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NASA commissioned the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) to conduct a thorough review of both the technical and the organizational causes of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew on February 1, 2003 (bla bla)
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Understanding the Entire Lipid profile
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mysophobia, a fear of germs
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Emma Pillsbury - Wikipedia
as I heard that, I knew that there would be something good on the page. So I was immediately drawn to it." [24] Characterization[edit] In the first episode, it is revealed that Emma has obsessive-compulsive disorder, suffering from <span>mysophobia, a fear of germs. [5] The show garnered mostly praise for its portrayal of a character with OCD and for accurately depicting OCD as a serious but treatable anxiety disorder. [25] Bill Harris of the T




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Question
mysophobia, [...]
Answer
a fear of germs

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mysophobia, a fear of germs

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Emma Pillsbury - Wikipedia
as I heard that, I knew that there would be something good on the page. So I was immediately drawn to it." [24] Characterization[edit] In the first episode, it is revealed that Emma has obsessive-compulsive disorder, suffering from <span>mysophobia, a fear of germs. [5] The show garnered mostly praise for its portrayal of a character with OCD and for accurately depicting OCD as a serious but treatable anxiety disorder. [25] Bill Harris of the T







#mindfulness
intencja powoduje skupienie, ukierunkowanie i klarowność umysłu, dzięki czemu jesteśmy w stanie skutecznie wykonać daną czynność.
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#mindfulness
Często zdarza sie, że pogrążamy i gubimy się w myślach w trakcie ćwiczeń. Najczęściej coś planujemy, marzymy o czymś, wyobrażamy, przywołujemy wspomnienia, itd. Wydaje się to niemal komiczne i można się tego spodziewać. Naszym zamiarem jest być uważnym w każdej chwili i to właśnie ta intencja przywraca nas na właściwy tor za każdym razem kiedy nasza uwaga gdzieś zboczy.
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#mindfulness
Motywacja, którą posiadamy jest źródłem energii,które zasila naszą intencję.
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#learning
Papert’s constructionism, in contrast, focuses more on the art of learning, or ‘learning to learn’, and on the significance of making things in learning. Papert is interested in how learners engage in a conversation with [their own or other people’s] artifacts, and how these conversations boost self-directed learning, and ultimately facilitate the construction of new knowledge. He stresses the importance of tools, media, and context in human development. Integrating both perspectives illuminates the processes by which individuals come to make sense of their experience, gradually optimizing their interactions with the world
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un formulaire se construit sur un objet existant, et son objectif est d'hydrater cet objet
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Il nous faut donc des objets avant de créer des formulaires
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Unknown title
si vous n'utilisez pas Symfony. Un formulaire Symfony, qu'est-ce que c'est ? La vision Symfony sur les formulaires est la suivante : un formulaire se construit sur un objet existant, et son objectif est d'hydrater cet objet. Un objet existant <span>Il nous faut donc des objets avant de créer des formulaires. Mais en fait, ça tombe bien : on les a déjà, ces objets ! En effet, un formulaire pour ajouter une annonce va se baser sur l'objet Advert , objet que nous avons construit lors de la pa




, le composantFormutilisera l'objet via les méthodessetTitle()etgetTitle()
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Unknown title
gt;categories = new ArrayCollection(); $this->applications = new ArrayCollection(); } // … Les getters et setters } Rappel : la convention pour le nom des getters/setters est importante : lorsque l'on parlera du champ « title »<span>, le composant Form utilisera l'objet via les méthodes setTitle() et getTitle() (comme le faisait Doctrine de son côté). Donc si vous aviez eu set_title() ou recuperer_titre() , cela n'aurait pas fonctionné. Objectif : hydrater cet objet Hydrater ? Un terme précis




Hydrater ? Un terme précis pour dire que le formulaire va remplir les attributs de l'objet avec les valeurs entrées par le visiteur. Faire$advert->setAuthor('Alexandre'),$advert->setDate(new \Datetime()), etc., c'est hydrater l'objetAdvert.
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Unknown title
tle », le composant Form utilisera l'objet via les méthodes setTitle() et getTitle() (comme le faisait Doctrine de son côté). Donc si vous aviez eu set_title() ou recuperer_titre() , cela n'aurait pas fonctionné. Objectif : hydrater cet objet <span>Hydrater ? Un terme précis pour dire que le formulaire va remplir les attributs de l'objet avec les valeurs entrées par le visiteur. Faire $advert->setAuthor('Alexandre') , $advert->setDate(new \Datetime()) , etc., c'est hydrater l'objet Advert . Le formulaire en lui-même n'a donc comme seul objectif que d'hydrater un objet. Ce n'est qu'une fois l'objet hydraté que vous pourrez en faire ce que vous voudrez : enregistrer en base




// À partir de maintenant, la variable $advert contient les valeurs entrées dans le formulaire par le visiteur $form->handleRequest($request);
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Unknown title
s, array('required' => false)) ->add('save', SubmitType::class) ->getForm() ; // Si la requête est en POST if ($request->isMethod('POST')) { // On fait le lien Requête <-> Formulaire <span>// À partir de maintenant, la variable $advert contient les valeurs entrées dans le formulaire par le visiteur $form->handleRequest($request); // On vérifie que les valeurs entrées sont correctes // (Nous verrons la validation des objets en détail dans le prochain chapitre) if ($form->isValid()) {




<?php
$formBuilder->add('published', CheckboxType::class, array('required' => false))

Rappelez-vous donc : un champ de formulaire est requis par défaut. Si vous voulez le rendre facultatif, vous devez préciser cette optionrequiredà la main.

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image test
#has-images
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In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps:

  • importing knowledge
  • prioritizing knowledge. Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps
  • converting the materials into lasting knowledge
  • expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.)
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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ing material. Incremental learning is the opposite of the irrational school system learning in which a heavy focus is put on just a few areas of knowledge in a semester (at the cost of other, equally important, areas of learning). <span>General outline of incremental learning In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge from various electronic and non-electronic sources (e.g. articles on the web, YouTube videos, music files, pictures from your camera, e-mails, scanned paper notes, etc.) prioritizing knowledge for incremental processing (e.g. high priority for physics, low priority for movie trivia, etc.). Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps gradually converting the learning materials into lasting knowledge in your memory. This conversion may also produce an easily searchable and well-annotated computer media archive that does not even need to be part of the learning process expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.) With incremental learning, you can consolidate all sources of knowledge, and convert information into lifetime memories at the chosen cost in time, and along strictly defined goals and priorities. Components of incremental learning Incremental learning tools differ substantially for various forms of learning material, media, and goals. Here are the main components of in




Components of incremental learning

Incremental learning tools differ substantially for various forms of learning material, media, and goals. Here are the main components of incremental learning:

With the rich toolset offered by incremental learning, all reading, learning, viewing, archiving, and annotation functions can be delegated to SuperMemo. This goes far beyond standard learning and includes personal notes, home videos, lectures available in audio and video formats, YouTube material, family photo-albums, diaries, audio files, scanned paper materials, etc.

The oldest, most popular, and the most mature component of incremental learning is incremental reading. We will use incremental reading as the comprehensive introduction to other forms of incremental learning.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
l writing, problem solving, etc.) With incremental learning, you can consolidate all sources of knowledge, and convert information into lifetime memories at the chosen cost in time, and along strictly defined goals and priorities. <span>Components of incremental learning Incremental learning tools differ substantially for various forms of learning material, media, and goals. Here are the main components of incremental learning: incremental reading incremental image learning (or visual learning) incremental video incremental audio incremental mail processing incremental creative elaboration (incl. incremental problem solving, incremental writing, etc.) With the rich toolset offered by incremental learning, all reading, learning, viewing, archiving, and annotation functions can be delegated to SuperMemo. This goes far beyond standard learning and includes personal notes, home videos, lectures available in audio and video formats, YouTube material, family photo-albums, diaries, audio files, scanned paper materials, etc. The oldest, most popular, and the most mature component of incremental learning is incremental reading. We will use incremental reading as the comprehensive introduction to other forms of incremental learning. The value of interruption in learning In incremental learning, we often quickly move from one subject to another. Such interruptions may occur many times during a single learnin




In linear algebra, a Jordan normal form (often called Jordan canonical form)[1] of a linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space is an upper triangular matrix of a particular form called a Jordan matrix, representing the operator with respect to some basis. Such a matrix has each non-zero off-diagonal entry equal to 1, immediately above the main diagonal (on the superdiagonal), and with identical diagonal entries to the left and below them.
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Jordan normal form - Wikipedia
Jordan normal form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search [imagelink] An example of a matrix in Jordan normal form. The grey blocks are called Jordan blocks. <span>In linear algebra, a Jordan normal form (often called Jordan canonical form) [1] of a linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space is an upper triangular matrix of a particular form called a Jordan matrix, representing the operator with respect to some basis. Such a matrix has each non-zero off-diagonal entry equal to 1, immediately above the main diagonal (on the superdiagonal), and with identical diagonal entries to the left and below them. Let V be a vector space over a field K. Then a basis with respect to which the matrix has the required form exists if and only if all eigenvalues of the matrix lie in K, or equivalent




The value of interruption in learning

In incremental learning, we often quickly move from one subject to another. Such interruptions may occur many times during a single learning day. When people first learn about this incremental methodology they immediately ask "Why interrupt? Aren't these the prime principles of human endeavour to be thorough, persist, and do things right to the end?"

The 3 main advantages of interruption in learning are:

  • improving memory: spaced learning has long been proven dramatically more efficient than conglomerate learning massed in time
  • improving learning choices/priorities: unless the learning material has been pre-selected by a higher authority, student's own choices require prioritization, which in turn requires preview. Previewing is a form of interruption. Regular interruption allows of prioritizing on the go
  • improving attention: whenever attention declines, change of the subject is the simplest remedy other than taking a definite break from learning

As for the disadvantages ... there are none! Simply put: interruption is optional! It is true that incremental learning may lead to "learning impatience" and "craving interruption", however, these have never been proven detrimental beyond showing that once you employ incremental learning, you may never want to go back to traditional "book at a time" learning. Nevertheless, you should not forget that schools are incremental too. Just on a slightly moderate scale. Schools employ interruption when kids move from geography to physics, or when they close the books for the day.

Once the art of incremental learning is mastered, the advantages go far beyond the advantages of the interruption or spaced repetition. Here is a shortlist (for a detailed discussion see: Advantages of incremental learning).

  • massive learning - you learn more than you thought your memory can hold
  • 95% knowledge retention - you nearly eliminate the problem of forgetting
  • lifetime memories - your memories will last for life (as long as you stick with the regular review schedule based on spaced repetition)
  • comprehensive learning on all fronts (rather than the school-like focus on 2-4 majors)
  • better understanding of the studied subject is assisted by moderation in consuming details, and easy inclusion of explanatory material (e.g. from dictionaries and/or encyclopedias)
  • better consolidation of the knowledge structure by incremental approach, interrupted learning, spacing, and slotting in of the new knowledge. Contrary to popular belief, incremental learning helps you keep the big picture in your mind
  • better attention by focusing on a single issue at a time without ever missing a detail, and by remedying attention deficits with a constant change of the learning material
  • creativity - by encountering different subjects in unpredictable sequences, your creativity soars. You can employ it, for example, in the process of incremental problem solving or incremental writing (this article was written using incremental writing tools in SuperMemo)
  • battling chaos - it is easier to resolve contradictions in SuperMemo, e.g. when processing new research with contradictory claims and findings. Unlike your memory in "real life" where you keep oscillating between contradictions, SuperMemo does not tolerate information discrepancy. Contradictory material converges up to a point when you realize you need
...
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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
nned paper materials, etc. The oldest, most popular, and the most mature component of incremental learning is incremental reading. We will use incremental reading as the comprehensive introduction to other forms of incremental learning. <span>The value of interruption in learning In incremental learning, we often quickly move from one subject to another. Such interruptions may occur many times during a single learning day. When people first learn about this incremental methodology they immediately ask "Why interrupt? Aren't these the prime principles of human endeavour to be thorough, persist, and do things right to the end?" The 3 main advantages of interruption in learning are: improving memory: spaced learning has long been proven dramatically more efficient than conglomerate learning massed in time improving learning choices/priorities: unless the learning material has been pre-selected by a higher authority, student's own choices require prioritization, which in turn requires preview. Previewing is a form of interruption. Regular interruption allows of prioritizing on the go improving attention: whenever attention declines, change of the subject is the simplest remedy other than taking a definite break from learning As for the disadvantages ... there are none! Simply put: interruption is optional! It is true that incremental learning may lead to "learning impatience" and "craving interruption", however, these have never been proven detrimental beyond showing that once you employ incremental learning, you may never want to go back to traditional "book at a time" learning. Nevertheless, you should not forget that schools are incremental too. Just on a slightly moderate scale. Schools employ interruption when kids move from geography to physics, or when they close the books for the day. Once the art of incremental learning is mastered, the advantages go far beyond the advantages of the interruption or spaced repetition. Here is a shortlist (for a detailed discussion see: Advantages of incremental learning). massive learning - you learn more than you thought your memory can hold 95% knowledge retention - you nearly eliminate the problem of forgetting lifetime memories - your memories will last for life (as long as you stick with the regular review schedule based on spaced repetition) comprehensive learning on all fronts (rather than the school-like focus on 2-4 majors) better understanding of the studied subject is assisted by moderation in consuming details, and easy inclusion of explanatory material (e.g. from dictionaries and/or encyclopedias) better consolidation of the knowledge structure by incremental approach, interrupted learning, spacing, and slotting in of the new knowledge. Contrary to popular belief, incremental learning helps you keep the big picture in your mind better attention by focusing on a single issue at a time without ever missing a detail, and by remedying attention deficits with a constant change of the learning material creativity - by encountering different subjects in unpredictable sequences, your creativity soars. You can employ it, for example, in the process of incremental problem solving or incremental writing (this article was written using incremental writing tools in SuperMemo) battling chaos - it is easier to resolve contradictions in SuperMemo, e.g. when processing new research with contradictory claims and findings. Unlike your memory in "real life" where you keep oscillating between contradictions, SuperMemo does not tolerate information discrepancy. Contradictory material converges up to a point when you realize you need to decide on the nature of the truth all knowledge is well prioritized all knowledge is easily searchable all knowledge is quantifiable (size, retention, workload, etc.) stresslessness - nothing frees your mind for learning efficiently as the sense that no detail will ever be missed and you can focus on a single problem at a time while delegating other problems to later fun - once you master incremental learning, it can truly be the best part of your day with few other earthly pleasures giving you as much satisfaction as new useful knowledge In short, with incremental learning you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. For a detailed explanation see: Advantages of incremental learning. Interruption is not a problem In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first




Interruption is not a problem

In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first paragraph or even a sentence. Incremental reading is best suited for articles written in hypertext or in an encyclopedic manner. Ideally, each sentence you read has a contribution to your knowledge and is not useless without the sentences that follow.

Imagine that you would like to learn a few things about Gamal Abdel Nasser. You will, for example, import to SuperMemo an article about Nasser from Wikipedia. In the first sentence you will find out that "Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918 - 1970) was the second President of Egypt". If you are new to Nasser, you may be happy to just know he was the Egyptian president and safely jump to reading other articles. Thus you may delay the encounter with the historic role of Nasser and economize some time to finding out, for example, who Shimon Peres is. When you see the Nasser article for the second time, you might find that "He was followed by after President Muhammad Naguib and can be considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history". This piece of knowledge is also self-contained and you can patiently wait for your third encounter with Nasser. When you return the next time, you may conclude that another piece about Nasser is of lower priority: "Nasser was born in Alexandria". You can schedule the review of that piece in 2-3 years. Perhaps your interest in Nasser or in Alexandria will grow to the point that this knowledge will become relevant. If not, you can always dismiss or delete such an extract. Alternatively, you can skip a few paragraphs and extract a more important sentence: "In 1952, Nasser led the military coup against King Farouk I of Egypt". Even if your read individual sentences about Nasser in intervals lasting months, your knowledge will progressively expand and will become increasingly consolidated (esp. if you employ cloze deletions, which are mandatory for longer intervals).

Naturally, not all texts are are so well-suited for incremental reading. For example, a research paper may throw at you a detailed description of methods and leave results and conclusions for the end. In such cases, you may extract the abstract and delay the body of the paper by a period in which you believe the abstract will have been sufficiently processed. Then, if you are still interested in the article, you can schedule the methods well into the future (you will or will not read the methods depending on the conclusions of the article). You can schedule the results and the discussion into a less remote point in ti

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ll directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. For a detailed explanation see: Advantages of incremental learning. <span>Interruption is not a problem In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first paragraph or even a sentence. Incremental reading is best suited for articles written in hypertext or in an encyclopedic manner. Ideally, each sentence you read has a contribution to your knowledge and is not useless without the sentences that follow. Imagine that you would like to learn a few things about Gamal Abdel Nasser. You will, for example, import to SuperMemo an article about Nasser from Wikipedia. In the first sentence you will find out that "Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918 - 1970) was the second President of Egypt". If you are new to Nasser, you may be happy to just know he was the Egyptian president and safely jump to reading other articles. Thus you may delay the encounter with the historic role of Nasser and economize some time to finding out, for example, who Shimon Peres is. When you see the Nasser article for the second time, you might find that "He was followed by after President Muhammad Naguib and can be considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history". This piece of knowledge is also self-contained and you can patiently wait for your third encounter with Nasser. When you return the next time, you may conclude that another piece about Nasser is of lower priority: "Nasser was born in Alexandria". You can schedule the review of that piece in 2-3 years. Perhaps your interest in Nasser or in Alexandria will grow to the point that this knowledge will become relevant. If not, you can always dismiss or delete such an extract. Alternatively, you can skip a few paragraphs and extract a more important sentence: "In 1952, Nasser led the military coup against King Farouk I of Egypt". Even if your read individual sentences about Nasser in intervals lasting months, your knowledge will progressively expand and will become increasingly consolidated (esp. if you employ cloze deletions, which are mandatory for longer intervals). Naturally, not all texts are are so well-suited for incremental reading. For example, a research paper may throw at you a detailed description of methods and leave results and conclusions for the end. In such cases, you may extract the abstract and delay the body of the paper by a period in which you believe the abstract will have been sufficiently processed. Then, if you are still interested in the article, you can schedule the methods well into the future (you will or will not read the methods depending on the conclusions of the article). You can schedule the results and the discussion into a less remote point in time, and proceed with reading the conclusions. The hardest texts may not be suitable to reading in increments. For example, a piece of software code may need to be analyzed in its entirety before it reveals any useful meaning. In such cases, when the text (here the code) comes up in the incremental reading process, analyze it and verbalize your conclusions. The conclusions can then be processed incrementally. You will generate individual questions depending on which pieces of knowledge you consider important and which become volatile. The original computer code can be still retained in your collection as reference only. When learning at the university, you do many courses in parallel. That's a macro version of incremental reading. Many people love to zap TV channels and play a chaotic version of incremental video with their TV set. Zapping may not be a recommended way of learning, but it won't leave your mind blank. Another example can be seen in people who have a habit of reading a few novels in parallel. Their limit on the number of novels comes from the limits of human memory. There is a breaking point beyond which a novel, if read in bursts separated by longer intervals, cannot be followed due to fading memories. Incremental reading is based on SuperMemo, and by definition is far less limited by your forgetful memory. The number of articles in the process can reach a hundred thousands, and given basic skills, you won't get confused. Complexity of incremental learning Unlike classic SuperMemo, incremental learning requires quite a lot of experience and training before it becomes effective. However, your inve




Complexity of incremental learning

Unlike classic SuperMemo, incremental learning requires quite a lot of experience and training before it becomes effective. However, your investment will be returned manifold once you become proficient with the method.

Incremental learning is a consolidation of technologies that have been in development for nearly 3 decades. It is still in the process of maturing and it is still pretty complex. It requires skills that take months to develop. It requires your own strategies that may mature over years. Moreover, incremental learning requires the mastery of SuperMemo, which has been optimized for professional use. As such it is not beginner friendly.

Users complain that SuperMemo has a steep learning curve. They are right. SuperMemo has been optimized to make a life of a pro easy. It makes life of beginners hard because it does not ever compromise the learning efficiency for sleekness or marketing value. Take the priority queue as an example. Nearly everyone asks why the articles of highest value have a priority of 0% rather than the obvious 100%. They ask: "Why is SuperMemo always keeping things upside down?". They got a point. However, no pro user would ever swap the ease of typing 1, 2, 3 for his top priority material as opposed to 99, 98 or 97. Those dilemmas slow down the adoption of SuperMemo. However, once you become a pro, you will appreciate this approach and will more likely become a lifelong devotee.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ing memories. Incremental reading is based on SuperMemo, and by definition is far less limited by your forgetful memory. The number of articles in the process can reach a hundred thousands, and given basic skills, you won't get confused. <span>Complexity of incremental learning Unlike classic SuperMemo, incremental learning requires quite a lot of experience and training before it becomes effective. However, your investment will be returned manifold once you become proficient with the method. Incremental learning is a consolidation of technologies that have been in development for nearly 3 decades. It is still in the process of maturing and it is still pretty complex. It requires skills that take months to develop. It requires your own strategies that may mature over years. Moreover, incremental learning requires the mastery of SuperMemo, which has been optimized for professional use. As such it is not beginner friendly. Users complain that SuperMemo has a steep learning curve. They are right. SuperMemo has been optimized to make a life of a pro easy. It makes life of beginners hard because it does not ever compromise the learning efficiency for sleekness or marketing value. Take the priority queue as an example. Nearly everyone asks why the articles of highest value have a priority of 0% rather than the obvious 100%. They ask: "Why is SuperMemo always keeping things upside down?". They got a point. However, no pro user would ever swap the ease of typing 1, 2, 3 for his top priority material as opposed to 99, 98 or 97. Those dilemmas slow down the adoption of SuperMemo. However, once you become a pro, you will appreciate this approach and will more likely become a lifelong devotee. Incremental reading Introduction to incremental reading Traditional linear reading is highly inefficient. This comes from the fact that various pieces of the text are of va




Incremental reading Introduction to incremental reading

Traditional linear reading is highly inefficient. This comes from the fact that various pieces of the text are of various importance. Some should be skipped. Others should be read in the first order of priority. Old-fashioned books are quickly being replaced with hypertext. Hypertext will help you quickly jump to information that is the most important at any given moment. Hypertext requires a different style of writing. All linear texts can assume that the reader is familiar with the preceding sections. This makes them context-poor. Within hypertext, individual texts become context-independent, and all difficult terms and concepts are explained primarily with additional hyperlinks. In the same way in which the web helped delinearize the global sources of information, SuperMemo can help you delinearize your reading of whatever linear material you decide to import to SuperMemo. While reading with SuperMemo, you will see a linear text as a sequence of sections subdivided into paragraphs and individual sentences. SuperMemo will help you provide a separate and independent processing for each section, paragraph or sentence.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
yping 1, 2, 3 for his top priority material as opposed to 99, 98 or 97. Those dilemmas slow down the adoption of SuperMemo. However, once you become a pro, you will appreciate this approach and will more likely become a lifelong devotee. <span>Incremental reading Introduction to incremental reading Traditional linear reading is highly inefficient. This comes from the fact that various pieces of the text are of various importance. Some should be skipped. Others should be read in the first order of priority. Old-fashioned books are quickly being replaced with hypertext. Hypertext will help you quickly jump to information that is the most important at any given moment. Hypertext requires a different style of writing. All linear texts can assume that the reader is familiar with the preceding sections. This makes them context-poor. Within hypertext, individual texts become context-independent, and all difficult terms and concepts are explained primarily with additional hyperlinks. In the same way in which the web helped delinearize the global sources of information, SuperMemo can help you delinearize your reading of whatever linear material you decide to import to SuperMemo. While reading with SuperMemo, you will see a linear text as a sequence of sections subdivided into paragraphs and individual sentences. SuperMemo will help you provide a separate and independent processing for each section, paragraph or sentence. What is incremental reading? Incremental reading is a learning technique that makes it possible to read thousands of articles at the same time without getting lost. Incremental




What is incremental reading?

Incremental reading is a learning technique that makes it possible to read thousands of articles at the same time without getting lost. Incremental reading begins with importing articles from electronic sources, e.g. the Internet. The student then extracts the most important fragments of individual articles for further review. Extracted fragments are then converted into questions and answers. These in turn become subject to systematic review and repetition that maximizes the long-term recall. The review process is handled by the proven spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method.

Incremental reading converts electronic articles into durable knowledge in your memory. This conversion requires minimum keyboard&mouse work:

  • Input: electronic articles (e.g. collected from the net)
  • Output: well-remembered knowledge (quizzed regularly in the form of questions and answers)

In incremental reading, you read articles in small portions. After you read a portion of one article, you go on to a portion of another article, etc. You introduce all important portions of texts into the learning process in SuperMemo. This way you do not worry that you forget the main thread of the article, even if you return to reading months later. Your progress with individual articles may be slow, but you greatly increase your efficiency by paying less attention to less important articles and spending more time on articles that are more beneficial to your knowledge. Difficult articles may wait until you read easier explanatory articles, etc. Last but not least, incremental reading increases your efficiency because it is fun! You never get bored. If you do not like an article, you read just a sentence and jump to other articles. This way your attention and focus stay maximized.

Warning! Incremental reading may seem complex at first. However, once you master it, you will begin a learning process that will surpass your expectations. You will be surprised with the volume of data your memory can process and retain! See this simple demo at YouTube.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ding with SuperMemo, you will see a linear text as a sequence of sections subdivided into paragraphs and individual sentences. SuperMemo will help you provide a separate and independent processing for each section, paragraph or sentence. <span>What is incremental reading? Incremental reading is a learning technique that makes it possible to read thousands of articles at the same time without getting lost. Incremental reading begins with importing articles from electronic sources, e.g. the Internet. The student then extracts the most important fragments of individual articles for further review. Extracted fragments are then converted into questions and answers. These in turn become subject to systematic review and repetition that maximizes the long-term recall. The review process is handled by the proven spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. Incremental reading converts electronic articles into durable knowledge in your memory. This conversion requires minimum keyboard&mouse work: Input: electronic articles (e.g. collected from the net) Output: well-remembered knowledge (quizzed regularly in the form of questions and answers) In incremental reading, you read articles in small portions. After you read a portion of one article, you go on to a portion of another article, etc. You introduce all important portions of texts into the learning process in SuperMemo. This way you do not worry that you forget the main thread of the article, even if you return to reading months later. Your progress with individual articles may be slow, but you greatly increase your efficiency by paying less attention to less important articles and spending more time on articles that are more beneficial to your knowledge. Difficult articles may wait until you read easier explanatory articles, etc. Last but not least, incremental reading increases your efficiency because it is fun! You never get bored. If you do not like an article, you read just a sentence and jump to other articles. This way your attention and focus stay maximized. Warning! Incremental reading may seem complex at first. However, once you master it, you will begin a learning process that will surpass your expectations. You will be surprised with the volume of data your memory can process and retain! See this simple demo at YouTube. Five basic skills of incremental reading Incremental reading requires skills that you will perfect only over months and years of use. This overview will only help you master the




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Five basic skills of incremental reading

Incremental reading requires skills that you will perfect only over months and years of use. This overview will only help you master the basic skills and help you make a start with incremental reading. The 5 basic skills are:

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seem complex at first. However, once you master it, you will begin a learning process that will surpass your expectations. You will be surprised with the volume of data your memory can process and retain! See this simple demo at YouTube. <span>Five basic skills of incremental reading Incremental reading requires skills that you will perfect only over months and years of use. This overview will only help you master the basic skills and help you make a start with incremental reading. The 5 basic skills are: importing articles to SuperMemo reading articles and decomposing articles into manageable pieces converting most important pieces of knowledge into question-answer material review of the material to ensure good recall handling of the unavoidable overflow of information Skill 1: Importing articles Five article import methods Initially, you may limit your imports to a simple copy&paste of individual articles. Later, you will want to mas




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Skill 2: Reading articles

Here is a simplified algorithm for reading articles:

  1. Choose an article: Import an article as explained earlier or bring up previously imported articles with Learn (Ctrl+L). Learn will display only articles imported in the past. If you import an article, and want to have it shown later during a learning session on the same day, you must place it in the outstanding queue (e.g. Learning : Later today on the element menu, Ctrl+Shift+J, etc.). If you import many articles that you want to process on the same day, you must place them all in the outstanding queue. For example, open the articles in the browser, and choose Learning : Add all to outstanding (or use Add to outstanding icon on the browser toolbar). Most of the time you can rely solely on Learn to schedule articles optimally for review.
  2. Click the article to enter the editing mode, in which you can modify text, select fragments, etc. Optionally, use filter (F6), if the text is hard to process (e.g. selections are hard, extracts not marked correctly, etc.)
  3. Start reading the article from the top or from the last read point
  4. Extract texts: If you encounter an interesting text in the article, select it and choose Remember extract on the learnbar (or press Alt+X). This operation will introduce the extracted fragment into the learning process as an independent mini-article. If you would like to specify the priority of the new extract, choose Reading : Schedule extract ([imagelink]) instead of Remember extract. Also, if you have an impression that the article is difficult and you would like to read some fragments later, extract those f
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Skill 3: Extracting fragments, questions and answers

Extracting texts

In the course of traditional reading, we often mark important paragraphs with a highlighter pen. In SuperMemo, those paragraphs can be extracted as separate mini-articles that will later be used to refresh your memory. Each extracted paragraph or section becomes a new element that will be subject to the same reading algorithm as the original article. Extract important fragments and single sentences with Extract ([imagelink]). Use Alt+X, Extract on the learnbar, or Extract on the Read toolbar.

Adding references

In incremental reading, you always need to quickly recover the context of a question or a piece of text. The easiest way to recover context quickly is via references. References propagate from element to element as you produce extracts and cloze deletions. With all child elements produced from a given text marked with references, you would never need to worry about losing the context of the question. When you import from the web, references are added automatically. You can also define them manually field by field. Exemplary references are shown in pink in the picture below. For details see: References.

[imagelink]

Figure: Typical snapshot of incremental reading. While learning about the greenhouse effect, the student extracts the fragment saying that "In the absence of the greenhouse effect and an atmosphere, the Earth's average surface temperature of 14 °C (57 °F) could be as low as -18 °C (-0.4 °F), the black body temperature of the Earth.". The extracted fragment will inherit illustrations placed on the right, as well as article references. The student can move on to reading another article by pressing Enter. The picture on the right is stored locally in the image registry (on the user's hard disk) and can be reused to illustrate other articles or questions.

Cloze: Generating questions

SuperMemo will show

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Skill 4: Repetition and review

SuperMemo is based on repetition. You will review the learned material from time to time to make sure you prevent forgetting.

If you have never tried SuperMemo before, you will need to get the hang of standard repetitions as described here.

In incremental reading, your review will be based on similar principles as in classical SuperMemo. The main differences are:

  • the learning process will intermingle reading of new articles with reviewing your items
  • your items will mostly have a form of cloze deletions, i.e. sentences with a question posed by a missing part [...] (e.g. The planet nearest the Sun is [...] )
  • as the entire learning process is incremental, your cloze deletions will often show up in an unfinished form

Incrementally processed articles will be subject to periodic review/reading. When you resume reading an article after a certain period, you will proceed to new sections, extracting newly acquired wisdom into separate elements with Alt+X (i.e. Remember extract). Usually, you will delete the remnants of the processed article with Delete before cursor (Alt+\).

The algorithms that determine the timing of (1) repetitions of question-and-answer material and (2) reviewing reading material are analogous but not identical. Most importantly, all repetitions and article presentations happen in increasing intervals by default. In incremental reading, you will see a constant inflow of new articles into your collection. Unprocessed material will need to compete with the newly imported material. Increasing review intervals make sure that your old material fades into lower priority if not processed early. The speed of processing will depend on the availability of your time and the value of the material itself. Articles that are boring, badly written, less important for your work or growth, will receive smaller portions of your attention and may go into long review intervals before you even manage to pass a fraction of the text. That is an inevitable side effect of a voluminous flow of new information into your collection and into your memory. However, inte

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
t;the ARPA agency" phrase may defy grammar rules you have learned in primary school, but it is by far more understandable than just the ARPA. In SuperMemo, understandability is more important than stiff rules of grammar or spelling! <span>Skill 4: Repetition and review SuperMemo is based on repetition. You will review the learned material from time to time to make sure you prevent forgetting. If you have never tried SuperMemo before, you will need to get the hang of standard repetitions as described here. In incremental reading, your review will be based on similar principles as in classical SuperMemo. The main differences are: the learning process will intermingle reading of new articles with reviewing your items your items will mostly have a form of cloze deletions, i.e. sentences with a question posed by a missing part [...] (e.g. The planet nearest the Sun is [...]) as the entire learning process is incremental, your cloze deletions will often show up in an unfinished form Incrementally processed articles will be subject to periodic review/reading. When you resume reading an article after a certain period, you will proceed to new sections, extracting newly acquired wisdom into separate elements with Alt+X (i.e. Remember extract). Usually, you will delete the remnants of the processed article with Delete before cursor (Alt+\). The algorithms that determine the timing of (1) repetitions of question-and-answer material and (2) reviewing reading material are analogous but not identical. Most importantly, all repetitions and article presentations happen in increasing intervals by default. In incremental reading, you will see a constant inflow of new articles into your collection. Unprocessed material will need to compete with the newly imported material. Increasing review intervals make sure that your old material fades into lower priority if not processed early. The speed of processing will depend on the availability of your time and the value of the material itself. Articles that are boring, badly written, less important for your work or growth, will receive smaller portions of your attention and may go into long review intervals before you even manage to pass a fraction of the text. That is an inevitable side effect of a voluminous flow of new information into your collection and into your memory. However, intervals and priorities can easily be adjusted. If your priorities change, you can modify the way you process important articles. At review time, you can either read the entire article without interruption, or bring it back for review in a shorter interval. You can manually change its priority (e.g. with Alt+P). You can also use search tools (e.g. Ctrl+F) to locate more articles on the subject that you feel you have neglected. You can reprioritize a bunch of articles by changing their priority. You can shorten intervals of articles, or review them all when needed (see: Subset review). The algorithm for reviewing questions and answers (e.g. cloze deletions) is quite complex and limits your influence on the timing of repetitions (see: SuperMemo Algorithm). This is to ensure that you achieve a high level of knowledge retention, which might be compromised by manual intervention. However, the algorithm for determining inter-review intervals for topics is much simpler and is entirely under your control. Each article receives a specific priority. The priority determines which articles are reviewed first and which can be postponed in case you run out of time. Each article is also assigned a number called the A-Factor that determines how much intervals increase between subsequent reviews. For example, if A-Factor is 2, review intervals will double with each review. Priority and A-Factors are set automatically, but you can change them manually at any time. Priorities and A-Factors are determined and modified heuristically on the basis of the length of the text, the way it is processed, the way it is postponed or advanced, and by many other factors. You can change the priority and A-Factor of an article by pressing Alt+P. You can also use Shift+Ctrl+Up arrow and Shift+Ctrl+Down arrow to increase or decrease an element's priority. Note that A-Factors associated with items cannot be changed by the user, as they are a reflection of item difficulty that determines the length of optimum inter-repetition intervals (see: Forgetting index). You can control the timing of article review by manually adjusting inter-review intervals. Use Ctrl+J (Reschedule) or Shift+Ctrl+R (Execute repetition) to determine the date of the next review. Ctrl+J will increment the current interval, while Shift+Ctrl+R will first execute a repetition and then set the new interval. For example, if your current interval is 100 and you specify the value of 3 in Reschedule, your new repetition date will be set in 3 days, and the last repetition date will not change (the new interval will be 103). If you do the same with Execute repetition, your new interval will be 3 and the last repetition date will be set to today. In other words, Reschedule increments the interval (it can also shorten intervals), while Execute repetition sets the length of the interval (while leaving a trace of a repetition executed in the learning process). Note that Reschedule (Ctrl+J) executed at Next repetition stage will first complete the repetition and will have the same effect as Execute repetition (Shift+Ctrl+R). To delay a repetition during learning, use any of the earlier stages of the repetition cycle. In a heavily overloaded incremental reading process, you will often want to focus on a specific subject on a given day (e.g. before an exam). For that purpose, read about the priceless tool: subset learning. Summary use the Learn button to process, learn, and review all your knowledge the review of items is handled by the SuperMemo Algorithm. Grade your items well, formulate them well, and mark them with honest priorities. SuperMemo will take care of the rest review of topics/articles also occurs in increasing intervals, however, you can always manually set the next date with Execute repetition (Shift+Ctrl+R). Make sure you mark your top articles with high priority. Otherwise, they can quickly fade from view Skill 5: Handling large volumes of knowledge In incremental reading, you may quickly import and produce more learning material than you can effectively process. To make sure tha




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Skill 5: Handling large volumes of knowledge

In incremental reading, you may quickly import and produce more learning material than you can effectively process. To make sure that you can swiftly handle the overload, SuperMemo uses the priority queue.

Using Alt+P (Priority : Modify on the element menu), you can set each element's priority from 0% to 100%. Note that 0% corresponds with high priority!

By default, the outstanding repetitions will be auto-sorted from high to low priority. This way, if you fail to complete your daily load of learning, it will only be the lower priority material that will suffer. Also by default, at the beginning of your working day (i.e. at your first run of SuperMemo), your outstanding material from previous days will be be auto-postponed (again with high-priority material being least affected).

Read an article about the priority queue to learn more about:

  1. manual sorting of elements,
  2. defining sorting criteria,
  3. turning off auto-sort and auto-postpone, and more.

For more options for handling the overload, see:

  • the postpone dialog to postpone portions of the learning material and to define the postpone criteria
  • Mercy to spread the excess of the learning material over a period of time (or to advance the material before a vacation, etc.)
  • to learn more about different options, see also: Postpone, Advance and Mercy
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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
/articles also occurs in increasing intervals, however, you can always manually set the next date with Execute repetition (Shift+Ctrl+R). Make sure you mark your top articles with high priority. Otherwise, they can quickly fade from view <span>Skill 5: Handling large volumes of knowledge In incremental reading, you may quickly import and produce more learning material than you can effectively process. To make sure that you can swiftly handle the overload, SuperMemo uses the priority queue. Using Alt+P (Priority : Modify on the element menu), you can set each element's priority from 0% to 100%. Note that 0% corresponds with high priority! By default, the outstanding repetitions will be auto-sorted from high to low priority. This way, if you fail to complete your daily load of learning, it will only be the lower priority material that will suffer. Also by default, at the beginning of your working day (i.e. at your first run of SuperMemo), your outstanding material from previous days will be be auto-postponed (again with high-priority material being least affected). Read an article about the priority queue to learn more about: manual sorting of elements, defining sorting criteria, turning off auto-sort and auto-postpone, and more. For more options for handling the overload, see: the postpone dialog to postpone portions of the learning material and to define the postpone criteria Mercy to spread the excess of the learning material over a period of time (or to advance the material before a vacation, etc.) to learn more about different options, see also: Postpone, Advance and Mercy Other basic skills Evolution of knowledge in incremental reading 3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity - artic




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3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo:

  • decrease in complexity (per review)
  • active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material
  • incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time
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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
teria Mercy to spread the excess of the learning material over a period of time (or to advance the material before a vacation, etc.) to learn more about different options, see also: Postpone, Advance and Mercy Other basic skills <span>Evolution of knowledge in incremental reading 3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity - articles will be converted into sets of paragraphs. Paragraphs will be dismantled into sets of independent sentences and statements. Sentences will be shortened to maximize the information-vs-wording ratio, etc. active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material such as question-answer pairs, cloze deletions, picture recognition tests, sound recognition tests, etc. This is to maximize your recall of knowledge incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time, with respect to your selected material's priority, and in line with the gradually increasing strength of memory traces. Incremental nature of learning in SuperMemo will help you get the maximum memory effect in minimum time. See: The value of interruption in learning Using pictures For additional information, mnemonic cues, and a sheer fun of learning, an article that you read incrementally in SuperMemo can be illustrated with meaningful pic




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Reading overload

Overload occurs when the student has more outstanding items or topics to review than (s)he can handle. Few users can sustain more than 200 item repetitions per day. When the Outstanding parameter in the Statistics window starts going above that number, overload is likely.

Overload can best be handled with Auto-postpone. However, a one-time big load can be resolved efficiently with Postpone (delaying all elements), or Mercy (spreading all review in time).

You can also postpone a specific topic with all its extracts using the following method:

  1. Go to the topic in question
  2. Press Ctrl+Space to open the topic, its extracts, and clozes in the browser
  3. Choose Process browser> : Postpone on the browser menu

Note that you may need to use Learning : Locate extracts on the element menu if you have moved portions of your learning material to other branches.

See also:

Auto-sort and auto-postpone

As long as you prioritize your learning material well, you should make your life easier by checking the following 2 options:

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
pics and concepts, you can also use tasks in incremental learning. Tasks are jobs sorted by Value/Time or Value/Price ratio. For an extensive comparison of items, topics, concepts and tasks in SuperMemo, see: Element types in SuperMemo. <span>Reading overload Overload occurs when the student has more outstanding items or topics to review than (s)he can handle. Few users can sustain more than 200 item repetitions per day. When the Outstanding parameter in the Statistics window starts going above that number, overload is likely. Overload can best be handled with Auto-postpone. However, a one-time big load can be resolved efficiently with Postpone (delaying all elements), or Mercy (spreading all review in time). You can also postpone a specific topic with all its extracts using the following method: Go to the topic in question Press Ctrl+Space to open the topic, its extracts, and clozes in the browser Choose Process browser> : Postpone on the browser menu Note that you may need to use Learning : Locate extracts on the element menu if you have moved portions of your learning material to other branches. See also: Priority queue Mercy Postpone Auto-sort and auto-postpone As long as you prioritize your learning material well, you should make your life easier by checking the following 2 options: Learn : Sorting : Auto-sort repetitions that results in sorting your outstanding queue by priority at the start of each day. Learn : Postpone : Auto-postpone that results in postponing outstanding repetitions of lower priority at that start of each day. It ensures you do not get overloaded, and it ensures that you minimize delays for top priority material. Auto-postpone always leaves a number of top-priority elements in the queue. The purpose of the postpone is to get rid of the main mass of low-priority material and focus on top-priority material. You are most likely to use Postpone after a day of learning, while Auto-postpone is executed before your learning day begins. This is why it never affects today's material, and does not postpone top-priority material from previous days. If you have Auto-postpone checked on the menu, you will always start the day with all the repetitions scheduled for that day, and a number of unexecuted top-priority repetitions from previous days. Even though Auto-postpone increases the intervals and reduces the retention of low-priority material, it also makes you benefit from the spacing effect. Research shows that longer intervals may paradoxically increase the speed of learning (up to a certain point). This comes from the fact that the default retention in SuperMemo (around 95%) is higher than the retention that delivers the largest number of items remembered per unit of time invested. You can start with default settings of the sorting criteria, however, if you feel you make insufficient progress with items (e.g. high forgetting index), you can reduce the proportion of topics. If the inflow of new material is too slow, you can increase the proportion of topics. If your priorities are imperfect, increase the degree of randomization. If you think you miss too many high priority items (see: Tools : Statistics : Analysis : Use : Priority protection from the main menu), reduce the randomization. By trial and error, you will arrive at your optimum. Even after you find your optimum, keep experimenting with different randomization and topic levels. This will help you avoid various cognitive biases that develop through the routine of learning. It may also be helpful to execute random review from time to time (just to get a general feel of your overall progress). With Auto-sort and Auto-postpone, you will nearly never have to worry about material overload. Each time you start SuperMemo for the first time on a given day, it will first postpone repetitions that you failed to execute on previous days. It will use default postpone criteria which you can always modify (e.g. with Learn : Postpone : All elements). After postponing the backlog of repetitions, SuperMemo will sort today's repetitions and those that were left outstanding by Auto-postpone. Auto-sort will use sorting criteria specified earlier with Learn : Sorting : Sorting criteria. With Auto-postpone and Auto-sort, you can always begin your day with a manageable portion of material sorted by priority. Your learning sequence will be optimized with no action on your part (i.e. no options to choose, and no keys to press). Overload hints With or without Auto-postpone, your only sure remedy against forgetting is always the same: complete your repetitions! Auto-postpone affects all days except for today. If you have low-priority topics scheduled for today, Auto-postpone will delay them only tomorrow and only if you do not review them today. This is to ensure that low-priority topics also have a chance to enter repetitions as determined by your Randomization/Prioritization balance in the sorting criteria In the Postpone dialog, Skip the following number of top priority elements skips only elements that were skipped by Skip conditions on the Parameters tab. It will not protect elements from being postponed if they are not protected by the postpone criteria. Whatever the value of this parameter, you can still have all your elements postponed. You can best view it as a pro-postpone parameter that is used to force extra postpones (not an anti-postpone parameter that protects your from extra postpones). Skip here means "skip postpone protections" not "skip postpones" Simulate in Postpone can be used to tell you how well your current postpone criteria work. It ignores Skip the following number of top priority elements because this parameter needs no simulation (it will always enforce skipping the said number of elements protected from Postpone by the postpone criteria) Subset review Subset review is a review of a portion of the learning material (e.g. before an exam). The portion may be identified with search, by branch selection in Contents, by concept group, and other means that determine a subset of elements. The reviewed subset material may be sorted by its sequence in the knowledge tree (Contents), priority, difficulty, interval, recency, etc. For more, see Subset learning Hints and tips Importing articles Importing articles from Wikipedia is easiest: to search for Wikipedia articles press Ctrl+F3, type in some keywords, choose Wikipedia,




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Mimic real life situations to combat memory interference

Some texts present knowledge in the form that is difficult to remember. Lists and sets are a good example of knowledge that does not stick to memory. Even if you perfectly know the map of Africa, answering the request: "List all countries of Africa" may be pretty hard. There are proven techniques that will help you tackle repetitive, list-rich, or boring knowledge with SuperMemo. All solutions are costly at memorization stage, but will pay handsomely in the long run due to lesser forgetting rate. The basic 2 principles are:

  1. gradually glue individual pieces to your overall knowledge structure
  2. be as visual and mnemonic as possible

Here are some specific hints:

  • use a mind map: search the net for a nice mnemonic picture of the subject studied (e.g. political map of Africa). The picture will provide the basic skeleton for your memory. Like ornaments on a Christmas tree, you will hang new pieces of knowledge on this mnemonic skeleton. Use the picture to illustrate all topics and items in the studied concept group.
  • do not learn it all at once: Add individual items gradually at a point when they acquire some special meaning. Add them when they fit snugly with the rest of your knowledge. Add them when you specifically need them or when you learn about a related subject. If you need enumerative knowledge for an exam, cram it using traditional methods, and still continue adding individual pieces in unique contexts later on when you feel they are interesting or important.
  • associate with stories: if you ask an expert in the field, you will probably hear that (s)he mastered enumerative knowledge by association with individual case stories. Whatever he or she learned at school was quickly forgotten, but individual cases or problems to solve leave a good and durable imprint due to their uniqueness. Once you hit upon a story that is relevant to your hard-to-remember items, try to learn those items in the context of that particular story (e.g. hang the Cameroon up on your knowledge tree only when reading about Eto's move to Chelsea). If you encounter cases in the course of your practise, describe them shortly and use them to supply context.
  • supplement with incremental reading: instead of formulating all items along the same repetitive and monotonous template, try to use incremental reading to generate cloze deletions that work on separate storylines. Ideally, you would review your topic and generate just a single subtopic (e.g. on a single country in Africa). Always choose the one that seems most obvious or most important to remember. Always try to add some supplementary material. Be sure you do
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e element This is my example element WYSIWYG This is my example element This is my example element Your cloze keywords will be formatted in the same way as the surrounding text. Mimic real life situations to combat memory interference Some texts present knowledge in the form that is difficult to remember. Lists and sets are a good example of knowledge that does not stick to memory. Even if you perfectly know the map of Africa, answering the request: "List all countries of Africa" may be pretty hard. There are proven techniques that will help you tackle repetitive, list-rich, or boring knowledge with SuperMemo. All solutions are costly at memorization stage, but will pay handsomely in the long run due to lesser forgetting rate. The basic 2 principles are: gradually glue individual pieces to your overall knowledge structure be as visual and mnemonic as possible Here are some specific hints: use a mind map: search the net for a nice mnemonic picture of the subject studied (e.g. political map of Africa). The picture will provide the basic skeleton for your memory. Like ornaments on a Christmas tree, you will hang new pieces of knowledge on this mnemonic skeleton. Use the picture to illustrate all topics and items in the studied concept group. do not learn it all at once: Add individual items gradually at a point when they acquire some special meaning. Add them when they fit snugly with the rest of your knowledge. Add them when you specifically need them or when you learn about a related subject. If you need enumerative knowledge for an exam, cram it using traditional methods, and still continue adding individual pieces in unique contexts later on when you feel they are interesting or important. associate with stories: if you ask an expert in the field, you will probably hear that (s)he mastered enumerative knowledge by association with individual case stories. Whatever he or she learned at school was quickly forgotten, but individual cases or problems to solve leave a good and durable imprint due to their uniqueness. Once you hit upon a story that is relevant to your hard-to-remember items, try to learn those items in the context of that particular story (e.g. hang the Cameroon up on your knowledge tree only when reading about Eto's move to Chelsea). If you encounter cases in the course of your practise, describe them shortly and use them to supply context. supplement with incremental reading: instead of formulating all items along the same repetitive and monotonous template, try to use incremental reading to generate cloze deletions that work on separate storylines. Ideally, you would review your topic and generate just a single subtopic (e.g. on a single country in Africa). Always choose the one that seems most obvious or most important to remember. Always try to add some supplementary material. Be sure you do not provide clues that will make you answer correctly without forming an appropriate association compare with experts: ask an expert in the field how (s)he remembers a given fact or association. In some cases you may be dismayed to see how poorly experts recall compulsory college material. At other times, you will see how their memory tackles the problem with ease by using a simple mnemonic. This will help you emulate real life learning at a compressed timescale without ever wasting time on trying to master what others never manage to master anyway. That's the basic difference between school learning and your efficient incremental learning: you do not cram it dry along a rigid prescription. You use your creativity to incrementally build a durable structure of useful knowledge! Example: dealing with enumerations If you happen to learn the geological periods, you are bound to generate nasty leeches, esp. if you are new to the subject. Using the top-down learning rule, be sure you know the eras, before you learn the periods, and before you move on to the epochs, and further down the tree of knowledge. A typical mistake would be to start from cramming the meaningless sequence of periods. For example, clozing the Paleozoic Era sequence: "Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian" could result in a question that is bound to cause problems: "Cambrian, Ordovician, [...], Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian". This cloze will trouble anyone who is not privy to the field. In other words, only those who come with the knowledge ready in their mind will be able to tackle this type of question at little cost! Conclusion: there is no point in learning lists the hard way unless you already know what you are trying to learn! Catch 22! Instead of using the above approach, it would make far more sense to first anchor the Silurian period in your mind with some meaningful event. For example, the appearance of the bony fish. This way, we might start with a cloze based on "The bony fish appeared in Silurian (443-419 mn years ago)". The following question will be far easier to remember: "The bony fish appeared in [...](period)(443-419 mn years ago)". Even if the answer is the same as in the original unfortunate cloze, that question is not semantically equivalent. You will need more cloze deletions. However, working with similar sequences should always proceed incrementally and in proportion to anchoring individual periods in memory. Later on you can move on to clozing dates, epochs, and other details. All the time you should try to add new interesting anchors and work with the material in parallel to the inflow of meaningful information that is likely to stay long in memory. Learning Use Ctrl+W (Tools : Calendar from the main menu) to view the calendar of repetitions. Double-click a day to see which elements will be reviewed on that day. You can al




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The better you get, the more often you will want to resort to incremental learning. The stronger your incremental learning skills, the shorter the working period that makes employing incremental learning effective. For a proficient user, even a next day's assignment might make sense to be done with incremental learning tools. For a beginner though, it is enough to consider that it may take you a few months of practise to truly understand the flow of knowledge in incremental reading (and in your memory). This alone might make it ineffective in learning for a test that comes in a month or two
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key information. It is very difficult to predict how many clozes you will need to generate to attain perfect recall of the whole passage. On occasion, a single cloze suffices. At other times, a single passage can require a dozen of clozes! <span>The better you get, the more often you will want to resort to incremental learning. The stronger your incremental learning skills, the shorter the working period that makes employing incremental learning effective. For a proficient user, even a next day's assignment might make sense to be done with incremental learning tools. For a beginner though, it is enough to consider that it may take you a few months of practise to truly understand the flow of knowledge in incremental reading (and in your memory). This alone might make it ineffective in learning for a test that comes in a month or two Auto-postpone brings you closer to the ideal spaced repetition learning by reducing the load of low priority material that you cannot possibly master due to excess volume. In a sense,




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You should never stop thinking about the value of items that you keep in your memory. See: Re-evaluation of items
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collection "get stale" resulting in less fun in learning and lesser motivation. Some older articles may be pushed away to lower priorities by overload only to be deleted later as not important enough, not good enough, or outdated <span>You should never stop thinking about the value of items that you keep in your memory. See: Re-evaluation of items Use Learning : Spread in the browser to change the distribution of your learning material in time. You can speed up learning before an exam by compressing your learning schedule in a





#has-images
Arten von Tensoren [ Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten ] [imagelink] Das Levi-Civita-Symbol im Dreidimensionalen repräsentiert einen besonders einfachen dreistufigen Tensor.

Ausgehend von einem endlichdimensionalen Vektorraum bezeichnet man Skalare als Tensoren vom Typ \((0,0)\), Vektoren als Tensoren vom Typ \((1,0)\) und Kovektoren als Tensoren vom Typ \((0,1)\). Tensoren höherer Stufe definiert man als multilineare Abbildungen mit Tensoren geringerer Stufe als Argumente und Abbildungswerte. So kann etwa ein Tensor vom Typ \((1,1)\) als lineare Abbildung zwischen Vektorräumen oder als bilineare Abbildung mit einem Vektor und einem Kovektor als Argumente aufgefasst werden.

Beispielsweise ist der mechanische Spannungstensor in der Physik ein Tensor zweiter Stufe – eine Zahl (Stärke der Spannung) oder ein Vektor (eine Hauptspannungsrichtung) reichen nicht immer zur Beschreibung des Spannungszustandes eines Körpers aus. Als Tensor vom Typ \((0,2)\) aufgefasst ist er eine lineare Abbildung, die einem Flächenelement (als Vektor) die darauf wirkende Kraft (als Kovektor) zuordnet, oder eine bilineare Abbildung, die einem Flächenelement und einem Verschiebungsvektor die Arbeit zuordnet, die bei der Verschiebung des Flächenstücks unter dem Einfluss der wirkenden Spannung verrichtet wird.

Bezüglich einer fest gewählten Vektorraumbasis erhält man die folgenden Darstellungen der verschiedenen Typen von Tensoren:

  • Ein Skalar durch eine einzelne Zahl.
  • Ein Vektor durch einen Spaltenvektor.
  • Ein Kovektor durch einen Zeilenvektor.
  • Ein Tensor zweiter Stufe durch eine Matrix.

Die Anwendung des Spannungstensors auf ein Flächenelement ist dann z. B. durch das Produkt einer Matrix mit einem Spaltenvektor gegeben. Die Koordinaten von Tensoren höherer Stufe können entsprechend in ein höherdimensionales Schema angeordnet werden. So können diese Komponenten eines Tensors anders als die eines Spaltenvektors oder einer Matrix mehr als ein oder zwei Indizes haben. Ein Beispiel für einen Tensor dritter Stufe, der drei Vektoren des \(\mathbb R^3\) als Argumente hat, ist die Determinante einer 3×3-Matrix als Funkti

...
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Ein Tensorfeld (unpräzise auch Tensor) wird im mathematischen Teilgebiet der Differentialgeometrie im Besonderen in der Tensoranalysis untersucht. Es handelt sich um eine Funktion, die auf spezielle Weise jedem Punkt eines zugrundeliegenden Raumes einen Tensor zuordnet.
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Tensorfeld – Wikipedia
ml data-bubo-virtual-tag="t">Tensorfeld – Wikipedia Tensorfeld aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen Ein Tensorfeld (unpräzise auch Tensor) wird im mathematischen Teilgebiet der Differentialgeometrie im Besonderen in der Tensoranalysis untersucht. Es handelt sich um eine Funktion, die auf spezielle Weise jedem Punkt eines zugrundeliegenden Raumes einen Tensor zuordnet. Inhaltsverzeichnis [Verbergen] 1 Definition 2 Beispiele 3 Siehe auch 4 Quelle 5 Weblinks Definition[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] Sei M




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Derivation steps in reasoning/mathematics. If you are learning mathematics, you might wonder if you should commit individual derivation steps of a mathematic proof or solution, or should you just focus on the final outcome. The choice will depend on your goals. If you only need the final formula, time spent on learning the derivation steps could be better spent learning other important portions of the material. If you are not sure today what you will need in the future, you could just type in the whole derivation into a single topic and memorize the final formula. Later, in incremental reading, you will make incremental decisions whether portions of the derivation are or are not important in your work or further learning. This piece of knowledge will compete with others in the learning process and in the long term you may ultimately decide if you want to memorize the details, keep them for passive review only, dismiss/delete some of the steps, or dismiss the entire derivation as redundant (or too costly to learn). Naturally, derivation will often enhance your ability to efficiently use the formula. Hence the decision is never easy. Once you have derivation steps committed, you can always play with their priority to determine the probability you will review them well enough to make a difference to your knowledge.
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e the material in a longer period after a boring exam (for incremental review, re-learning, deprioritization, and/or elimination). For that latter job, you can choose a specific portion of the material to be served per day. Read about Mercy <span>Derivation steps in reasoning/mathematics. If you are learning mathematics, you might wonder if you should commit individual derivation steps of a mathematic proof or solution, or should you just focus on the final outcome. The choice will depend on your goals. If you only need the final formula, time spent on learning the derivation steps could be better spent learning other important portions of the material. If you are not sure today what you will need in the future, you could just type in the whole derivation into a single topic and memorize the final formula. Later, in incremental reading, you will make incremental decisions whether portions of the derivation are or are not important in your work or further learning. This piece of knowledge will compete with others in the learning process and in the long term you may ultimately decide if you want to memorize the details, keep them for passive review only, dismiss/delete some of the steps, or dismiss the entire derivation as redundant (or too costly to learn). Naturally, derivation will often enhance your ability to efficiently use the formula. Hence the decision is never easy. Once you have derivation steps committed, you can always play with their priority to determine the probability you will review them well enough to make a difference to your knowledge. You can separate reading (topic) from review (items). However, variety is a spice of life. A random mix of reading and repetitions is a very powerful tool in overcoming the monotony o




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Fun is the key to success: If your learning text is too "dry", not too meaningful, too wordy, etc. the fun of learning will drop. If learning is not enjoyable, it is less likely to be effective. If you dislike a specific article, perhaps a Wikipedia replacement would be fun and more meaningful? Even if this is a bit longer, you can process it pretty fast with incremental reading, illustrate with pictures, and enjoy the process
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to mix topics and items during the reading phase, and consolidate knowledge by making item-only repetitions later in the day. In the end, sticking to priorities, auto-sort, and auto-postpone will be the best least-biased long-term strategy <span>Fun is the key to success: If your learning text is too "dry", not too meaningful, too wordy, etc. the fun of learning will drop. If learning is not enjoyable, it is less likely to be effective. If you dislike a specific article, perhaps a Wikipedia replacement would be fun and more meaningful? Even if this is a bit longer, you can process it pretty fast with incremental reading, illustrate with pictures, and enjoy the process Nurse your hunger for knowledge: You have to find the clear-cut link between knowledge and the value it brings to life. The hunger for knowledge grows as you get more educated (the mo




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Nurse your hunger for knowledge: You have to find the clear-cut link between knowledge and the value it brings to life. The hunger for knowledge grows as you get more educated (the more you know the more you know you don't know). So there is an excellent remedy for poor motivation: learn more and see how it can impact your and others' life
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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ive. If you dislike a specific article, perhaps a Wikipedia replacement would be fun and more meaningful? Even if this is a bit longer, you can process it pretty fast with incremental reading, illustrate with pictures, and enjoy the process <span>Nurse your hunger for knowledge: You have to find the clear-cut link between knowledge and the value it brings to life. The hunger for knowledge grows as you get more educated (the more you know the more you know you don't know). So there is an excellent remedy for poor motivation: learn more and see how it can impact your and others' life You determine the speed of learning in incremental reading! You can determine the frequency of presentation of topics (e.g. using A-Factors, priorities, Mercy, etc.). You can determin




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You can execute forced ahead-of-time review in incremental learning via Subset Review.
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it brings to life. The hunger for knowledge grows as you get more educated (the more you know the more you know you don't know). So there is an excellent remedy for poor motivation: learn more and see how it can impact your and others' life <span>You determine the speed of learning in incremental reading! You can determine the frequency of presentation of topics (e.g. using A-Factors, priorities, Mercy, etc.). You can determine the level of retention for items (e.g. with the forgetting index, priorities, auto-postpone, etc.). You can execute forced ahead-of-time review of any material (see: Subset review) You MUST NOT memorize material that you do not understand! There is some hope that by doing more learning in other areas you will at some point understand. It is far more likely thoug




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You MUST NOT memorize material that you do not understand! There is some hope that by doing more learning in other areas you will at some point understand. It is far more likely though that you will build up frustration with items that mean little. If you do not understand a term or concept, you need to dig deep into why. Is it terminology? This can be easily investigated and fixed. Or is it a problem with the material itself? Perhaps you can find an alternative on the net? Perhaps you can find a nice picture on the net to illustrate the item? Obviously, each little investigation takes time, but it is better to master 10-20% of the material well, that to cram an encyclopedia without comprehension. Even if you fail an exam, those 10% can be useful in the future (e.g. if you retake the exam). In general, schools load more than students can master and this leads to lots of stress and frustration. By choosing SuperMemo, you have already made the first good step. Now you need to make order in the process and think carefully about your best long-term strategy. Comprehension is the key to success!
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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
sing A-Factors, priorities, Mercy, etc.). You can determine the level of retention for items (e.g. with the forgetting index, priorities, auto-postpone, etc.). You can execute forced ahead-of-time review of any material (see: Subset review) <span>You MUST NOT memorize material that you do not understand! There is some hope that by doing more learning in other areas you will at some point understand. It is far more likely though that you will build up frustration with items that mean little. If you do not understand a term or concept, you need to dig deep into why. Is it terminology? This can be easily investigated and fixed. Or is it a problem with the material itself? Perhaps you can find an alternative on the net? Perhaps you can find a nice picture on the net to illustrate the item? Obviously, each little investigation takes time, but it is better to master 10-20% of the material well, that to cram an encyclopedia without comprehension. Even if you fail an exam, those 10% can be useful in the future (e.g. if you retake the exam). In general, schools load more than students can master and this leads to lots of stress and frustration. By choosing SuperMemo, you have already made the first good step. Now you need to make order in the process and think carefully about your best long-term strategy. Comprehension is the key to success! If you want to grade an item Null or Bad, press 0 or 1 respectively SuperMemo is not yet equipped with tools to help you efficiently use your knowledge for good causes. It will boos




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Do not spend your time on gaining knowledge for the knowledge sake! Think applicability!
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e already made the first good step. Now you need to make order in the process and think carefully about your best long-term strategy. Comprehension is the key to success! If you want to grade an item Null or Bad, press 0 or 1 respectively <span>SuperMemo is not yet equipped with tools to help you efficiently use your knowledge for good causes. It will boost your knowledge but... you must be vigilant: Do not spend your time on gaining knowledge for the knowledge sake! Think applicability! Luckily, as your knowledge grows, so does your ability to use it efficiently Re-evaluation of items You should remember that all items introduced into your learning process require endless attention in reference to their applicability, formulation, impor




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  1. Do I really need this item?
  2. What is the honest priority of this item in the entire spectrum of my (desired) knowledge?
  3. Is this item difficult to remember? If so, why?
  4. Is it factually correct?
  5. Is it as simple and clear as it could be?
  6. Do I really need to know it now?
  7. Do you need supplementary knowledge to understand all ramifications of the item?

Here are some typical actions you will take depending on the answer to the above questions:

  1. edit the item.
  2. de-prioritize the item.
  3. reschedule the item
  4. dismiss the item
  5. delete the item
  6. delay or forget the item
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good causes. It will boost your knowledge but... you must be vigilant: Do not spend your time on gaining knowledge for the knowledge sake! Think applicability! Luckily, as your knowledge grows, so does your ability to use it efficiently <span>Re-evaluation of items You should remember that all items introduced into your learning process require endless attention in reference to their applicability, formulation, importance, logic, etc. In a well-planned learning process, it should not be necessary to review items in the periods between individual repetitions. However, when an item comes up for a repetition, you should make a quick and nearly instinctive assessment of the following: Do I really need this item? What is the honest priority of this item in the entire spectrum of my (desired) knowledge? Is this item difficult to remember? If so, why? Is it factually correct? Is it as simple and clear as it could be? Do I really need to know it now? Do you need supplementary knowledge to understand all ramifications of the item? Here are some typical actions you will take depending on the answer to the above questions: edit the item. You will use keys such as Q, A, or E to enter a desired text field and edit it. In more complex items you will use Ctrl+T to circle between components, Alt+click to switch a component between editing and dragging modes, or Ctrl+E to enter the editing mode de-prioritize the item. For items that are not important enough, or you are not sure are important enough, use Alt+P and reduce their priority. You can also use Ctrl+Shift+Down arrow for minor deprioritizations reschedule the item. If you know the item well or for some reason want to manually increase (or decrease) the length of the inter-repetition interval, press Ctrl+Shift+R to select the date of the next repetition dismiss the item. If you are sure you are not likely to need the item in the future, but you would like to keep it in your collection for reference or archival purposes, press Ctrl+D. Dismissed items are removed from the learning process delete the item. The key Del is very useful in cleaning your collection from garbage that results from your desire to know more than your memory can hold. In the editing mode or in spelling items (i.e. at times when Del plays text editing functions), you may need to use Ctrl+Shift+Del instead. Please note that deleting an element in SuperMemo will delete all its children! You may therefore wish to learn to always use safer Done (Ctrl+Shift+Enter) instead delay or forget the item. If you think the item is too difficult at the moment, you can postpone learning it. For this purpose, choose Ctrl+J to set a new interval or use Forget to transfer the item to the pending queue. This will give you some time to import some supplementary material that will help you understand the item Formulation Use minimum information principle which says that simple elements formulated for active recall bring much better learning results than complex elements. This holds




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Formulation

  • Use minimum information principle which says that simple elements formulated for active recall bring much better learning results than complex elements. This holds true even though one complex element may be equivalent to a large number of simpler elements. See: Minimum information principle.
  • Some information may be presented as a list. Lists should be avoided. However, some are inevitable (e.g. list of nerves, list of tributaries, list of EU admissions, etc.). If you need to memorize lists, use mnemonic techniques and try to mimic real life situations to combat memory interference. See also: Learning lists
  • The way you ask the question in SuperMemo may differ from the way your life asks you the same question. In other words, you may store some material in SuperMemo, but a real-life situation will trick you into being unable to recall it. In other words, you need to properly formulate the material to maximize its recall in all potential contexts
  • Remember about the universality of memorized rules. For example, it is better to learn a universal mathematical formula than just the examples of its use. Examples can be used to emphasize applicability in various contexts
  • You can use Parse HTML (Ctrl+Shift+1) to convert selected HTML code into formatting (e.g. try inserting <hr> or <br> and parsing it with Parse HTML). You can also use this option to remove formatting (e.g. if you want to get rid of line breaks)
  • You can edit your more elaborate texts using your favorite HTML editor. You need to associate that editor with the filename extension *.HTM. For example, if you associate Microsoft Expression Web (free) with *.HTM, you can edit your texts by just pressing Ctrl+F9. If you would rather leave your associations unchanged, you can use F9 to view the file in Internet Explorer, and choose File : Edit with Microsoft Expression Web (that menu item is added to Internet Explorer by Expression Web). For more see: Open HTML files in the default HTML editor
  • Background color styles are used in incremental reading to preserve the original font used in documents. However, for this to work you must uncheck the following option in your Internet Explorer: Tools : Internet options : General : Accessibility : Formatting : Ignore colors specified on webpages

To learn more about efficient formulation read: Effective learning: 20 rules of formulating knowledge

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References

See: Hints for using references

Your own discoveries

In incremental learning, you will quickly discover why some of your own ideas about the learning process might not be optimum. Here are some things that you will discover on your own within the first 2-3 months of intense incremental learning:

  • recognition is good for your exam, but recall is vital for your professional skills in the long-term
  • manually organizing the timing of review is not what suits your memory best; it is actually quite the opposite to the idea of SuperMemo, which says that you review the material at moments that help stabilize memories
  • manually organizing the order of review is not what suits your memory best (even though subset review is a very useful tool in SuperMemo when preparing for an exam)
  • for beginners, traditional learning might be superior to SuperMemo in a very short-term (perhaps up to 1-2 months) because of the steep learning curve. You need to learn the toolset of incremental reading before you can reap the benefits (unless you employ simple Q&A learning when SuperMemo might be superior even within a week's perspective)
  • you may reach 95% recall within 1-2 weeks on condition that you do not postpone your review. However, if you dump 1,000 pages of topics into the process at once, you will simply not manage to review all that material as scheduled by SuperMemo, and your retention might hover around 60-80% depending on how much time you invested in making repetitions
  • once SuperMemo learns a bit about your memory and habits (1-3 weeks), you will oscillate around 95% recall as of the first repetition (if you do not delay, and if you stick to the rules of formulating knowledge)
  • you will quickly discover that multiple cloze deletions on a single paragraph are not a good idea (e.g. compare the measured forgetting index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice)
  • you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress
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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
Search : Find texts on the registry menu) If you want a picture to be part of the answer (i.e. not visible at question time), mark it with Answer on the image component menu To learn more about using pictures, see: Visual learning <span>References See: Hints for using references Your own discoveries In incremental learning, you will quickly discover why some of your own ideas about the learning process might not be optimum. Here are some things that you will discover on your own within the first 2-3 months of intense incremental learning: recognition is good for your exam, but recall is vital for your professional skills in the long-term manually organizing the timing of review is not what suits your memory best; it is actually quite the opposite to the idea of SuperMemo, which says that you review the material at moments that help stabilize memories manually organizing the order of review is not what suits your memory best (even though subset review is a very useful tool in SuperMemo when preparing for an exam) for beginners, traditional learning might be superior to SuperMemo in a very short-term (perhaps up to 1-2 months) because of the steep learning curve. You need to learn the toolset of incremental reading before you can reap the benefits (unless you employ simple Q&A learning when SuperMemo might be superior even within a week's perspective) you may reach 95% recall within 1-2 weeks on condition that you do not postpone your review. However, if you dump 1,000 pages of topics into the process at once, you will simply not manage to review all that material as scheduled by SuperMemo, and your retention might hover around 60-80% depending on how much time you invested in making repetitions once SuperMemo learns a bit about your memory and habits (1-3 weeks), you will oscillate around 95% recall as of the first repetition (if you do not delay, and if you stick to the rules of formulating knowledge) you will quickly discover that multiple cloze deletions on a single paragraph are not a good idea (e.g. compare the measured forgetting index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have le




#incremental_learning #learning
Advantages of incremental reading

In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject mu




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Massive learning

Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check.

Lifetime memories

As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading

High retention

In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some p




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Comprehension

One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some pieces cannot be placed in the puzzle before the others. Some pieces capitalize on others. There is no point in memorizing facts about Higgs boson before you learn what the standard model is and that, in turn, should follow the general understanding of particle physics which itself requires some ABC of physics. In incremental reading, if you encounter texts related to Higgs boson you can manually delay it until the time you hope your Physics ABC will provide the ground for understanding the boson. In traditional reading, you would just waste your time on reviewing Higgs boson material just because you would not have tools to effectively reschedule and reprioritize your reading in the middle of a longer article. Traditionally, your decision to skip the material would provide no definite way of coming back to the skipped material in the future. With incremental reading, you waste no time on reading material you do not understand. You can safely skip portions of material and return to them in the future. You become the master of the conscious knowledge building process. You can gradually build understanding of complex phenomena.

All written materials, depending on the reader's knowledge, pose a degree of difficulty in accurately interpreting their meaning. This is particularly visible in highly specialist scientific papers that use a sophisticated symbol-rich language. A symbol-rich language is a language that gains conciseness by the use of highly specialist vocabulary and notational conventions. For an average reader, symbol-rich language may exponentially raise the bar of lexical competence (i.e. knowledge of vocabulary required to gain understanding). Incremental reading makes it possible to delay the processing of those articles, paragraphs or sentences that require prior knowledge of concepts that are not known at the moment of reading. The processing of the learning material will only take place then when the new information begins to slot in comfortably in the fabric of the reader's knowledge. You can then gradually proceed through this material and gradually build the understanding from basic or simple facts towards details or more complex components of knowledge. You will build understanding, resolve contradictions and ultimately creatively discover new truths about the learned material. Over time, you will optimize the structure of knowledge in your mind in terms of coherence, integrity, and representation. Incremental reading will make it possible to tackle the hardest material that might otherwise seem unreadable.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. <span>Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some pieces cannot be placed in the puzzle before the others. Some pieces capitalize on others. There is no point in memorizing facts about Higgs boson before you learn what the standard model is and that, in turn, should follow the general understanding of particle physics which itself requires some ABC of physics. In incremental reading, if you encounter texts related to Higgs boson you can manually delay it until the time you hope your Physics ABC will provide the ground for understanding the boson. In traditional reading, you would just waste your time on reviewing Higgs boson material just because you would not have tools to effectively reschedule and reprioritize your reading in the middle of a longer article. Traditionally, your decision to skip the material would provide no definite way of coming back to the skipped material in the future. With incremental reading, you waste no time on reading material you do not understand. You can safely skip portions of material and return to them in the future. You become the master of the conscious knowledge building process. You can gradually build understanding of complex phenomena. All written materials, depending on the reader's knowledge, pose a degree of difficulty in accurately interpreting their meaning. This is particularly visible in highly specialist scientific papers that use a sophisticated symbol-rich language. A symbol-rich language is a language that gains conciseness by the use of highly specialist vocabulary and notational conventions. For an average reader, symbol-rich language may exponentially raise the bar of lexical competence (i.e. knowledge of vocabulary required to gain understanding). Incremental reading makes it possible to delay the processing of those articles, paragraphs or sentences that require prior knowledge of concepts that are not known at the moment of reading. The processing of the learning material will only take place then when the new information begins to slot in comfortably in the fabric of the reader's knowledge. You can then gradually proceed through this material and gradually build the understanding from basic or simple facts towards details or more complex components of knowledge. You will build understanding, resolve contradictions and ultimately creatively discover new truths about the learned material. Over time, you will optimize the structure of knowledge in your mind in terms of coherence, integrity, and representation. Incremental reading will make it possible to tackle the hardest material that might otherwise seem unreadable. Uniform progress Instead of focusing on a single subject of study, the student will review dozens of subject areas in a single day. Instead of monopolizing his or her knowledge




#incremental_learning #learning

Uniform progress

Instead of focusing on a single subject of study, the student will review dozens of subject areas in a single day. Instead of monopolizing his or her knowledge with a single area of expertise, he or she will harmoniously deepen all facets of his knowledge in proportion to needs and/or interests. The growth of the knowledge tree will also be guided by the present level of understanding of individual subjects, in proportion to the growth of the supporting knowledge and specialist terminology. Instead of growing a few thick branches, the knowledge tree will grow twigs in all possible directions while still adding bulk to the trunk and main boughs. Incremental learning is inherently incapable of producing medical experts who have never heard of the Kuiper Belt, or astronomers who have no idea what constitutes a basic healthy diet. SuperMemo helps you prioritize the acquisition of knowledge in various fields. It also helps you fine-tune the balance between specialization and general knowledge. See also how SuperMemo prevents tunnel vision

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
al. Over time, you will optimize the structure of knowledge in your mind in terms of coherence, integrity, and representation. Incremental reading will make it possible to tackle the hardest material that might otherwise seem unreadable. <span>Uniform progress Instead of focusing on a single subject of study, the student will review dozens of subject areas in a single day. Instead of monopolizing his or her knowledge with a single area of expertise, he or she will harmoniously deepen all facets of his knowledge in proportion to needs and/or interests. The growth of the knowledge tree will also be guided by the present level of understanding of individual subjects, in proportion to the growth of the supporting knowledge and specialist terminology. Instead of growing a few thick branches, the knowledge tree will grow twigs in all possible directions while still adding bulk to the trunk and main boughs. Incremental learning is inherently incapable of producing medical experts who have never heard of the Kuiper Belt, or astronomers who have no idea what constitutes a basic healthy diet. SuperMemo helps you prioritize the acquisition of knowledge in various fields. It also helps you fine-tune the balance between specialization and general knowledge. See also how SuperMemo prevents tunnel vision Creativity boost The key to creativity is an association of remote ideas. By studying multiple subjects in unpredictable order, you will increase your power to associate ideas.




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Creativity boost

The key to creativity is an association of remote ideas. By studying multiple subjects in unpredictable order, you will increase your power to associate ideas. This will immensely improve your creativity. Incremental reading may be compared to brainstorming with yourself. SuperMemo will throw at you various articles, paragraphs, statements and questions in a most unexpected order. In the long run, the greatest creative advantage comes from knowledge permanently stored in your memory (as opposed to knowledge that requires Google). It is only a matter of creative effort and invested time before different pieces of knowledge can be associated to form new quality. This will also provide your brain with an entertaining form of mental training that will be highly appreciated in all forms of professions based on intellectual performance.

With incremental mail processing, it is also possible to mesh your learning, creative writing, and creative problem solving with a creative mail exchange with other people. This may appear helpful in collective problem solving or in complex projects when you need to strike a balance between focused individual work and pulling the team brains together. This process is called incremental brainstorming. Incremental brainstorming is slower, but it does not need synchronization (circadian rhythm, time zones, motivation, etc.), and you do not need to interrupt each other's work. Incremental brainstorming will never replace face-to-face interactive collaboration, however, it has many advantages associated with incremental learning (creativity, prioritization, attention, meticulousness, long-term viability, etc.). It may provide an excellent knowledge-based supplement, or be your best creative collaboration tool when working at a distance (esp. via different time zones). The creative process is unpredictable, and when you hit your best ideas when the rest of the team is asleep, it makes a good sense to strike the iron while hot: employ creative elaboration and send your idea out.

For more on the employment of incremental learning in the creative process see:

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
utes a basic healthy diet. SuperMemo helps you prioritize the acquisition of knowledge in various fields. It also helps you fine-tune the balance between specialization and general knowledge. See also how SuperMemo prevents tunnel vision <span>Creativity boost The key to creativity is an association of remote ideas. By studying multiple subjects in unpredictable order, you will increase your power to associate ideas. This will immensely improve your creativity. Incremental reading may be compared to brainstorming with yourself. SuperMemo will throw at you various articles, paragraphs, statements and questions in a most unexpected order. In the long run, the greatest creative advantage comes from knowledge permanently stored in your memory (as opposed to knowledge that requires Google). It is only a matter of creative effort and invested time before different pieces of knowledge can be associated to form new quality. This will also provide your brain with an entertaining form of mental training that will be highly appreciated in all forms of professions based on intellectual performance. With incremental mail processing, it is also possible to mesh your learning, creative writing, and creative problem solving with a creative mail exchange with other people. This may appear helpful in collective problem solving or in complex projects when you need to strike a balance between focused individual work and pulling the team brains together. This process is called incremental brainstorming. Incremental brainstorming is slower, but it does not need synchronization (circadian rhythm, time zones, motivation, etc.), and you do not need to interrupt each other's work. Incremental brainstorming will never replace face-to-face interactive collaboration, however, it has many advantages associated with incremental learning (creativity, prioritization, attention, meticulousness, long-term viability, etc.). It may provide an excellent knowledge-based supplement, or be your best creative collaboration tool when working at a distance (esp. via different time zones). The creative process is unpredictable, and when you hit your best ideas when the rest of the team is asleep, it makes a good sense to strike the iron while hot: employ creative elaboration and send your idea out. For more on the employment of incremental learning in the creative process see: incremental problem solving incremental writing incremental brainstorming neural creativity Consistency (resolving chaos and contradiction) Contradiction and chaos in your learning material comes from bad sources, from errors, from disagreements in science, or from the




#incremental_learning #learning

Consistency (resolving chaos and contradiction)

Contradiction and chaos in your learning material comes from bad sources, from errors, from disagreements in science, or from the fact that you start the process from importing a set of unrelated or even chaotic articles describing a studied complex problem.

If your learning material contains contradictory information, your brain will quickly alert you to this fact. In classical learning, you would often relearn new facts that would contradict earlier learned facts. Then you would relearn the older version again and this wasteful cycle might repeat more than once. In SuperMemo, the same process can take place; however, there will be two mechanisms that will turn chaos and contradiction into a self-limiting condition. The first mechanism relies on high retention of knowledge in SuperMemo that will often make you instantaneously spot the contradiction: Wait a minute! I have already learned this fact and the answer was different! Unfortunately, even SuperMemo isn't hermetic to contradiction (your retention actually never reaches 100%). The second mechanism is the convergence of contradictory material in time. If you, for example, learn two different answers to What is the size of human population?, say, 5.5 billion and 6 billion, you will naturally provide a wrong answer to one of these questions. Once you relearn it the new way, you will provide a wrong answer to the other question. Inter-repetition intervals for these two contradictory items will get shorter with each relearning cycle. The repetitions of contradictory items converge in time. Sooner or later, the red alert will be raised by your brain. You will quickly resolve the difference and delete one of the items. Similar process will affect hazy or incompletely specified information. Your knowledge will grow in consistency with time.

In scientific research, acquiring engineering knowledge, studying a narrow topic of interest, etc. we are constantly faced with a chaos of disparate and often contradictory statements. By introducing the chaos of new research into SuperMemo, you will gradually locate contradictions and strive at building better and more consistent models in your memory. Incremental reading stochastically juxtaposes pieces of information coming from various sources and uses the associative qualities of human memory to emphasize and then resolve contradiction. You will quickly lean towards theories that are better supported by research findings. Those supported poorly will be less firm and will often cause recall problems. Naturally, it may happen that you wish to learn contradictory statements too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
t: employ creative elaboration and send your idea out. For more on the employment of incremental learning in the creative process see: incremental problem solving incremental writing incremental brainstorming neural creativity <span>Consistency (resolving chaos and contradiction) Contradiction and chaos in your learning material comes from bad sources, from errors, from disagreements in science, or from the fact that you start the process from importing a set of unrelated or even chaotic articles describing a studied complex problem. If your learning material contains contradictory information, your brain will quickly alert you to this fact. In classical learning, you would often relearn new facts that would contradict earlier learned facts. Then you would relearn the older version again and this wasteful cycle might repeat more than once. In SuperMemo, the same process can take place; however, there will be two mechanisms that will turn chaos and contradiction into a self-limiting condition. The first mechanism relies on high retention of knowledge in SuperMemo that will often make you instantaneously spot the contradiction: Wait a minute! I have already learned this fact and the answer was different! Unfortunately, even SuperMemo isn't hermetic to contradiction (your retention actually never reaches 100%). The second mechanism is the convergence of contradictory material in time. If you, for example, learn two different answers to What is the size of human population?, say, 5.5 billion and 6 billion, you will naturally provide a wrong answer to one of these questions. Once you relearn it the new way, you will provide a wrong answer to the other question. Inter-repetition intervals for these two contradictory items will get shorter with each relearning cycle. The repetitions of contradictory items converge in time. Sooner or later, the red alert will be raised by your brain. You will quickly resolve the difference and delete one of the items. Similar process will affect hazy or incompletely specified information. Your knowledge will grow in consistency with time. In scientific research, acquiring engineering knowledge, studying a narrow topic of interest, etc. we are constantly faced with a chaos of disparate and often contradictory statements. By introducing the chaos of new research into SuperMemo, you will gradually locate contradictions and strive at building better and more consistent models in your memory. Incremental reading stochastically juxtaposes pieces of information coming from various sources and uses the associative qualities of human memory to emphasize and then resolve contradiction. You will quickly lean towards theories that are better supported by research findings. Those supported poorly will be less firm and will often cause recall problems. Naturally, it may happen that you wish to learn contradictory statements too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels. Stresslessness Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learni




#incremental_learning #learning

Stresslessness

Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learning is stressful. However, even though complexity always leads to a degree of stress or confusion, in the long-term, the opposite is true: SuperMemo helps you combat stress. Stressless learning is one of the greatest advantages of incremental learning. All the advantages listed in this section contribute to the sense of fun and relaxation. However, SuperMemo's ability to combat information overload might be the chief factor. Conversely, low stress levels have a miraculous impact on the effectiveness of learning.

Not everyone is stressed with information overload. There is a precondition for experiencing stress of having too much to read or too much to learn: obsessive hunger for knowledge, fear of not being able to keep up, pressing need for new knowledge, etc. This precondition is met in a great proportion of the general population according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning.

The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article? For months I haven't had time to read this article! etc. SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially (by decision) or automatically (i.e. behind the scenes). Oftentimes, reading 3% of an article may provide 50% of its reading value. Reading of articles may be delayed without your participation, i.e. not by stressful procrastination, but by a sheer competition with other pieces of information on the basis of their priority. In incremental reading, instead of hesitating or procrastinating, you simply prioritize.

If you happen to open a dozen of tabs in your web browser, you will often be stressed about the optimum course of action. You might be late for sleep, or late for work, and yet you do not want to lose the information. In SuperMemo, you just import&prioritize. Or just import. Nothing is lost. You will encounter the imported material as soon as your learning time allocations permit. Similarly, you can clear your 1,000 pieces mail Inbox in a few hours with all pieces of mail well prioritized and scheduled for review.

Once you know you can rely on SuperMemo in presenting review material for you, you can eliminate the stress and anxiety related to having too much to study or too much to read. You will never manage to read or learn all that you would hope for, but you will at least not lose sleep over planning and scheduling. Sup

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ts too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels. <span>Stresslessness Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learning is stressful. However, even though complexity always leads to a degree of stress or confusion, in the long-term, the opposite is true: SuperMemo helps you combat stress. Stressless learning is one of the greatest advantages of incremental learning. All the advantages listed in this section contribute to the sense of fun and relaxation. However, SuperMemo's ability to combat information overload might be the chief factor. Conversely, low stress levels have a miraculous impact on the effectiveness of learning. Not everyone is stressed with information overload. There is a precondition for experiencing stress of having too much to read or too much to learn: obsessive hunger for knowledge, fear of not being able to keep up, pressing need for new knowledge, etc. This precondition is met in a great proportion of the general population according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning. The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information. Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: anxiety, tension, procrastination, time-wasting, loss of job satisfaction, self-doubt, psychosomatic stress, breakdown of relationships, reduced analytical capacity, etc. The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process. Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article? For months I haven't had time to read this article! etc. SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially (by decision) or automatically (i.e. behind the scenes). Oftentimes, reading 3% of an article may provide 50% of its reading value. Reading of articles may be delayed without your participation, i.e. not by stressful procrastination, but by a sheer competition with other pieces of information on the basis of their priority. In incremental reading, instead of hesitating or procrastinating, you simply prioritize. If you happen to open a dozen of tabs in your web browser, you will often be stressed about the optimum course of action. You might be late for sleep, or late for work, and yet you do not want to lose the information. In SuperMemo, you just import&prioritize. Or just import. Nothing is lost. You will encounter the imported material as soon as your learning time allocations permit. Similarly, you can clear your 1,000 pieces mail Inbox in a few hours with all pieces of mail well prioritized and scheduled for review. Once you know you can rely on SuperMemo in presenting review material for you, you can eliminate the stress and anxiety related to having too much to study or too much to read. You will never manage to read or learn all that you would hope for, but you will at least not lose sleep over planning and scheduling. SuperMemo is a promise of the best use of your potential. With this conviction, you can devote all your energy to comprehension, analysis and retention of the learned material. SuperMemo helps you take away a big deal of information overload stress. In a typical IFS stress therapy, you will see that scrupulous notes, ordering one's desk, planning one's work, keeping a calendar of appointments, etc. all have a strong therapeutic value. SuperMemo does exactly the same: it helps you keep a scrupulous and well-prioritized record of what you want to read and takes away stressful chaos from the process of acquiring information and learning the collected material. SuperMemo eliminates disorder and the ensuing uncertainty that often characterizes wild searches for information on the net. Attention Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids. Limited attention helps maximize the learn




#incremental_learning #learning

Attention

Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids. Limited attention helps maximize the learning input. This is why most toys have a short lifespan, and other kids' toys seem always more interesting. The same is true of reading. Even the best articles can become taxing if they get too long. Millions of people do a daily channel zapping on TV. This absurd activity is driven precisely by the craving for dense action and information variety. A gripping movie goes "too slow" for a typical channel zapper. This is why he or she prefers to watch three movies at the same time (even though the coherence of the plot of each will suffer). Incremental learning is a perfect remedy to the limited attention span. Even a single unlucky paragraph in an article may greatly reduce your enthusiasm for reading. If you stumble against a few frustrating paragraphs, you may gradually develop a dislike of reading a particular article. You may even become fed up with reading for the entire evening.

In incremental reading, once you sense any sign of boredom or distraction, you can jump to the next article with mostly positive side effects (expressed mainly in better memories produced by spaced learning). Unlike in channel zapping, you won't miss any information. Just the opposite, you will maximize attention per paragraph. Your attention to the same piece of information may depend on your mood, amount of prior reading, today's interest that may depend on the piece of news you heard on the morning radio, etc. With incremental reading, you can fit your best attention to each individual piece of reading. You can change the approach depending on your circadian status (i.e. the time of the day, mental energy, etc.). You can deprioritize articles that undermine attention. You can split intimidating articles into more manageable portions. The boost in attention is one of the main reasons why incremental reading is more fun than ordinary reading.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ad and takes away stressful chaos from the process of acquiring information and learning the collected material. SuperMemo eliminates disorder and the ensuing uncertainty that often characterizes wild searches for information on the net. <span>Attention Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids. Limited attention helps maximize the learning input. This is why most toys have a short lifespan, and other kids' toys seem always more interesting. The same is true of reading. Even the best articles can become taxing if they get too long. Millions of people do a daily channel zapping on TV. This absurd activity is driven precisely by the craving for dense action and information variety. A gripping movie goes "too slow" for a typical channel zapper. This is why he or she prefers to watch three movies at the same time (even though the coherence of the plot of each will suffer). Incremental learning is a perfect remedy to the limited attention span. Even a single unlucky paragraph in an article may greatly reduce your enthusiasm for reading. If you stumble against a few frustrating paragraphs, you may gradually develop a dislike of reading a particular article. You may even become fed up with reading for the entire evening. In incremental reading, once you sense any sign of boredom or distraction, you can jump to the next article with mostly positive side effects (expressed mainly in better memories produced by spaced learning). Unlike in channel zapping, you won't miss any information. Just the opposite, you will maximize attention per paragraph. Your attention to the same piece of information may depend on your mood, amount of prior reading, today's interest that may depend on the piece of news you heard on the morning radio, etc. With incremental reading, you can fit your best attention to each individual piece of reading. You can change the approach depending on your circadian status (i.e. the time of the day, mental energy, etc.). You can deprioritize articles that undermine attention. You can split intimidating articles into more manageable portions. The boost in attention is one of the main reasons why incremental reading is more fun than ordinary reading. Consolidation Everything we learn must be reviewed from time to time in order to be remembered. If you read an article in intervals, you already begin the consolidation of memor




#incremental_learning #learning

Consolidation

Everything we learn must be reviewed from time to time in order to be remembered. If you read an article in intervals, you already begin the consolidation of memory which may save you lots of time. In traditional reading, you would need to read the whole article, and then to review the article later several times. With earlier releases of SuperMemo, you would need to read the whole article, and then only review the most important parts of the article in SuperMemo at intervals determined by the program. Now you can begin the consolidation-review cycle already during reading! Incremental reading combines the process of extracting pieces of valuable knowledge with memory consolidation. This pre-consolidation will often dramatically reduce the number of repetitions required before your material gets to be reviewed in long intervals of months and years. By the time you convert parts of the material into clozes or question-answer items, you will already have it well-consolidated. This consolidation will be based on solid context, a degree of redundancy (that helps retention), and an easy-to-remember formulation based on cloze deletion. Extracting pieces of information from a larger body of knowledge provides your items with all the relevant context. This slow process of jelling out knowledge produces an enhanced sense of meaning and applicability of individual pieces of information. Semantically equivalent pieces of information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
tc.). You can deprioritize articles that undermine attention. You can split intimidating articles into more manageable portions. The boost in attention is one of the main reasons why incremental reading is more fun than ordinary reading. <span>Consolidation Everything we learn must be reviewed from time to time in order to be remembered. If you read an article in intervals, you already begin the consolidation of memory which may save you lots of time. In traditional reading, you would need to read the whole article, and then to review the article later several times. With earlier releases of SuperMemo, you would need to read the whole article, and then only review the most important parts of the article in SuperMemo at intervals determined by the program. Now you can begin the consolidation-review cycle already during reading! Incremental reading combines the process of extracting pieces of valuable knowledge with memory consolidation. This pre-consolidation will often dramatically reduce the number of repetitions required before your material gets to be reviewed in long intervals of months and years. By the time you convert parts of the material into clozes or question-answer items, you will already have it well-consolidated. This consolidation will be based on solid context, a degree of redundancy (that helps retention), and an easy-to-remember formulation based on cloze deletion. Extracting pieces of information from a larger body of knowledge provides your items with all the relevant context. This slow process of jelling out knowledge produces an enhanced sense of meaning and applicability of individual pieces of information. Semantically equivalent pieces of information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can p




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Prioritization

You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule.

Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers!

This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge!

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav




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Speed (of reading)

Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader.

See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review.

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started reading on finished reading on

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span>Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The caveat: all that is possible at the cost of delayed comprehension. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level. High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail. The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority (low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically). You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc. This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: fear of missing important pieces of information. When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important. That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading. Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process. Needless to say, speed-reading does not come close to incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting. All valuable information that you collect while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo (e.g. through regular use) produce minimum workload. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question. In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading. Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge (e.g. how to install a sound board), curiosity (e.g. news), etc. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading. If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into Supe




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Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
h the help of incremental reading. In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. See also: Speed-reading on steroids, which also explains the bell-shaped curve of changes in the cost of topic review. <span>Speed (of formulating items) Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items. In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge. Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items. You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems. Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item. You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation. Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. Meticulousness With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks. This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discov




Sei \(M\) eine glatte Mannigfaltigkeit und \(T^r_s(M)\) ein (r,s)-Tensorbündel. Ein (r,s)-Tensorfeld ist ein glatter Schnitt im Tensorbündel \(T^r_s(M)\). Die Menge der Tensorfelder wird mit \(\Gamma^\infty(T^r_s(M))\) bezeichnet. Diese Menge ist ein Modul über der Algebra \(C^{\infty }(M)=\Gamma ^{\infty }(T_{0}^{0}(M))\) der glatten Funktionen.
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Tensorfeld – Wikipedia
um eine Funktion, die auf spezielle Weise jedem Punkt eines zugrundeliegenden Raumes einen Tensor zuordnet. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Definition 2 Beispiele 3 Siehe auch 4 Quelle 5 Weblinks Definition[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] <span>Sei M {\displaystyle M} eine glatte Mannigfaltigkeit und T s r ( M ) {\displaystyle T_{s}^{r}(M)} ein (r,s)-Tensorbündel. Ein (r,s)-Tensorfeld ist ein glatter Schnitt im Tensorbündel T s r ( M ) {\displaystyle T_{s}^{r}(M)} . Die Menge der Tensorfelder wird mit Γ ∞ ( T s r ( M ) ) {\displaystyle \Gamma ^{\infty }(T_{s}^{r}(M))} bezeichnet. Diese Menge ist ein Modul über der Algebra C ∞ ( M ) = Γ ∞ ( T 0 0 ( M ) ) {\displaystyle C^{\infty }(M)=\Gamma ^{\infty }(T_{0}^{0}(M))} der glatten Funktionen. Beispiele[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] Sei M eine differenzierbare Mannigfaltigkeit, so ist ein Tensorfeld auf M eine Abbildung, die jedem Punkt einen Tensor zuordnet. Rie




Äthiopien [ ʔɛˈtʰi̯oːpʰi̯ən ] ( amharisch ኢትዮጵያ Ityop̣p̣əya , aus altgriechisch Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia ) ist ein Binnenstaat im Nordosten Afrikas. Zur Zeit des Kaiserreichs Abessinien war das Land auch als Abessinien (seltener auch Abyssinien) bekannt. Das Land grenzt an Eritrea, den Sudan, den Südsudan, Kenia, Somalia und Dschibuti.
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Äthiopien – Wikipedia
ne [imagelink] Ras Daschän SUDAN SÜDSUDAN KENIA SOMALIA DSCHIBUTI ERITREA JEMEN ROTES MEER INDISCHER OZEAN Golf von Aden Tanasee Abajasee Turkana-See <span>Äthiopien [ʔɛˈtʰi̯oːpʰi̯ən] (amharisch ኢትዮጵያ Ityop̣p̣əya, aus altgriechisch Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) ist ein Binnenstaat im Nordosten Afrikas. Zur Zeit des Kaiserreichs Abessinien war das Land auch als Abessinien (seltener auch Abyssinien) bekannt. Das Land grenzt an Eritrea, den Sudan, den Südsudan, Kenia, Somalia und Dschibuti. Äthiopien ist der bevölkerungsreichste Binnenstaat der Welt sowie ein Vielvölkerstaat. Beim Index der menschlichen Entwicklung rangiert Äthiopien auf Platz 174 (Stand 2016; von insgesa




Flashcard 3066028494092

Question

In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps:

Answer
importing knowledge

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge prioritizing knowledge. Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps converting the materials into lasting knowledge expanding creatively upon the a

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ing material. Incremental learning is the opposite of the irrational school system learning in which a heavy focus is put on just a few areas of knowledge in a semester (at the cost of other, equally important, areas of learning). <span>General outline of incremental learning In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge from various electronic and non-electronic sources (e.g. articles on the web, YouTube videos, music files, pictures from your camera, e-mails, scanned paper notes, etc.) prioritizing knowledge for incremental processing (e.g. high priority for physics, low priority for movie trivia, etc.). Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps gradually converting the learning materials into lasting knowledge in your memory. This conversion may also produce an easily searchable and well-annotated computer media archive that does not even need to be part of the learning process expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.) With incremental learning, you can consolidate all sources of knowledge, and convert information into lifetime memories at the chosen cost in time, and along strictly defined goals and priorities. Components of incremental learning Incremental learning tools differ substantially for various forms of learning material, media, and goals. Here are the main components of in







Flashcard 3066030066956

Question

In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps:

  • importing knowledge
  • [...]. Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps
  • converting the materials into lasting knowledge
  • expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.)
Answer
prioritizing knowledge

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge prioritizing knowledge. Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps converting the materials into lasting knowledge expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g.

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ing material. Incremental learning is the opposite of the irrational school system learning in which a heavy focus is put on just a few areas of knowledge in a semester (at the cost of other, equally important, areas of learning). <span>General outline of incremental learning In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge from various electronic and non-electronic sources (e.g. articles on the web, YouTube videos, music files, pictures from your camera, e-mails, scanned paper notes, etc.) prioritizing knowledge for incremental processing (e.g. high priority for physics, low priority for movie trivia, etc.). Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps gradually converting the learning materials into lasting knowledge in your memory. This conversion may also produce an easily searchable and well-annotated computer media archive that does not even need to be part of the learning process expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.) With incremental learning, you can consolidate all sources of knowledge, and convert information into lifetime memories at the chosen cost in time, and along strictly defined goals and priorities. Components of incremental learning Incremental learning tools differ substantially for various forms of learning material, media, and goals. Here are the main components of in







Flashcard 3066040814860

Question

In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps:

Answer
converting the materials into lasting knowledg

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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g="t">In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge prioritizing knowledge. Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps converting the materials into lasting knowledge expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.) <body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ing material. Incremental learning is the opposite of the irrational school system learning in which a heavy focus is put on just a few areas of knowledge in a semester (at the cost of other, equally important, areas of learning). <span>General outline of incremental learning In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge from various electronic and non-electronic sources (e.g. articles on the web, YouTube videos, music files, pictures from your camera, e-mails, scanned paper notes, etc.) prioritizing knowledge for incremental processing (e.g. high priority for physics, low priority for movie trivia, etc.). Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps gradually converting the learning materials into lasting knowledge in your memory. This conversion may also produce an easily searchable and well-annotated computer media archive that does not even need to be part of the learning process expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.) With incremental learning, you can consolidate all sources of knowledge, and convert information into lifetime memories at the chosen cost in time, and along strictly defined goals and priorities. Components of incremental learning Incremental learning tools differ substantially for various forms of learning material, media, and goals. Here are the main components of in







Flashcard 3066042387724

Question

In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps:

Answer
expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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cquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge prioritizing knowledge. Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps converting the materials into lasting knowledge <span>expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.) <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ing material. Incremental learning is the opposite of the irrational school system learning in which a heavy focus is put on just a few areas of knowledge in a semester (at the cost of other, equally important, areas of learning). <span>General outline of incremental learning In incremental learning, you acquire and maintain knowledge using the following steps: importing knowledge from various electronic and non-electronic sources (e.g. articles on the web, YouTube videos, music files, pictures from your camera, e-mails, scanned paper notes, etc.) prioritizing knowledge for incremental processing (e.g. high priority for physics, low priority for movie trivia, etc.). Incremental approach means processing knowledge in small bits and in small steps gradually converting the learning materials into lasting knowledge in your memory. This conversion may also produce an easily searchable and well-annotated computer media archive that does not even need to be part of the learning process expanding creatively upon the acquired knowledge (e.g. in the process of incremental writing, problem solving, etc.) With incremental learning, you can consolidate all sources of knowledge, and convert information into lifetime memories at the chosen cost in time, and along strictly defined goals and priorities. Components of incremental learning Incremental learning tools differ substantially for various forms of learning material, media, and goals. Here are the main components of in







Flashcard 3066046057740

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#incremental_learning #learning
Question

3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo:

  • [...] (per review)
  • active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material
  • incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time
Answer
decrease in complexity

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity (per review) active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to a

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
teria Mercy to spread the excess of the learning material over a period of time (or to advance the material before a vacation, etc.) to learn more about different options, see also: Postpone, Advance and Mercy Other basic skills <span>Evolution of knowledge in incremental reading 3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity - articles will be converted into sets of paragraphs. Paragraphs will be dismantled into sets of independent sentences and statements. Sentences will be shortened to maximize the information-vs-wording ratio, etc. active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material such as question-answer pairs, cloze deletions, picture recognition tests, sound recognition tests, etc. This is to maximize your recall of knowledge incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time, with respect to your selected material's priority, and in line with the gradually increasing strength of memory traces. Incremental nature of learning in SuperMemo will help you get the maximum memory effect in minimum time. See: The value of interruption in learning Using pictures For additional information, mnemonic cues, and a sheer fun of learning, an article that you read incrementally in SuperMemo can be illustrated with meaningful pic







Flashcard 3066047630604

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#incremental_learning #learning
Question

3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo:

  • decrease in complexity (per review)
  • [...] - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material
  • incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time
Answer

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity (per review) active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time </spa

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
teria Mercy to spread the excess of the learning material over a period of time (or to advance the material before a vacation, etc.) to learn more about different options, see also: Postpone, Advance and Mercy Other basic skills <span>Evolution of knowledge in incremental reading 3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity - articles will be converted into sets of paragraphs. Paragraphs will be dismantled into sets of independent sentences and statements. Sentences will be shortened to maximize the information-vs-wording ratio, etc. active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material such as question-answer pairs, cloze deletions, picture recognition tests, sound recognition tests, etc. This is to maximize your recall of knowledge incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time, with respect to your selected material's priority, and in line with the gradually increasing strength of memory traces. Incremental nature of learning in SuperMemo will help you get the maximum memory effect in minimum time. See: The value of interruption in learning Using pictures For additional information, mnemonic cues, and a sheer fun of learning, an article that you read incrementally in SuperMemo can be illustrated with meaningful pic







Flashcard 3066049203468

Tags
#incremental_learning #learning
Question

3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo:

  • decrease in complexity (per review)
  • active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material
  • [...] - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time
Answer
incrementalism

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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l-tag="t">3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity (per review) active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time <body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
teria Mercy to spread the excess of the learning material over a period of time (or to advance the material before a vacation, etc.) to learn more about different options, see also: Postpone, Advance and Mercy Other basic skills <span>Evolution of knowledge in incremental reading 3 main principles will underlie the evolution of knowledge in SuperMemo: decrease in complexity - articles will be converted into sets of paragraphs. Paragraphs will be dismantled into sets of independent sentences and statements. Sentences will be shortened to maximize the information-vs-wording ratio, etc. active recall - all pieces of information will ultimately be converted into active recall material such as question-answer pairs, cloze deletions, picture recognition tests, sound recognition tests, etc. This is to maximize your recall of knowledge incrementalism - all changes will take place gradually in proportion to available time, with respect to your selected material's priority, and in line with the gradually increasing strength of memory traces. Incremental nature of learning in SuperMemo will help you get the maximum memory effect in minimum time. See: The value of interruption in learning Using pictures For additional information, mnemonic cues, and a sheer fun of learning, an article that you read incrementally in SuperMemo can be illustrated with meaningful pic







Flashcard 3066051562764

Tags
#incremental_learning #learning
Question
You can execute forced ahead-of-time review in incremental learning via [...]
Answer
Subset Review.

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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You can execute forced ahead-of-time review in incremental learning via Subset Review.

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
it brings to life. The hunger for knowledge grows as you get more educated (the more you know the more you know you don't know). So there is an excellent remedy for poor motivation: learn more and see how it can impact your and others' life <span>You determine the speed of learning in incremental reading! You can determine the frequency of presentation of topics (e.g. using A-Factors, priorities, Mercy, etc.). You can determine the level of retention for items (e.g. with the forgetting index, priorities, auto-postpone, etc.). You can execute forced ahead-of-time review of any material (see: Subset review) You MUST NOT memorize material that you do not understand! There is some hope that by doing more learning in other areas you will at some point understand. It is far more likely thoug







Flashcard 3066053922060

Tags
#incremental_learning #learning
Question
Do not spend your time on gaining knowledge for the knowledge sake! Think [...]!
Answer
applicability

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Do not spend your time on gaining knowledge for the knowledge sake! Think applicability!

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
e already made the first good step. Now you need to make order in the process and think carefully about your best long-term strategy. Comprehension is the key to success! If you want to grade an item Null or Bad, press 0 or 1 respectively <span>SuperMemo is not yet equipped with tools to help you efficiently use your knowledge for good causes. It will boost your knowledge but... you must be vigilant: Do not spend your time on gaining knowledge for the knowledge sake! Think applicability! Luckily, as your knowledge grows, so does your ability to use it efficiently Re-evaluation of items You should remember that all items introduced into your learning process require endless attention in reference to their applicability, formulation, impor







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Massive learning

Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check.

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Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetti

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some p




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Lifetime memories

As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading

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ng, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. <span>Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The alg

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Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some p




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The Supermemo algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention.

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e same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading <span>High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
ng index with items that have the same cloze keywords separated, or just see how thus gained knowledge works in practice) you can look at learning parameters in SuperMemo to see how different approaches to learning affect your progress <span>Advantages of incremental reading In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun! If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. Massive learning Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another. With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering. Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. Lifetime memories As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition, all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting. See: General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge. Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years. SuperMemo (repetition spacing) provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading High retention In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method. The algorithm ensures 95% knowledge retention by default. That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time (i.e. more frequent review). Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning. In heavily overloaded collections, 95% retention figure refers only to top-priority material. To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. Comprehension One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding. Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some p




#incremental_learning #learning
Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule.
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ou always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. <span>Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also redu

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav




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Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers!
statusnot read reprioritisations
last reprioritisation on reading queue position [%]
started reading on finished reading on


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h the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. <span>Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Incremental learning - SuperMemo Help
f information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power. In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. <span>Prioritization You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember. In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question. Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question. In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once. Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article. If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing. This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material. While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone. You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts. It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles. The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus. With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: efficient fishing for pieces of golden knowledge! Speed (of reading) Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading! This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. The cav