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Flashcard 1425700162828

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
[...] is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price
Answer


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Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price

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3. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
#13; In this reading, we will explore a model of household behavior that yields the consumer demand curve. Demand , in economics, is the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase a given amount of a good or service at a given price. <span>Supply is the willingness of sellers to offer a given quantity of a good or service for a given price. Later, study on the theory of the firm will yield the supply curve. The demand and supply model is useful in explaining how price and quantity traded are determined and ho







Flashcard 1438270491916

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
[...] income calculations reflect non-cash items and ignore the time value of money.
Answer
Accounting


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d>Accounting profits only measure the return on the invested capital. Accounting income calculations reflect non-cash items and ignore the time value of money. They are important for some purposes, but for capital budgeting, cash flows are what are relevant. Economic income is an investment's after-tax cash flow plus the change in the market value. Financing costs are ignored in computing economic income. &

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Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting decisions are based on incremental after-tax cash flows discounted at the opportunity cost of capital. Assumptions of capital budgeting are: Capital budgeting decisions must be based on cash flows, not accounting income. Accounting profits only measure the return on the invested capital. Accounting income calculations reflect non-cash items and ignore the time value of money. They are important for some purposes, but for capital budgeting, cash flows are what are relevant. Economic income is an investment's after-tax cash flow plus the change in the market value. Financing costs are ignored in computing economic income. Cash flow timing is critical because money is worth more the sooner you get it. Also, firms must have adequate cash flow to meet maturing obligations. The opportunity cost should be charged against a project. Remember that just because something is on hand does not mean it's free. See below for the definition of opportunity cost. Expected future cash flows must be measured on an after-tax basis. The firm's wealth depends on its usable after-tax funds. Ignore how the project is financed. Interest payments should not be included in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which







Flashcard 1438509829388

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10 #subject-2-basic-principles-of-capital-budgeting
Question

The opportunity cost of capital for a risky project is the expected rate of return on a ______.

A. government security with the same maturity as the project.
B. well-diversified portfolio of common stocks.
C. portfolio of securities with similar risk to that of the project

Answer
Correct Answer: C


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ties create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are <span>a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. &#13

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Subject 2. Basic Principles of Capital Budgeting
d in the estimated cash flows since the effects of debt financing are reflected in the cost of capital used to discount the cash flows. The existence of a project depends on business factors, not financing. <span>Important capital budgeting concepts: A sunk cost is a cash outlay that has already been incurred and which cannot be recovered regardless of whether a project is accepted or rejected. Since sunk costs are not increment costs, they should not be included in the capital budgeting analysis. For example, a small bookstore is considering opening a coffee shop within its store, which will generate an annual net cash outflow of $10,000 from selling coffee. That is, the coffee shop will always be losing money. In the previous year, the bookstore spent $5,000 to hire a consultant to perform an analysis. This $5,000 consulting fee is a sunk cost; whether the coffee shop is opened or not, the $5,000 is spent. Incremental cash flow is the net cash flow attributable to an investment project. It represents the change in the firm's total cash flow that occurs as a direct result of accepting the project. Forget sunk costs. Subtract opportunity costs. Consider side effects on other parts of the firm: externalities and cannibalization. Recognize the investment and recovery of net working capital. Opportunity cost is the return on the best alternative use of an asset or the highest return that will not be earned if funds are invested in a particular project. For example, to continue with the bookstore example, the space to be occupied by the coffee shop is an opportunity cost - it could be used to sell books and generate a $5,000 annual net cash inflow. Externalities are the effects of a project on cash flows in other parts of a firm. Although they are difficult to quantify, they should be considered. Externalities can be either positive or negative: Positive externalities create benefits for other parts of the firm. For example, the coffee shop may generate some additional customers for the bookstore (who otherwise may not buy books there). Future cash flows generated by positive externalities occur with the project and do not occur without the project, so they are incremental. Negative externalities create costs for other parts of the firm. For example, if the bookstore is considering opening a branch two blocks away, some customers who buy books at the old store will switch to the new branch. The customers lost by the old store are a negative externality. The primary type of negative externality is cannibalization, which occurs when the introduction of a new product causes sales of existing products to decline. Future cash flows represented by negative externalities occur regardless of the project, so they are non-incremental. Such cash flows represent a transfer from existing projects to new projects, and thus should be subtracted from the new projects' cash flows. Conventional versus non-conventional cash flows. A conventional cash flow pattern is one with an initial outflow followed by a series of inflows. In a non-conventional cash flow pattern, the initial outflow can be followed by inflows and/or outflows. Some project interactions: Indepe







Flashcard 1633232489740

Tags
#reading-7-discounted-cashflows-applications
Question
Money market yield is also known as [...]
Answer
CD equivalent yield


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Subject 4. Different Yield Measures of a U.S. Treasury Bill
se price, not face value. It is not an annualized yield. The effective annual yield is the annualized HPY on the basis of a 365-day year. It incorporates the effect of compounding interest. <span>Money market yield (also known as CD equivalent yield) is the annualized HPY on the basis of a 360-day year using simple interest. Example An investor buys a $1,000 face-value T-bill due







Flashcard 1645860228364

Question

According to Chebyshev’s inequality, for any distribution with finite variance, the proportion of the observations within k standard deviations of the arithmetic mean is at least [...] for all k > 1.

Answer
1 − 1/k2


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According to Chebyshev’s inequality, for any distribution with finite variance , the proportion of the observations within k standard deviations of the arithmetic mean is at least 1 − 1/k 2 for all k > 1.







Flashcard 1664685575436

Tags
#reading-9-probability-concepts
Question
What words help you know the probability is conditional?
Answer
"given that" or "you are told that,"


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Look out for the words "given that" or "you are told that," which will help you know that the probability is conditional. In the absence of such information, the probability will be unconditional.

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Subject 2. Unconditional, Conditional, and Joint Probabilities
oil price, P(B), is 0.4. The probability of an increase in airfare given an increase in oil price, P(A|B), is 0.3. The joint probability of an increase in both oil price and airfare, P(AB), is 0.3 x 0.4 = 0.12. Hint: <span>Look out for the words "given that" or "you are told that," which will help you know that the probability is conditional. In the absence of such information, the probability will be unconditional. The letter after the | is the event that we know has definitely occurred, whereas the letter before the | is the event whose probability we are trying to calculate. <span>







Flashcard 1732440624396



Tags
#has-images #value-proposition-canvas
Question
CADETE
Answer
Canvas

Design

Test

Evolve


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Flashcard 1736012598540

Tags
#stochastics
Question
If the mean of the increment for any two points in time is equal to the time difference multiplied by some constant , then the resulting stochastic process is said to have [...]
Answer
drift


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If the mean of the increment for any two points in time is equal to the time difference multiplied by some constant , then the resulting stochastic process is said to have drift

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Stochastic process - Wikipedia
e space can be n {\displaystyle n} -dimensional Euclidean space. [71] [79] [83] If the mean of any increment is zero, then the resulting Wiener or Brownian motion process is said to have zero drift. <span>If the mean of the increment for any two points in time is equal to the time difference multiplied by some constant μ {\displaystyle \mu } , which is a real number, then the resulting stochastic process is said to have drift μ {\displaystyle \mu } . [84] [85] [86] Almost surely, a sample path of a Wiener process is continuous everywhere but nowhere differentiable. It can be considered a continuous version of the simple rando








Reading 39  Portfolio Management: An Overview Intro
#has-images #portfolio-session #reading-portafolios
In this reading we explain why the portfolio approach is important to all types of investors in achieving their financial goals. We compare the financial needs of different types of individual and institutional investors. After we outline the steps in the portfolio management process, we compare and contrast the types of investment management products that are available to investors and how they apply to the portfolio approach.

One of the biggest challenges faced by individuals and institutions is to decide how to invest for future needs. For individuals, the goal might be to fund retirement needs. For such institutions as insurance companies, the goal is to fund future liabilities in the form of insurance claims, whereas endowments seek to provide income to meet the ongoing needs of such institutions as universities. Regardless of the ultimate goal, all face the same set of challenges that extend beyond just the choice of what asset classes to invest in. They ultimately center on formulating basic principles that determine how to think about investing. One important question is: Should we invest in individual securities, evaluating each in isolation, or should we take a portfolio approach? By “portfolio approach,” we mean evaluating individual securities in relation to their contribution to the investment characteristics of the whole portfolio. In the following section, we illustrate a number of reasons why a diversified portfolio perspective is important.

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Reading 40  Risk Management: An Introduction Intro
#has-images #portfolio-session #reading-tiburon

Risk—and risk management—is an inescapable part of economic activity. People generally manage their affairs in order to be as happy and secure as their environment and resources will allow. But regardless of how carefully these affairs are managed, there is risk because the outcome, whether good or bad, is seldom predictable with complete certainty. There is risk inherent in nearly everything we do, but this reading will focus on economic and financial risk, particularly as it relates to investment management.

All businesses and investors manage risk, whether consciously or not, in the choices they make. At its core, business and investing are about allocating resources and capital to chosen risks. In their decision process, within an environment of uncertainty, these entities may take steps to avoid some risks, pursue the risks that provide the highest rewards, and measure and mitigate their exposure to these risks as necessary. Risk management processes and tools make difficult business and financial problems easier to address in an uncertain world. Risk is not just a matter of fate; it is something that organizations can actively control with their decisions, within a risk management framework. Risk is an integral part of the business or investment process. Even in the earliest models of modern portfolio theory, such as mean–variance portfolio optimization and the capital asset pricing model, investment return is linked directly to risk but requires that risk be managed optimally. Proper identification and measurement of risk, and keeping risks aligned with the goals of the enterprise, are key factors in managing businesses and investments. Good risk management results in a higher chance of a preferred outcome—more value for the company or portfolio or more utility for the individual.

Portfolio managers need to be familiar with risk management not only to improve the portfolio’s risk–return outcome, but also because of two other ways in which they use risk management at an enterprise level. First, they help to manage their own companies that have their own enterprise risk issues. Second, many portfolio assets are claims on companies that have risks. Portfolio managers need to evaluate the companies’ risks and how those companies are addressing them.

This reading takes a broad approach that addresses both the risk management of enterprises in general and portfolio risk management. The principles underlying portfolio risk management are generally applicable to the risk management of financial and non-financial institutions as well.

The concept of risk management is also relevant to individuals. Although many large entities formally practice risk management, most individuals practice it more informally and some practice it haphazardly, oftentimes responding to risk events after they occur. Although many individuals do take reasonable precautions against unwanted risks, these precautions are often against obvious risks, such as sticking a wet hand into an electrical socket or swallowing poison. The more subtle risks are often ignored. Many individuals simply do not view risk management as a formal, systematic process that would help them achieve not only their financial goals but also the ultimate end result of happiness, or maximum utility as economists like to call it, but they should.

Although the primary focus of this reading is on institutions, we will also cover risk management as it applies to individuals. We will show that many common themes underlie risk management—themes that are applicable to both organizations and individuals.

Although often viewed as defensive, risk management is a valuable offensive weapon in the manager’s arsenal. In the quest for preferred outcomes, such as higher profit, returns, or share price, management does not usually get to choose the outcomes but does choose the risks it takes in pursuit of those outcomes. The choice of which risks to undertake through the allocation of its scarce resources is the key

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Reading 41  Portfolio Risk and Return: Part I (Intro)
#has-images #portfolio-session #reading-rocky-balboa

Construction of an optimal portfolio is an important objective for an investor. In this reading, we will explore the process of examining the risk and return characteristics of individual assets, creating all possible portfolios, selecting the most efficient portfolios, and ultimately choosing the optimal portfolio tailored to the individual in question.

During the process of constructing the optimal portfolio, several factors and investment characteristics are considered. The most important of those factors are risk and return of the individual assets under consideration. Correlations among individual assets along with risk and return are important determinants of portfolio risk. Creating a portfolio for an investor requires an understanding of the risk profile of the investor. Although we will not discuss the process of determining risk aversion for individuals or institutional investors, it is necessary to obtain such information for making an informed decision. In this reading, we will explain the broad types of investors and how their risk–return preferences can be formalized to select the optimal portfolio from among the infinite portfolios contained in the investment opportunity set.

The reading is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the investment characteristics of assets. In particular, we show the various types of returns and risks, their computation and their applicability to the selection of appropriate assets for inclusion in a portfolio. Section 3 discusses risk aversion and how indifference curves, which incorporate individual preferences, can be constructed. The indifference curves are then applied to the selection of an optimal portfolio using two risky assets. Section 4 provides an understanding and computation of portfolio risk. The role of correlation and diversification of portfolio risk are examined in detail. Section 5 begins with the risky assets available to investors and constructs a large number of risky portfolios. It illustrates the process of narrowing the choices to an efficient set of risky portfolios before identifying the optimal risky portfolio. The risky portfolio is combined with investor risk preferences to generate the optimal risky portfolio. A summary concludes this reading.

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Reading 42  Portfolio Risk and Return: Part II (Intro)
#has-images #portfolio-session #reading-apollo-creed

Our objective in this reading is to identify the optimal risky portfolio for all investors by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The foundation of this reading is the computation of risk and return of a portfolio and the role that correlation plays in diversifying portfolio risk and arriving at the efficient frontier. The efficient frontier and the capital allocation line consist of portfolios that are generally acceptable to all investors. By combining an investor’s individual indifference curves with the market-determined capital allocation line, we are able to illustrate that the only optimal risky portfolio for an investor is the portfolio of all risky assets (i.e., the market).

Additionally, we discuss the capital market line, a special case of the capital allocation line that is used for passive investor portfolios. We also differentiate between systematic and nonsystematic risk, and explain why investors are compensated for bearing systematic risk but receive no compensation for bearing nonsystematic risk. We discuss in detail the CAPM, which is a simple model for estimating asset returns based only on the asset’s systematic risk. Finally, we illustrate how the CAPM allows security selection to build an optimal portfolio for an investor by changing the asset mix beyond a passive market portfolio.

The reading is organized as follows. In Section 2, we discuss the consequences of combining a risk-free asset with the market portfolio and provide an interpretation of the capital market line. Section 3 decomposes total risk into systematic and nonsystematic risk and discusses the characteristics of and differences between the two kinds of risk. We also introduce return-generating models, including the single-index model, and illustrate the calculation of beta by using formulas and graphically by using the security characteristic line. In Section 4, we introduce the capital asset pricing model and the security market line. We discuss many applications of the CAPM and the SML throughout the reading, including the use of expected return in making capital budgeting decisions, the evaluation of portfolios using the CAPM’s risk-adjusted return as the benchmark, security selection, and determining whether adding a new security to the current portfolio is appropriate. Our focus on the CAPM does not suggest that the CAPM is the only viable asset pricing model. Although the CAPM is an excellent starting point, more advanced readings expand on these discussions and extend the analysis to other models that account for multiple explanatory factors. A preview of a number of these models is given in Section 5, and a summary and practice problems conclude the reading.

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Reading 43  Basics of Portfolio Planning and Construction Intro
#has-images #portfolio-session #reading-bob-el-constructor

To build a suitable portfolio for a client, investment advisers should first seek to understand the client’s investment goals, resources, circumstances, and constraints. Investors can be categorized into broad groups based on shared characteristics with respect to these factors (e.g., various types of individual investors and institutional investors). Even investors within a given type, however, will invariably have a number of distinctive requirements. In this reading, we consider in detail the planning for investment success based on an individualized understanding of the client.

This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the investment policy statement, a written document that captures the client’s investment objectives and the constraints. Section 3 discusses the portfolio construction process, including the first step of specifying a strategic asset allocation for the client. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading.

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Reading 44  Market Organization and Structure (Intro)
#has-images #manzana-session #reading-arbol-de-manzanas

Financial analysts gather and process information to make investment decisions, including those related to buying and selling assets. Generally, the decisions involve trading securities, currencies, contracts, commodities, and real assets such as real estate. Consider several examples:

  • Fixed income analysts evaluate issuer credit-worthiness and macroeconomic prospects to determine which bonds and notes to buy or sell to preserve capital while obtaining a fair rate of return.

  • Stock analysts study corporate values to determine which stocks to buy or sell to maximize the value of their stock portfolios.

  • Corporate treasurers analyze exchange rates, interest rates, and credit conditions to determine which currencies to trade and which notes to buy or sell to have funds available in a needed currency.

  • Risk managers work for producers or users of commodities to calculate how many commodity futures contracts to buy or sell to manage inventory risks.

Financial analysts must understand the characteristics of the markets in which their decisions will be executed. This reading, by examining those markets from the analyst’s perspective, provides that understanding.

This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 examines the functions of the financial system. Section 3 introduces assets that investors, information-motivated traders, and risk managers use to advance their financial objectives and presents ways practitioners classify these assets into markets. These assets include such financial instruments as securities, currencies, and some contracts; certain commodities; and real assets. Financial analysts must know the distinctive characteristics of these trading assets.

Section 4 is an overview of financial intermediaries (entities that facilitate the functioning of the financial system). Section 5 discusses the positions that can be obtained while trading assets. You will learn about the benefits and risks of long and short positions, how these positions can be financed, and how the financing affects their risks. Section 6 discusses how market participants order trades and how markets process those orders. These processes must be understood to achieve trading objectives while controlling transaction costs.

Section 7 focuses on describing primary markets. Section 8 describes the structures of secondary markets in securities. Sections 9 and 10 close the reading with discussions of the characteristics of a well-functioning financial system and of how regulation helps make financial markets function better. A summary reviews the reading’s major ideas and points, and practice problems conclude.

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Reading 45  Security Market Indexes (Intro)
#has-images #manzana-session #reading-dedo-indice

Investors gather and analyze vast amounts of information about security markets on a continual basis. Because this work can be both time consuming and data intensive, investors often use a single measure that consolidates this information and reflects the performance of an entire security market.

Security market indexes were first introduced as a simple measure to reflect the performance of the US stock market. Since then, security market indexes have evolved into important multi-purpose tools that help investors track the performance of various security markets, estimate risk, and evaluate the performance of investment managers. They also form the basis for new investment products.

 

in·dex, noun (pl. in·dex·es or in·di·ces) Latin indic-, index, from indicare to indicate: an indicator, sign, or measure of something.

ORIGIN OF MARKET INDEXES

Investors had access to regularly published data on individual security prices in London as early as 1698, but nearly 200 years passed before they had access to a simple indicator to reflect security market information.1 To give readers a sense of how the US stock market in general performed on a given day, publishers Charles H. Dow and Edward D. Jones introduced the Dow Jones Average, the world’s first security market index, in 1884.2 The index, which appeared in The Customers’ Afternoon Letter, consisted of the stocks of nine railroads and two industrial companies. It eventually became the Dow Jones Transportation Average.3Convinced that industrial companies, rather than railroads, would be “the great speculative market” of the future, Dow and Jones introduced a second index in May 1896—the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). It had an initial value of 40.94 and consisted of 12 stocks from major US industries.4,5 Today, investors can choose from among thousands of indexes to measure and monitor different security markets and asset classes.

This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 defines a security market index and explains how to calculate the price return and total return of an index for a single period and over multiple periods. Section 3 describes how indexes are constructed and managed. Section 4 discusses the use of market indexes. Sections 5, 6, and 7 discuss various types of indexes, and the final section summarizes the reading. Practice problems follow the conclusions and summary.

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Reading 46  Market Efficiency (Intro)
#has-images #manzana-session #reading-pure-de-manzana

Market efficiency concerns the extent to which market prices incorporate available information. If market prices do not fully incorporate information, then opportunities may exist to make a profit from the gathering and processing of information. The subject of market efficiency is, therefore, of great interest to investment managers, as illustrated in Example 1.

EXAMPLE 1

Market Efficiency and Active Manager Selection

The chief investment officer (CIO) of a major university endowment fund has listed eight steps in the active manager selection process that can be applied both to traditional investments (e.g., common equity and fixed-income securities) and to alternative investments (e.g., private equity, hedge funds, and real assets). The first step specified is the evaluation of market opportunity:

What is the opportunity and why is it there? To answer this question we start by studying capital markets and the types of managers operating within those markets. We identify market inefficiencies and try to understand their causes, such as regulatory structures or behavioral biases. We can rule out many broad groups of managers and strategies by simply determining that the degree of market inefficiency necessary to support a strategy is implausible. Importantly, we consider the past history of active returns meaningless unless we understand why markets will allow those active returns to continue into the future.1

The CIO’s description underscores the importance of not assuming that past active returns that might be found in a historical dataset will repeat themselves in the future. Active returns refer to returns earned by strategies that do not assume that all information is fully reflected in market prices.

Governments and market regulators also care about the extent to which market prices incorporate information. Efficient markets imply informative prices—prices that accurately reflect available information about fundamental values. In market-based economies, market prices help determine which companies (and which projects) obtain capital. If these prices do not efficiently incorporate information about a company’s prospects, then it is possible that funds will be misdirected. By contrast, prices that are informative help direct scarce resources and funds available for investment to their highest-valued uses.2 Informative prices thus promote economic growth. The efficiency of a country’s capital markets (in which businesses raise financing) is an important characteristic of a well-functioning financial system.

The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 provides specifics on how the efficiency of an asset market is described and discusses the factors affecting (i.e., contributing to and impeding) market efficiency. Section 3 presents an influential three-way classification of the efficiency of security markets and discusses its implications for fundamental analysis, technical analysis, and portfolio management. Section 4 presents several market anomalies (apparent market inefficiencies that have received enough attention to be individually identified and named) and describes how these anomalies relate to investment strategies. Section 5 introduces behavioral finance and how that field of study relates to market efficiency. A summ

...

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Reading 47  Overview of Equity Securities (Intro)
#has-images #lingote-de-oro-session #reading-ana-de-la-garza

Equity securities represent ownership claims on a company’s net assets. As an asset class, equity plays a fundamental role in investment analysis and portfolio management because it represents a significant portion of many individual and institutional investment portfolios.

The study of equity securities is important for many reasons. First, the decision on how much of a client’s portfolio to allocate to equities affects the risk and return characteristics of the entire portfolio. Second, different types of equity securities have different ownership claims on a company’s net assets, which affect their risk and return characteristics in different ways. Finally, variations in the features of equity securities are reflected in their market prices, so it is important to understand the valuation implications of these features.

This reading provides an overview of equity securities and their different features and establishes the background required to analyze and value equity securities in a global context. It addresses the following questions:

  • What distinguishes common shares from preference shares, and what purposes do these securities serve in financing a company’s operations?

  • What are convertible preference shares, and why are they often used to raise equity for unseasoned or highly risky companies?

  • What are private equity securities, and how do they differ from public equity securities?

  • What are depository receipts and their various types, and what is the rationale for investing in them?

  • What are the risk factors involved in investing in equity securities?

  • How do equity securities create company value?

  • What is the relationship between a company’s cost of equity, its return on equity, and investors’ required rate of return?

The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of global equity markets and their historical performance. Section 3 examines the different types and characteristics of equity securities, and Section 4 outlines the differences between public and private equity securities. Section 5 provides an overview of the various types of equity securities listed and traded in global markets. Section 6 discusses the risk and return characteristics of equity securities. Section 7 examines the role of equity securities in creating company value and the relationship between a company’s cost of equity, its return on equity, and investors’ required rate of return. The final section summarizes the reading.

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Reading 48  Introduction to Industry and Company Analysis (Intro)
#has-images #lingote-de-oro-session #reading-chimenea-industrial

Industry analysis is the analysis of a specific branch of manufacturing, service, or trade. Understanding the industry in which a company operates provides an essential framework for the analysis of the individual company—that is, company analysis. Equity analysis and credit analysis are often conducted by analysts who concentrate on one or several industries, which results in synergies and efficiencies in gathering and interpreting information.

Among the questions we address in this reading are the following:

  • What are the similarities and differences among industry classification systems?

  • How does an analyst go about choosing a peer group of companies?

  • What are the key factors to consider when analyzing an industry?

  • What advantages are enjoyed by companies in strategically well-positioned industries?

After discussing the uses of industry analysis in the next section, Sections 3 and 4 discuss, respectively, approaches to identifying similar companies and industry classification systems. Section 5 covers the description and analysis of industries. Also, Section 5, which includes an introduction to competitive analysis, provides a background to Section 6, which introduces company analysis. The reading ends with a summary, and practice problems follow the text.

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Reading 49  Equity Valuation: Concepts and Basic Tools (Intro)
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Analysts gather and process information to make investment decisions, including buy and sell recommendations. What information is gathered and how it is processed depend on the analyst and the purpose of the analysis. Technical analysis uses such information as stock price and trading volume as the basis for investment decisions. Fundamental analysis uses information about the economy, industry, and company as the basis for investment decisions. Examples of fundamentals are unemployment rates, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, industry growth, and quality of and growth in company earnings. Whereas technical analysts use information to predict price movements and base investment decisions on the direction of predicted change in prices, fundamental analysts use information to estimate the value of a security and to compare the estimated value to the market price and then base investment decisions on that comparison.

This reading introduces equity valuation models used to estimate the intrinsic value(synonym: fundamental value) of a security; intrinsic value is based on an analysis of investment fundamentals and characteristics. The fundamentals to be considered depend on the analyst’s approach to valuation. In a top-down approach, an analyst examines the economic environment, identifies sectors that are expected to prosper in that environment, and analyzes securities of companies from previously identified attractive sectors. In a bottom-up approach, an analyst typically follows an industry or industries and forecasts fundamentals for the companies in those industries in order to determine valuation. Whatever the approach, an analyst who estimates the intrinsic value of an equity security is implicitly questioning the accuracy of the market price as an estimate of value. Valuation is particularly important in active equity portfolio management, which aims to improve on the return–risk trade-off of a portfolio’s benchmark by identifying mispriced securities.

This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the implications of differences between estimated value and market price. Section 3 introduces three major categories of valuation model. Section 4 presents an overview of present value models with a focus on the dividend discount model. Section 5 describes and examines the use of multiples in valuation. Section 6 explains asset-based valuation and demonstrates how these models can be used to estimate value. Section 7 states conclusions and summarizes the reading.

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Reading 50  Fixed-Income Securities: Defining Elements (Intro)
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Judged by total market value, fixed-income securities constitute the most prevalent means of raising capital globally. A fixed-income security is an instrument that allows governments, companies, and other types of issuers to borrow money from investors. Any borrowing of money is debt. The promised payments on fixed-income securities are, in general, contractual (legal) obligations of the issuer to the investor. For companies, fixed-income securities contrast to common shares in not having ownership rights. Payment of interest and repayment of principal (amount borrowed) are a prior claim on the company’s earnings and assets compared with the claim of common shareholders. Thus, a company’s fixed-income securities have, in theory, lower risk than that company’s common shares.

In portfolio management, fixed-income securities fulfill several important roles. They are a prime means by which investors—individual and institutional—can prepare to fund, with some degree of safety, known future obligations such as tuition payments or pension obligations. The correlations of fixed-income securities with common shares vary, but adding fixed-income securities to portfolios including common shares is usually an effective way of obtaining diversification benefits.

Among the questions this reading addresses are the following:

  • What set of features define a fixed-income security, and how do these features determine the scheduled cash flows?

  • What are the legal, regulatory, and tax considerations associated with a fixed-income security, and why are these considerations important for investors?

  • What are the common structures regarding the payment of interest and repayment of principal?

  • What types of provisions may affect the disposal or redemption of fixed-income securities?

Embarking on the study of fixed-income securities, please note that the terms “fixed-income securities,” “debt securities,” and “bonds” are often used interchangeably by experts and non-experts alike. We will also follow this convention, and where any nuance of meaning is intended, it will be made clear.1

The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 describes, in broad terms, what an investor needs to know when investing in fixed-income securities. Section 3 covers both the nature of the contract between the issuer and the bondholders as well as the legal, regulatory, and tax framework within which this contract exists. Section 4 presents the principal and interest payment structures that characterize fixed-income securities. Section 5 discusses the contingency provisions that affect the timing and/or nature of a bond’s cash flows. The final section provides a conclusion and summary of the reading.

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Flashcard 1736175914252

Tags
#matrix
Question
a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if there exists an invertible matrix P such that [...] is a diagonal matrix.
Answer
P−1AP


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In linear algebra, a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix P such that P −1 AP is a diagonal matrix.

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Diagonalizable matrix - Wikipedia
Diagonalizable matrix From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about matrix diagonalisation in linear algebra. For other uses, see Diagonalisation. <span>In linear algebra, a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix P such that P −1 AP is a diagonal matrix. If V is a finite-dimensional vector space, then a linear map T : V → V is called diagonalizable if there exists an ordered basis of V with respect to which T is represented by a diagona








Reading 51  Fixed-Income Markets: Issuance, Trading, and Funding (Intro)
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Global fixed-income markets represent the largest subset of financial markets in terms of number of issuances and market capitalization. These markets bring borrowers and lenders together to allocate capital globally to its most efficient uses. Fixed-income markets include not only publicly traded securities, such as commercial paper, notes, and bonds, but also non-publicly traded loans. At the end of 2010, the total amount of debt and equity outstanding was about $212 trillion globally.1 The global fixed-income market represented approximately 75% of this total; simply put, global debt markets are three times larger than global equity markets.

Understanding how fixed-income markets are structured and how they operate is important for debt issuers and investors. Debt issuers have financing needs that must be met. For example, a government may need to finance an infrastructure project, a new hospital, or a new school. A company may require funds to expand its business. Financial institutions also have funding needs, and they are among the largest issuers of fixed-income securities. Fixed income is an important asset class for both individual and institutional investors. Thus, investors need to understand the characteristics of fixed-income securities including how these securities are issued and traded.

Among the questions this reading addresses are the following:

  • What are the key bond market sectors?

  • How are bonds sold in primary markets and traded in secondary markets?

  • What types of bonds are issued by governments, government-related entities, financial companies, and non-financial companies?

  • What additional sources of funds are available to banks?

The remainder of this reading is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an overview of global fixed-income markets and how these markets are classified, including some descriptive statistics on the size of the different bond market sectors. Section 2 also identifies the major issuers of and investors in fixed-income securities and presents fixed-income indexes. Section 3 discusses how fixed-income securities are issued in primary markets, and how these securities are then traded in secondary markets. Sections 4 to 7 examine different bond market sectors. Section 8 discusses additional short-term funding alternatives available to banks, including repurchase agreements. Section 9 concludes and summarizes the reading.

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Reading 52  Introduction to Fixed-Income Valuation (Intro)
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Globally, the fixed-income market is a key source of financing for businesses and governments. In fact, the total market value outstanding of corporate and government bonds is significantly larger than that of equity securities. Similarly, the fixed-income market, which is also called the debt market or bond market, represents a significant investing opportunity for institutions as well as individuals. Pension funds, mutual funds, insurance companies, and sovereign wealth funds, among others, are major fixed-income investors. Retirees who desire a relatively stable income stream often hold fixed-income securities. Clearly, understanding how to value fixed-income securities is important to investors, issuers, and financial analysts. This reading focuses on the valuation of traditional (option-free) fixed-rate bonds, although other debt securities, such as floating-rate notes and money market instruments, are also covered.

Section 2 describes and illustrates basic bond valuation, which includes pricing a bond using a market discount rate for each of the future cash flows and pricing a bond using a series of spot rates. Valuation using spot rates allows for each future cash flow to be discounted at a rate associated with its timing. This valuation methodology for future cash flows has applications well beyond the fixed-income market. Relationships among a bond’s price, coupon rate, maturity, and market discount rate (yield-to-maturity) are also described and illustrated.

Section 3 describes how bond prices and yields are quoted and calculated in practice. When bonds are actively traded, investors can observe the price and calculate various yield measures. However, these yield measures differ by the type of bond. In practice, different measures are used for fixed-rate bonds, floating-rate notes, and money market instruments. When a bond is not actively traded, matrix pricing is often used to estimate the value based on comparable securities.

Section 4 addresses the maturity or term structure of interest rates. This discussion involves an analysis of yield curves, which illustrates the relationship between yields-to-maturity and times-to-maturity on bonds with otherwise similar characteristics. Various types of yield curves are described.

Section 5 focuses on yield spreads over benchmark interest rates. When investors want relatively higher yields, they have to be prepared to bear more risk. Yield spreads are measures of how much additional yield over the benchmark security (usually a government bond) investors expect for bearing additional risk. A summary of key points and practice problems conclude the reading.

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Reading 53  Introduction to Asset-Backed Securities (Intro)
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Previous readings examined risk characteristics of various fixed-income instruments and the relationships among maturity, coupon, and interest rate changes. This reading introduces an additional level of complexity—that of fixed-income instruments created through a process known as securitization. This process involves transferring ownership of assets from the original owners into a special legal entity. The special legal entity then issues securities backed by these assets, and the assets’ cash flows are used to pay interest and repay the principal owed to the holders of the securities. These securities are referred to generically as asset-backed securities (ABS); the pool of securitized assets from which the ABS’s cash flows are generated is called the collateral. Assets that are used to create ABS are called securitized assets. These assets are typically loans and receivables and include, among others, residential mortgage loans (mortgages), commercial mortgages, automobile (auto) loans, student loans, bank loans, accounts receivables, and credit card receivables. Advances and innovations in securitization have led to securities backed, or collateralized, by all kinds of income-yielding assets, including airport landing slots and toll roads.

This reading discusses the benefits of securitization, describes securitization, and explains the investment characteristics of different types of ABS. The terminology regarding ABS varies by jurisdiction. Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) are ABS backed by a pool of mortgages, and a distinction is sometimes made between MBS and ABS backed by non-mortgage assets. This distinction is common in the United States, for example, where typically the term “mortgage-backed securities” refers to securities backed by high-quality real estate mortgages and the term “asset-backed securities” refers to securities backed by other types of assets. Because the US ABS market is the largest in the world, much of the discussion and many examples in this reading refer to the United States. Note, however, that many non-US investors hold US ABS, including MBS, in their portfolios.

To underline the importance of securitization from a macroeconomic perspective, Section 2 discusses of the benefits of securitization for economies and financial markets. In Section 3, the reading describes securitization and identifies the parties involved in the process and their roles. Section 3 also discusses typical structures of securitizations, including credit tranching and time tranching. Sections 4–6 discuss securities backed by mortgages for real estate property. Many types of residential mortgage designs around the world are described in Section 4. Sections 5 and 6 focus on residential MBS and commercial MBS, respectively. Section 7 discusses ABS based on two types of non-mortgage loans that are typically securitized throughout the world: auto loans and credit card receivables. Collateralized debt obligations are covered in Section 8. Section 9 concludes the reading with a summary.

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In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.

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Operation (mathematics) - Wikipedia
d and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) [imagelink] Elementary arithmetic operations: +, plus (addition) −, minus (subtraction) ÷, obelus (division) ×, times (multiplication) <span>In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value. The number of operands is the arity of the operation. The most commonly studied operations are binary operations of arity 2, such as addition and multiplication, and unary operations of




Flashcard 1736186662156

Question
In mathematics, an [...] is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.
Answer
operation


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In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.

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Operation (mathematics) - Wikipedia
d and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) [imagelink] Elementary arithmetic operations: +, plus (addition) −, minus (subtraction) ÷, obelus (division) ×, times (multiplication) <span>In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value. The number of operands is the arity of the operation. The most commonly studied operations are binary operations of arity 2, such as addition and multiplication, and unary operations of







#abstract-algebra
In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms.

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Algebraic structure - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. [1] Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets,




Flashcard 1736192953612

Tags
#abstract-algebra
Question
an [...] is a set with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms.
Answer
algebraic structure


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In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms.

Original toplevel document

Algebraic structure - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. [1] Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets,








Reading 54  Understanding Fixed‑Income Risk and Return (Intro)
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It is important for analysts to have a well-developed understanding of the risk and return characteristics of fixed-income investments. Beyond the vast worldwide market for publicly and privately issued fixed-rate bonds, many financial assets and liabilities with known future cash flows may be evaluated using the same principles. The starting point for this analysis is the yield-to-maturity, or internal rate of return on future cash flows, which was introduced in the fixed-income valuation reading. The return on a fixed-rate bond is affected by many factors, the most important of which is the receipt of the interest and principal payments in the full amount and on the scheduled dates. Assuming no default, the return is also affected by changes in interest rates that affect coupon reinvestment and the price of the bond if it is sold before it matures. Measures of the price change can be derived from the mathematical relationship used to calculate the price of the bond. The first of these measures (duration) estimates the change in the price for a given change in interest rates. The second measure (convexity) improves on the duration estimate by taking into account the fact that the relationship between price and yield-to-maturity of a fixed-rate bond is not linear.

Section 2 uses numerical examples to demonstrate the sources of return on an investment in a fixed-rate bond, which includes the receipt and reinvestment of coupon interest payments and the redemption of principal if the bond is held to maturity. The other source of return is capital gains (and losses) on the sale of the bond prior to maturity. Section 2 also shows that fixed-income investors holding the same bond can have different exposures to interest rate risk if their investment horizons differ. Discussion of credit risk, although critical to investors, is postponed to Section 5 so that attention can be focused on interest rate risk.

Section 3 provides a thorough review of bond duration and convexity, and shows how the statistics are calculated and used as measures of interest rate risk. Although procedures and formulas exist to calculate duration and convexity, these statistics can be approximated using basic bond-pricing techniques and a financial calculator. Commonly used versions of the statistics are covered, including Macaulay, modified, effective, and key rate durations. The distinction is made between risk measures that are based on changes in the bond’s yield-to-maturity (i.e., yield duration and convexity) and on benchmark yield curve changes (i.e., curve duration and convexity).

Section 4 returns to the issue of the investment horizon. When an investor has a short-term horizon, duration (and convexity) are used to estimate the change in the bond price. In this case, yield volatility matters. In particular, bonds with varying times-to-maturity have different degrees of yield volatility. When an investor has a long-term horizon, the interaction between coupon reinvestment risk and market price risk matters. The relationship among interest rate risk, bond duration, and the investment horizon is explored.

Section 5 discusses how the tools of duration and convexity can be extended to credit and liquidity risks and highlights how these different factors can affect a bond’s return and risk.

A summary of key points and practice problems in the CFA Institute multiple-choice format conclude the reading.

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Flashcard 1736195050764

Tags
#abstract-algebra
Question
The underlying set for an algebraic structure is called a [...]
Answer
carrier set

Think sigma-algebra and measurable space


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In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms.

Original toplevel document

Algebraic structure - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. [1] Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets,







Flashcard 1736196885772

Tags
#abstract-algebra
Question
an algebraic structure is a set with one or more [...] defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms.
Answer


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In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms.

Original toplevel document

Algebraic structure - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. [1] Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets,







Flashcard 1736198458636

Tags
#abstract-algebra
Question
an algebraic structure is a set with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies [...].
Answer
a list of axioms


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tml> In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. <html>

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Algebraic structure - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. [1] Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets,








Reading 55  Fundamentals of Credit Analysis (Intro)
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With bonds outstanding worth many trillions of US dollars, the debt markets play a critical role in the global economy. Companies and governments raise capital in the debt market to fund current operations; buy equipment; build factories, roads, bridges, airports, and hospitals; acquire assets, and so on. By channeling savings into productive investments, the debt markets facilitate economic growth. Credit analysis has a crucial function in the debt capital markets—efficiently allocating capital by properly assessing credit risk, pricing it accordingly, and repricing it as risks change. How do fixed-income investors determine the riskiness of that debt, and how do they decide what they need to earn as compensation for that risk?

This reading covers basic principles of credit analysis, which may be broadly defined as the process by which credit risk is evaluated. Readers will be introduced to the definition of credit risk, the interpretation of credit ratings, the four Cs of traditional credit analysis, and key financial measures and ratios used in credit analysis. The reading explains, among other things, how to compare bond issuer creditworthiness within a given industry as well as across industries and how credit risk is priced in the bond market.

The reading focuses primarily on analysis of corporate debt; however, credit analysis of sovereign and non-sovereign, particularly municipal, government bonds will also be addressed. Structured finance, a segment of the debt markets that includes securities backed by pools of assets, such as residential and commercial mortgages as well as other consumer loans, will not be covered here.

The key components of credit risk—default probability and loss severity—are introduced in the next section along with such credit-related risks as spread risk, credit migration risk, and liquidity risk. Section 3 discusses the relationship between credit risk and the capital structure of the firm. Credit ratings and the role of credit rating agencies are addressed in Section 4. Section 5 focuses on the process of analyzing the credit risk of corporations, whereas Section 6 examines the impact of credit spreads on risk and return. Special considerations applicable to the analysis of (i) high-yield (low-quality) corporate bonds and (ii) government bonds are presented in Section 7. Section 8 gives a brief summary, and a set of review questions concludes the reading.

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#abstract-algebra

Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets, or by altering the defining axioms. Examples of more complex algebraic structures include vector spaces, modules, and algebras.

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Algebraic structure - Wikipedia
algebra v t e In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure is a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more operations defined on it that satisfies a list of axioms. [1] <span>Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, and lattices. More complex structures can be defined by introducing multiple operations, different underlying sets, or by altering the defining axioms. Examples of more complex algebraic structures include vector spaces, modules, and algebras. The properties of specific algebraic structures are studied in abstract algebra. The general theory of algebraic structures has been formalized in universal algebra. The language of c





Reading 56  Derivative Markets and Instruments (Intro)
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Equity, fixed-income, currency, and commodity markets are facilities for trading the basic assets of an economy. Equity and fixed-income securities are claims on the assets of a company. Currencies are the monetary units issued by a government or central bank. Commodities are natural resources, such as oil or gold. These underlying assets are said to trade in cash markets or spot markets and their prices are sometimes referred to as cash prices or spot prices, though we usually just refer to them as stock prices, bond prices, exchange rates, and commodity prices. These markets exist around the world and receive much attention in the financial and mainstream media. Hence, they are relatively familiar not only to financial experts but also to the general population.

Somewhat less familiar are the markets for derivatives, which are financial instruments that derive their values from the performance of these basic assets. This reading is an overview of derivatives. Subsequent readings will explore many aspects of derivatives and their uses in depth. Among the questions that this first reading will address are the following:

  • What are the defining characteristics of derivatives?

  • What purposes do derivatives serve for financial market participants?

  • What is the distinction between a forward commitment and a contingent claim?

  • What are forward and futures contracts? In what ways are they alike and in what ways are they different?

  • What are swaps?

  • What are call and put options and how do they differ from forwards, futures, and swaps?

  • What are credit derivatives and what are the various types of credit derivatives?

  • What are the benefits of derivatives?

  • What are some criticisms of derivatives and to what extent are they well founded?

  • What is arbitrage and what role does it play in a well-functioning financial market?

This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores the definition and uses of derivatives and establishes some basic terminology. Section 3 describes derivatives markets. Section 4 categorizes and explains types of derivatives. Sections 5 and 6 discuss the benefits and criticisms of derivatives, respectively. Section 7 introduces the basic principles of derivative pricing and the concept of arbitrage. Section 8 provides a summary.

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Reading 57  Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation (Intro)
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It is important to understand how prices of derivatives are determined. Whether one is on the buy side or the sell side, a solid understanding of pricing financial products is critical to effective investment decision making. After all, one can hardly determine what to offer or bid for a financial product, or any product for that matter, if one has no idea how its characteristics combine to create value.

Understanding the pricing of financial assets is important. Discounted cash flow methods and models, such as the capital asset pricing model and its variations, are useful for determining the prices of financial assets. The unique characteristics of derivatives, however, pose some complexities not associated with assets, such as equities and fixed-income instruments. Somewhat surprisingly, however, derivatives also have some simplifying characteristics. For example, as we will see in this reading, in well-functioning derivatives markets the need to determine risk premiums is obviated by the ability to construct a risk-free hedge. Correspondingly, the need to determine an investor’s risk aversion is irrelevant for derivative pricing, although it is certainly relevant for pricing the underlying.

The purpose of this reading is to establish the foundations of derivative pricing on a basic conceptual level. The following topics are covered:

  • How does the pricing of the underlying asset affect the pricing of derivatives?

  • How are derivatives priced using the principle of arbitrage?

  • How are the prices and values of forward contracts determined?

  • How are futures contracts priced differently from forward contracts?

  • How are the prices and values of swaps determined?

  • How are the prices and values of European options determined?

  • How does American option pricing differ from European option pricing?

This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 explores two related topics, the pricing of the underlying assets on which derivatives are created and the principle of arbitrage. Section 3 describes the pricing and valuation of forwards, futures, and swaps. Section 4 introduces the pricing and valuation of options. Section 5 provides a summary.

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Reading 58  Introduction to Alternative Investments (Intro)
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Assets under management in vehicles classified as alternative investments have grown rapidly since the mid-1990s. This growth has largely occurred because of interest in these investments by institutions, such as endowment and pension funds, as well as high-net-worth individuals seeking diversification and return opportunities. Alternative investments are perceived to behave differently from traditional investments. Investors may seek either absolute return or relative return.

Some investors hope alternative investments will provide positive returns throughout the economic cycle; this goal is an absolute return objective. Alternative investments are not free of risk, however, and their returns may be negative and/or correlated with other investments, including traditional investments, especially in periods of financial crisis. Some investors in alternative investments have a relative return objective. A relative return objective, which is often the objective of portfolios of traditional investment, seeks to achieve a return relative to an equity or fixed-income benchmark.

This reading is organized as follows. Section 2 describes alternative investments’ basic characteristics and categories; general strategies of alternative investment portfolio managers; the role of alternative investments in a diversified portfolio; and investment structures used to provide access to alternative investments. Sections 3 through 7 describe features of hedge funds, private equity, real estate, commodities, and infrastructure, respectively, along with issues in calculating returns to and valuation of each.1 Section 8 briefly describes other alternative investments. Section 9 provides an overview of risk management, including due diligence, of alternative investments. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading.

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#poisson-process #stochastics
Its name (Poisson Process) derives from the fact that if a collection of random points in some space forms a Poisson process, then the number of points in a region of finite size is a random variable with a Poisson distribution.

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Poisson point process - Wikipedia
oint processes, some of which are constructed with the Poisson point process, that seek to capture such interaction. [22] The process is named after French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson despite Poisson never having studied the process. <span>Its name derives from the fact that if a collection of random points in some space forms a Poisson process, then the number of points in a region of finite size is a random variable with a Poisson distribution. The process was discovered independently and repeatedly in several settings, including experiments on radioactive decay, telephone call arrivals and insurance mathematics. [23] [24] T




#poisson-process #stochastics
The Poisson point process is often defined on the real line, where it can be considered as a stochastic process.

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Poisson point process - Wikipedia
and used as a mathematical model for seemingly random processes in numerous disciplines such as astronomy, [3] biology, [4] ecology, [5] geology, [6] physics, [7] economics, [8] image processing, [9] and telecommunications. [10] [11] <span>The Poisson point process is often defined on the real line, where it can be considered as a stochastic process. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory [12] to model random events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange, distributed in tim




#poisson-process #stochastics
In the plane, the point process, also known as a spatial Poisson process,[13] can represent the locations of scattered objects such as transmitters in a wireless network,[10][14][15][16] particles colliding into a detector, or trees in a forest.

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Poisson point process - Wikipedia
e, where it can be considered as a stochastic process. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory [12] to model random events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange, distributed in time. <span>In the plane, the point process, also known as a spatial Poisson process, [13] can represent the locations of scattered objects such as transmitters in a wireless network, [10] [14] [15] [16] particles colliding into a detector, or trees in a forest. [17] In this setting, the process is often used in mathematical models and in the related fields of spatial point processes, [18] stochastic geometry, [1] spatial statistics [18] [1




Flashcard 1736250101004

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#poisson-process #stochastics
Question
if [...] in some space forms a Poisson process, then the number of points in a region of finite size is a random variable with a Poisson distribution.
Answer
a collection of random points


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Its name (Poisson Process) derives from the fact that if a collection of random points in some space forms a Poisson process, then the number of points in a region of finite size is a random variable with a Poisson distribution.

Original toplevel document

Poisson point process - Wikipedia
oint processes, some of which are constructed with the Poisson point process, that seek to capture such interaction. [22] The process is named after French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson despite Poisson never having studied the process. <span>Its name derives from the fact that if a collection of random points in some space forms a Poisson process, then the number of points in a region of finite size is a random variable with a Poisson distribution. The process was discovered independently and repeatedly in several settings, including experiments on radioactive decay, telephone call arrivals and insurance mathematics. [23] [24] T







Flashcard 1736251673868

Tags
#poisson-process #stochastics
Question
In a Poisson process, [...] is a random variable with a Poisson distribution.
Answer
the number of points in a region of finite size


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Its name (Poisson Process) derives from the fact that if a collection of random points in some space forms a Poisson process, then the number of points in a region of finite size is a random variable with a Poisson distribution.

Original toplevel document

Poisson point process - Wikipedia
oint processes, some of which are constructed with the Poisson point process, that seek to capture such interaction. [22] The process is named after French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson despite Poisson never having studied the process. <span>Its name derives from the fact that if a collection of random points in some space forms a Poisson process, then the number of points in a region of finite size is a random variable with a Poisson distribution. The process was discovered independently and repeatedly in several settings, including experiments on radioactive decay, telephone call arrivals and insurance mathematics. [23] [24] T







Flashcard 1736253246732

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#poisson-process #stochastics
Question
The Poisson point process is often defined on [...], where it can be considered as a stochastic process.
Answer


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The Poisson point process is often defined on the real line, where it can be considered as a stochastic process.

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Poisson point process - Wikipedia
and used as a mathematical model for seemingly random processes in numerous disciplines such as astronomy, [3] biology, [4] ecology, [5] geology, [6] physics, [7] economics, [8] image processing, [9] and telecommunications. [10] [11] <span>The Poisson point process is often defined on the real line, where it can be considered as a stochastic process. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory [12] to model random events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange, distributed in tim







Flashcard 1736254819596

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#poisson-process #stochastics
Question
In the plane, the point process, also known as a spatial Poisson process,[13] can represent [...] such as transmitters in a wireless network,[10][14][15][16] particles colliding into a detector, or trees in a forest.
Answer
the locations of scattered objects


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In the plane, the point process, also known as a spatial Poisson process, [13] can represent the locations of scattered objects such as transmitters in a wireless network, [10] [14] [15] [16] particles colliding into a detector, or trees in a forest.

Original toplevel document

Poisson point process - Wikipedia
e, where it can be considered as a stochastic process. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory [12] to model random events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange, distributed in time. <span>In the plane, the point process, also known as a spatial Poisson process, [13] can represent the locations of scattered objects such as transmitters in a wireless network, [10] [14] [15] [16] particles colliding into a detector, or trees in a forest. [17] In this setting, the process is often used in mathematical models and in the related fields of spatial point processes, [18] stochastic geometry, [1] spatial statistics [18] [1








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The GIPS standards are a practitioner-driven set of ethical principles that establish a standardized, industry-wide approach for investment firms to follow in calculating and presenting their historical investment results to prospective clients. The GIPS standards ensure fair representation and full disclosure of investment performance. In other words, the GIPS standards lead investment management firms to avoid misrepresentations of performance and to communicate all relevant information that prospective clients should know in order to evaluate past results.

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Reading 4  Introduction to the Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS®)
l investment management firms was problematic. For example, a pension fund seeking to hire an investment management firm might receive proposals from several firms, all using different methodologies for calculating their results. <span>The GIPS standards are a practitioner-driven set of ethical principles that establish a standardized, industry-wide approach for investment firms to follow in calculating and presenting their historical investment results to prospective clients. The GIPS standards ensure fair representation and full disclosure of investment performance. In other words, the GIPS standards lead investment management firms to avoid misrepresentations of performance and to communicate all relevant information that prospective clients should know in order to evaluate past results. <span><body><html>





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Misleading practices in the portfolio management indutry included:

  • Representative Accounts : Selecting a top-performing portfolio to represent the firm’s overall investment results for a specific mandate.

  • Survivorship Bias : Presenting an “average” performance history that excludes portfolios whose poor performance was weak enough to result in termination of the firm.

  • Varying Time Periods : Presenting performance for a selected time period during which the mandate produced excellent returns or out-performed its benchmark—making comparison with other firms’ results difficult or impossible.

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Reading 4  Introduction to the Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS®)
nvestment performance data. Several performance measurement practices hindered the comparability of performance returns from one firm to another, while others called into question the accuracy and credibility of performance reporting overall. <span>Misleading practices included: Representative Accounts: Selecting a top-performing portfolio to represent the firm’s overall investment results for a specific mandate. Survivorship Bias: Presenting an “average” performance history that excludes portfolios whose poor performance was weak enough to result in termination of the firm. Varying Time Periods: Presenting performance for a selected time period during which the mandate produced excellent returns or out-performed its benchmark—making comparison with other firms’ results difficult or impossible. Making a valid comparison of investment performance among even the most ethical investment management firms was problematic. For example, a pension fund seeking to





Reading 6  The Time Value of Money Introduction
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As individuals, we often face decisions that involve saving money for a future use, or borrowing money for current consumption. We then need to determine the amount we need to invest, if we are saving, or the cost of borrowing, if we are shopping for a loan. As investment analysts, much of our work also involves evaluating transactions with present and future cash flows. When we place a value on any security, for example, we are attempting to determine the worth of a stream of future cash flows. To carry out all the above tasks accurately, we must understand the mathematics of time value of money problems. Money has time value in that individuals value a given amount of money more highly the earlier it is received. Therefore, a smaller amount of money now may be equivalent in value to a larger amount received at a future date. The time value of money as a topic in investment mathematics deals with equivalence relationships between cash flows with different dates. Mastery of time value of money concepts and techniques is essential for investment analysts.

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Reading 6  The Time Value of Money Introduction
As individuals, we often face decisions that involve saving money for a future use, or borrowing money for current consumption. We then need to determine the amount we need to invest, if we are saving, or the cost of borrowing, if we are shopping for a loan. As investment analysts, much of our work also involves evaluating transactions with present and future cash flows. When we place a value on any security, for example, we are attempting to determine the worth of a stream of future cash flows. To carry out all the above tasks accurately, we must understand the mathematics of time value of money problems. Money has time value in that individuals value a given amount of money more highly the earlier it is received. Therefore, a smaller amount of money now may be equivalent in value to a larger amount received at a future date. The time value of money as a topic in investment mathematics deals with equivalence relationships between cash flows with different dates. Mastery of time value of money concepts and techniques is essential for investment analysts. The reading1 is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces some terminology used throughout the reading and supplies some economic intuition for the variables we will discu





Reading 6  The Time Value of Money (Layout)
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The reading is organized as follows:

Section 2 introduces some terminology used throughout the reading and supplies some economic intuition for the variables we will discuss.

Section 3 tackles the problem of determining the worth at a future point in time of an amount invested today.

Section 4 addresses the future worth of a series of cash flows. These two sections provide the tools for calculating the equivalent value at a future date of a single cash flow or series of cash flows.

Sections 5 and 6 discuss the equivalent value today of a single future cash flow and a series of future cash flows, respectively.

In Section 7, we explore how to determine other quantities of interest in time value of money problems.

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Reading 6  The Time Value of Money Introduction
time value of money as a topic in investment mathematics deals with equivalence relationships between cash flows with different dates. Mastery of time value of money concepts and techniques is essential for investment analysts. <span>The reading1 is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces some terminology used throughout the reading and supplies some economic intuition for the variables we will discuss. Section 3 tackles the problem of determining the worth at a future point in time of an amount invested today. Section 4 addresses the future worth of a series of cash flows. These two sections provide the tools for calculating the equivalent value at a future date of a single cash flow or series of cash flows. Sections 5 and 6 discuss the equivalent value today of a single future cash flow and a series of future cash flows, respectively. In Section 7, we explore how to determine other quantities of interest in time value of money problems. <span><body><html>




The HMM is based on a discrete state vari- able and on the probabilistic assertions that the state transitions are Markovian and that the observations are conditionally inde- pendent given the state.

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These models distinguish between the discrete component of the state, which is referred to as a “mode,” and the continuous component of the state, which cap- tures the continuous dynamics associated with each mode.

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In particular, the discrete component of the state in the Markov switching process has no topological structure (beyond the trivial discrete topology). Thus it is not easy to compare state spaces of differ- ent cardinality and it is not pos- sible to use the state space to encode a notion of similarity between modes. More broadly, many problems involve a collec- tion of state-space models (either HMMs or Markov switching processes), and within the classical framework there is no natural way to talk about overlap between models.

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Combinatorial sto- chastic processes have been studied for several decades in probability theory (see, e.g., [9]), and they have begun to play a role in statistics as well, most notably in the area of Bayesian nonparametric statistics where they yield Bayesian approaches to clustering and survival analysis (see, e.g., [10])

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Reading 15  The Firm and Market Structures (Intro)
#has-images #microscopio-session #reading-pluma-fuente
The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects.

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Reading 15  The Firm and Market Structures Introduction
The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market struc





Reading 15  The Firm and Market Structures (Layout)
#has-images #microscopio-session #reading-pluma-fuente

Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as:

  • What determines the degree of competition associated with each market structure?
  • Given the degree of competition associated with each market structure, what decisions are left to the management team developing corporate strategy?
  • How does a chosen pricing and output strategy evolve into specific decisions that affect the profitability of the firm? The answers to these questions are related to the forces of the market structure within which the firm operates.



Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 analyze demand, supply, optimal price and output, and factors affecting long-run equilibrium for perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and pure monopoly, respectively.

Section 7 reviews techniques for identifying the various forms of market structure. For example, there are accepted measures of market concentration that are used by regulators of financial institutions to judge whether or not a planned merger or acquisition will harm the competitive nature of regional banking markets. Financial analysts should be able to identify the type of market structure a firm is operating within. Each different structure implies a different long-run sustainability of profits.

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Reading 15  The Firm and Market Structures Introduction
ts are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. <span>Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market structure? Given the degree of competition associated with each market structure, what decisions are left to the management team developing corporate strategy? How does a chosen pricing and output strategy evolve into specific decisions that affect the profitability of the firm? The answers to these questions are related to the forces of the market structure within which the firm operates. Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 analyze demand, supply, optimal price and output, and factors affecting long-run equilibrium for perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and pure monopoly, respectively. Section 7 reviews techniques for identifying the various forms of market structure. For example, there are accepted measures of market concentration that are used by regulators of financial institutions to judge whether or not a planned merger or acquisition will harm the competitive nature of regional banking markets. Financial analysts should be able to identify the type of market structure a firm is operating within. Each different structure implies a different long-run sustainability of profits. A summary and practice problems conclude the reading. <span><body><html>