashcard 1678059638028

Question
This is the occupancy theory. Simply stated, the magnitude of a drug’s effect is proportional to the number of [...] occu- pied.
Answer
receptors


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This is the occupancy theory. Simply stated, the magnitude of a drug’s effect is proportional to the number of receptors occu- pied.

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Flashcard 1678060686604

Question
In a Gaussian distribution curve, the mean, median, and mode are [closer/equidistant] from the two extremes
Answer
equidistant


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In a Gaussian distribution curve, the mean, median, and mode are equidistant from the two extremes

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Flashcard 1678062521612

Question
Therapeutic drug doses reflect [...] doses of a “nor- mal” population of individuals.
Answer
average


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Therapeutic drug doses reflect average doses of a “nor- mal” population of individuals.

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Flashcard 1678063832332

Question
The SEM describes the [...] of the mean. It is equivalent to the SD of the mean
Answer
variance


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The SEM describes the variance of the mean. It is equivalent to the SD of the mean

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Flashcard 1678064880908

Question
Neostigmine is [...] an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.
Answer
not


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Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to

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Flashcard 1678065929484

Question
Neostigmine is not an antagonist of [...] because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.
Answer
rocuronium


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Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with roc

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Flashcard 1678066978060

Question
Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits [...], which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.
Answer
acetylcholinesterase


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Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effe

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Flashcard 1678068026636

Question
Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows [...] to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.
Answer
acetylcholine


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Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial for

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Flashcard 1678069075212

Question
Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with [...] and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.
Answer
rocuronium


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y>Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.

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Flashcard 1678070123788

Question
Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other [...] muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.
Answer
nondepolarizing


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mine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other <span>nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678071434508

Question
Neostigmine is not an antagonist of rocuronium because it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the [...], leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.
Answer
receptor


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ecause it does not compete with rocuronium for the muscle end-plate receptor site. Neostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, which allows acetylcholine to compete effectively with rocuronium and other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for the <span>receptor, leading to a recovery of muscle tone. Therefore, its effect is at least a partial form of indirect antagonism.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678072483084

Question
Drugs that produce surgical depths of anesthesia, such as sevoflurane and other halogenated anesthetics, also have a relatively [narrow/wide] margin of safety
Answer
narrow


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Drugs that produce surgical depths of anesthesia, such as sevoflurane and other halogenated anesthetics, also have a relatively narrow margin of safety

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Flashcard 1678074318092

Question
Drugs that produce surgical depths of anesthesia, such as [desflurance/sevoflurance] and other halogenated anesthetics, also have a relatively narrow margin of safety
Answer
sevoflurane


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Drugs that produce surgical depths of anesthesia, such as sevoflurane and other halogenated anesthetics, also have a relatively narrow margin of safety

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Flashcard 1678076153100

Question
Sevoflurane is administered clinically in an amount that is [...]-fold the MAC (mini- mum alveolar concentration), or the dose at which 50% of the patients do not move on surgical stimulation. The MAC can be lethal if the volume percentage delivered is increased to 1.7- to 2.0-fold and maintained for a prolonged period of time.
Answer
1.3- to 1.4


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Sevoflurane is administered clinically in an amount that is 1.3- to 1.4-fold the MAC (mini- mum alveolar concentration), or the dose at which 50% of the patients do not move on surgical stimulation. The MAC can be lethal if the volume percentage delivered

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Flashcard 1678077201676

Question
Sevoflurane is administered clinically in an amount that is 1.3- to 1.4-fold the MAC (mini- mum alveolar concentration), or the dose at which 50% of the patients do not move on surgical stimulation. The MAC can be lethal if the volume percentage delivered is increased to [...]fold and maintained for a prolonged period of time.
Answer
1.7- to 2.0-


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nically in an amount that is 1.3- to 1.4-fold the MAC (mini- mum alveolar concentration), or the dose at which 50% of the patients do not move on surgical stimulation. The MAC can be lethal if the volume percentage delivered is increased to <span>1.7- to 2.0-fold and maintained for a prolonged period of time.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678078250252

Question
(ED 50 )—the dose at which [...]% of a population responds as desired. The ED 50 is often used for comparing the potency of drugs within a class. Because the ED 50 is derived from the linear portion of the quantal dose-response curve (20% to 80% of the responders), relatively accurate com- parisons of drugs that cause similar responses can be made
Answer
50


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(ED 50 )—the dose at which 50% of a population responds as desired. The ED 50 is often used for comparing the potency of drugs within a class. Because the ED 50 is derived from the linear portion of

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Flashcard 1678080871692

Question
(ED 50 )—the dose at which 50% of a population responds as desired. The ED 50 is often used for [...] the potency of drugs within a class. Because the ED 50 is derived from the linear portion of the quantal dose-response curve (20% to 80% of the responders), relatively accurate com- parisons of drugs that cause similar responses can be made
Answer
comparing


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(ED 50 )—the dose at which 50% of a population responds as desired. The ED 50 is often used for comparing the potency of drugs within a class. Because the ED 50 is derived from the linear portion of the quantal dose-response curve (20% to 80% of the responders), relatively accur

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Flashcard 1678081920268

Question
(ED 50 )—the dose at which 50% of a population responds as [unplanned/desired]. The ED 50 is often used for comparing the potency of drugs within a class. Because the ED 50 is derived from the linear portion of the quantal dose-response curve (20% to 80% of the responders), relatively accurate com- parisons of drugs that cause similar responses can be made
Answer
desired


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(ED 50 )—the dose at which 50% of a population responds as desired. The ED 50 is often used for comparing the potency of drugs within a class. Because the ED 50 is derived from the linear portion of the quantal dose-response curve (20%

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Flashcard 1678083755276

Question
[...] is the first and so far only drug in a new class of muscle relaxant reversal drugs.
Answer
Sugammadex


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Sugammadex is the first and so far only drug in a new class of muscle relaxant reversal drugs. Known as a selective relaxant bind- ing agent (SRBA), sugammadex offers a unique mechanism in that

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Flashcard 1678085590284

Question
Known as a selective relaxant bind- ing agent (SRBA), sugammadex offers a unique mechanism in that it [...] the muscle-relaxant molecule, rendering it inactive.
Answer
encapsulates


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Sugammadex is the first and so far only drug in a new class of muscle relaxant reversal drugs. Known as a selective relaxant bind- ing agent (SRBA), sugammadex offers a unique mechanism in that it encapsulates the muscle-relaxant molecule, rendering it inac- tive. The complex formed is eliminated. This is a form of chemical antagonism, because no direct receptor action is evident.

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Flashcard 1678087687436

Question
Sugammadex is the first and so far only drug in a new class of muscle relaxant reversal drugs. Known as a selective relaxant bind- ing agent (SRBA), sugammadex offers a unique mechanism in that it encapsulates the muscle-relaxant molecule, rendering it inac- tive. The complex formed is eliminated. This is a form of chemical [agonism/antagonism], because no direct receptor action is evident.
Answer
antagonism


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gs. Known as a selective relaxant bind- ing agent (SRBA), sugammadex offers a unique mechanism in that it encapsulates the muscle-relaxant molecule, rendering it inac- tive. The complex formed is eliminated. This is a form of chemical <span>antagonism, because no direct receptor action is evident.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678089522444

Question
Clinically, a [...] dose-response curve provides information on the frequency with which a given drug dose produces a desired ther- apeutic response in a patient population.
Answer
quantal


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Clinically, a quantal dose-response curve provides information on the frequency with which a given drug dose produces a desired ther- apeutic response in a patient population.

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Flashcard 1678090571020

Question
The desired tissue response is observed when sufficient recep- tors have been [...] and activated by free drug. This process obeys the law of mass action: At steady state, equilibrium exists between bound and unbound drug receptors and the concentra- tion of free unbound drug at the site.
Answer
occupied


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The desired tissue response is observed when sufficient recep- tors have been occupied and activated by free drug. This process obeys the law of mass action: At steady state, equilibrium exists between bound and unbound drug receptors and the concentra- tion of free unb

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Flashcard 1678091619596

Question
The desired tissue response is observed when sufficient recep- tors have been occupied and [...] by free drug. This process obeys the law of mass action: At steady state, equilibrium exists between bound and unbound drug receptors and the concentra- tion of free unbound drug at the site.
Answer
activated


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The desired tissue response is observed when sufficient recep- tors have been occupied and activated by free drug. This process obeys the law of mass action: At steady state, equilibrium exists between bound and unbound drug receptors and the concentra- tion of free unbound drug at t

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Flashcard 1678092668172

Question
Specific characteristics of the drug and the receptor determine the [...] and dissociation of a drug with regard to its receptor and the kinetic, k, rates, which are constants
Answer
association


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Specific characteristics of the drug and the receptor determine the association and dissociation of a drug with regard to its receptor and the kinetic, k, rates, which are constants

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Flashcard 1678093716748

Question
It is now known that drug delivery sufficient to occupy [...]% of the receptors is in many instances all that is required for a maximum tissue response to occur.
Answer
1


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It is now known that drug delivery sufficient to occupy 1% of the receptors is in many instances all that is required for a maximum tissue response to occur.

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Flashcard 1678094765324

Question
the syn- thesis and destruction of receptor proteins occur at a much more [...] rate than was previously believed—within minutes rather than days.
Answer
rapid


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the syn- thesis and destruction of receptor proteins occur at a much more rapid rate than was previously believed—within minutes rather than days.

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Flashcard 1678095813900

Question
the syn- thesis and destruction of receptor proteins occur at a much more rapid rate than was previously believed—within [mins/hrs] rather than days.
Answer
minutes


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the syn- thesis and destruction of receptor proteins occur at a much more rapid rate than was previously believed—within minutes rather than days.

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Flashcard 1678097648908

Question
the syn- thesis and destruction of receptor proteins occur at a much more rapid rate than was previously believed—within minutes rather than [mins/hrs/days].
Answer
days


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the syn- thesis and destruction of receptor proteins occur at a much more rapid rate than was previously believed—within minutes rather than days.

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Flashcard 1678101056780

Question
[...]-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug
Answer
Receptor up


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Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug

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Flashcard 1678102105356

Question
Receptor up-regulation and [...]-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug
Answer
down


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Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug

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Flashcard 1678103416076

Question
Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during [...] infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug
Answer
drug


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Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug

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Flashcard 1678104464652

Question
Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free [...] drug
Answer
unbound


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Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug

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Flashcard 1678105513228

Question
Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being [...] in response to availability of free unbound drug
Answer
synthesized


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Receptor up-regulation and down-regulation can occur during drug infusion, with new receptor protein being synthesized in response to availability of free unbound drug

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Flashcard 1678106561804

Question
The terms affinity and efficacy (intrinsic activity) describe
Answer
the degree of drug receptor interaction for a given drug and recep- tor protein population (e.g., GABA A and propofol).


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The terms affinity and efficacy (intrinsic activity) describe the degree of drug receptor interaction for a given drug and recep- tor protein population (e.g., GABA A and propofol).

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Flashcard 1678107610380

Question
The terms affinity and efficacy (intrinsic activity) describe the degree of drug receptor [...] for a given drug and recep- tor protein population (e.g., GABA A and propofol).
Answer
interaction


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The terms affinity and efficacy (intrinsic activity) describe the degree of drug receptor interaction for a given drug and recep- tor protein population (e.g., GABA A and propofol).

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Flashcard 1678108658956

Question
The observed tissue response reflects the quantity of [...] complexes intact at any given moment
Answer
drug receptor


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The observed tissue response reflects the quantity of drug receptor complexes intact at any given moment

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Flashcard 1678109707532

Question
Pure pharmacologic antagonist drugs are similar in molecular structure to their corresponding [...] drugs.
Answer
agonist


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Pure pharmacologic antagonist drugs are similar in molecular structure to their corresponding agonist drugs.

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Flashcard 1678110756108

Question
Pure pharmacologic antagonist drugs are similar in [...] structure to their corresponding agonist drugs.
Answer
molecular


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Pure pharmacologic antagonist drugs are similar in molecular structure to their corresponding agonist drugs.

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Flashcard 1678111804684

Question
Pure pharmacologic antagonist drugs are [...] in molecular structure to their corresponding agonist drugs.
Answer
similar


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Pure pharmacologic antagonist drugs are similar in molecular structure to their corresponding agonist drugs.

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Flashcard 1678112853260

Question
However, owing to the addition or subtraction of one or more chemical moieties, Pure Antagonists are [able/unable] to initiate the receptor protein conformational shift necessary for eliciting a tissue response. Such antagonist drugs have receptor affinity but lack intrinsic activity or efficacy.
Answer
unable


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However, owing to the addition or subtraction of one or more chemical moieties, Pure Antagonists are unable to initiate the receptor protein conformational shift necessary for eliciting a tissue response. Such antagonist drugs have receptor affinity but lack intrinsic activity or efficacy.</s

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Flashcard 1678114688268

Question
However, owing to the addition or subtraction of one or more chemical moieties, Pure Antagonists are unable to initiate the receptor protein conformational shift necessary for eliciting a tissue response. Such antagonist drugs have receptor affinity but lack [...] activity or efficacy.
Answer
intrinsic


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o the addition or subtraction of one or more chemical moieties, Pure Antagonists are unable to initiate the receptor protein conformational shift necessary for eliciting a tissue response. Such antagonist drugs have receptor affinity but lack <span>intrinsic activity or efficacy.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678153747724

Tags
#5 #jrs #nagelhount
Question

[...] is the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the algebraic sum of their individual effects. 1 + 1 = 3
Answer
Synergism


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Addition The combined effect of two drugs acting via the same mechanism is equal to that expected by simple addition of their individual actions. 1 + 1 = 2 Synergism The combined effect of two drugs is greater than the algebraic sum of their individual effects. 1 + 1 = 3 Potentiation The enhancement of the action of one drug by a second drug th

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Flashcard 1678156369164

Question
The enhancement of the action of one drug by a second drug that has no detectable action of its own. 1 + 0 = 3
Answer
Potentiation


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the same mechanism is equal to that expected by simple addition of their individual actions. 1 + 1 = 2 Synergism The combined effect of two drugs is greater than the algebraic sum of their individual effects. 1 + 1 = 3 Potentiation <span>The enhancement of the action of one drug by a second drug that has no detectable action of its own. 1 + 0 = 3 Antagonism The action of one drug opposes the action of another. 1 + 1 = 0<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678157417740

Question
Antagonism is
Answer
The action of one drug opposes the action of another. 1 + 1 = 0


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sm The combined effect of two drugs is greater than the algebraic sum of their individual effects. 1 + 1 = 3 Potentiation The enhancement of the action of one drug by a second drug that has no detectable action of its own. 1 + 0 = 3 <span>Antagonism The action of one drug opposes the action of another. 1 + 1 = 0<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678159252748

Question
[...] is the combined effect of two drugs acting via the same mechanism is equal to that expected by simple addition of their individual actions. 1 + 1 = 2

Answer
Addition


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Addition The combined effect of two drugs acting via the same mechanism is equal to that expected by simple addition of their individual actions. 1 + 1 = 2 Synergism The combined effect of

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Flashcard 1678180224268

Question
The anesthetist uses pharmacologic intervention to elicit a desired patient response. The site of the intervention is the known as [...],
Answer
bio- sphere or protein drug receptor


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The anesthetist uses pharmacologic intervention to elicit a desired patient response. The site of the intervention is the bio- sphere, or the protein drug receptor, which is the primary regulator of the therapeutic response. Observed variation in patient drug response reflects the functionality of the biospher

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Flashcard 1678182845708

Question
Observed variation in patient drug response reflects the functionality of the biosphere and [...], as well as physiologic variability

Note: The site of the intervention is the bio- sphere, or the protein drug receptor, which is the primary regulator of the therapeutic response.
Answer
genetics


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se. The site of the intervention is the bio- sphere, or the protein drug receptor, which is the primary regulator of the therapeutic response. Observed variation in patient drug response reflects the functionality of the biosphere and <span>genetics, as well as physiologic variability<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678185729292

Question
The mean, median, and mode typically describe the [...] relationship of a “normally distributed” population.
Answer
dose- response


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The mean, median, and mode typically describe the dose- response relationship of a “normally distributed” population.

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Flashcard 1678186777868

Question
The SD, SEM, and median effective dose provide a description of a [...] response to a drug. Such descriptors provide only an approximate dosage; the anesthetist must adjust this dosage for each patient to achieve the desired physiologic response
Answer
population’s


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The SD, SEM, and median effective dose provide a description of a population’s response to a drug. Such descriptors provide only an approximate dosage; the anesthetist must adjust this dosage for each patient to achieve the desired physiologic response</

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Flashcard 1678187826444

Question
The SD, SEM, and median effective dose provide a description of a population’s response to a drug. Such descriptors provide only an approximate dosage; the anesthetist must adjust this dosage for each patient to achieve the desired [...] response
Answer
physiologic


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an>The SD, SEM, and median effective dose provide a description of a population’s response to a drug. Such descriptors provide only an approximate dosage; the anesthetist must adjust this dosage for each patient to achieve the desired <span>physiologic response<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678193593612

Question
Each drug-receptor interaction at the protein receptor elicits a fractional tissue response, and the [...] of the fractional responses provides the observed response.
Answer
sum


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span>Viewed at the molecular level, the observed response to a drug represents countless individual drug responses at the biosphere. Each drug-receptor interaction at the protein receptor elicits a fractional tissue response, and the sum of the fractional responses provides the observed response.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1678195428620

Question
This conformational shift causes a central space or [...] to open, allowing specific ions to enter or leave the cell or a G protein to be activated
Answer
channel


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In accor- dance with the law of mass action, when free drug binds to a recep- tor, a conformational shift occurs in the receptor protein. This shift causes a central space or channel to open, allowing specific ions to enter or leave the cell or a G protein to be activated, resulting in a biochemical cascade yielding pharmacologic effects. The resultant tissue res

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Flashcard 1678196477196

Question
In accor- dance with the law of mass action, when free drug binds to a recep- tor, a [...] shift occurs in the receptor protein.
Answer
conformational


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In accor- dance with the law of mass action, when free drug binds to a recep- tor, a conformational shift occurs in the receptor protein. This shift causes a central space or channel to open, allowing specific ions to enter or leave the cell or a G protein to be activated, resulting

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Flashcard 1678200147212

Question
[...] drugs also bind to the receptor but lack the ability to initiate the required protein conformational shift.
Answer
Antagonist


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Antagonist drugs also bind to the receptor but lack the ability to initiate the required protein conformational shift. The sum of fractional tissue responses elicited when an antagonist is prese

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Flashcard 1678203030796

Question
Molecular pharmacology is
Answer
identifying site-specific and age- related causes for the observed variation in patient drug response.


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Molecular pharmacology is identifying site-specific and age- related causes for the observed variation in patient drug response.

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