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#con #ga
là một loại quả mọng từ các thân cây leo thuộc chi Nho ( Vitis ). Quả nho mọc thành chùm từ 6 đến 300 kết quả, chúng có màu đen, lam, vàng, lục, đỏ-tía hay trắng. Khi chín, quả nho có thể ăn tươi hoặc sấy khô để làm khô, cũng như được sử dụng để sản xuất các loại
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Nho – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
n vị quốc tế (International unit) Tỷ lệ phần trăm xấp xỉ gần đúng sử dụng lượng hấp thụ thực phẩm tham chiếu (Khuyến cáo của Hoa Kỳ) cho người trưởng thành. Nguồn: CSDL Dinh dưỡng của USDA Nho <span>là một loại quả mọng từ các thân cây leo thuộc chi Nho ( Vitis ). Quả nho mọc thành chùm từ 6 đến 300 kết quả, chúng có màu đen, lam, vàng, lục, đỏ-tía hay trắng. Khi chín, quả nho có thể ăn tươi hoặc sấy khô để làm khô, cũng như được sử dụng để sản xuất các loại rượu vang , thạch nho , nước quả, mật nho, dầu hạt nho . Trong tiếng Trung , nó được gọi là bồ đào (葡萄) và khi người ta nói đến rượu bồ đào tức là rượu sản xuất từ ​​quả nho. Tuy nhiên,




#con #ga
Nho là một loại quả mọng lấy từ các loài cây thân leo thuộc chi Nho (Vitis). Quả nho mọc thành chùm từ 6 đến 300 quả, chúng có màu đen, lam, vàng, lục, đỏ-tía hay trắng
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Nho – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
= Đơn vị quốc tế (International unit) Tỷ lệ phần trăm xấp xỉ gần đúng sử dụng lượng hấp thụ thực phẩm tham chiếu (Khuyến cáo của Hoa Kỳ) cho người trưởng thành. Nguồn: CSDL Dinh dưỡng của USDA <span>Nho là một loại quả mọng lấy từ các loài cây thân leo thuộc chi Nho (Vitis). Quả nho mọc thành chùm từ 6 đến 300 quả, chúng có màu đen, lam, vàng, lục, đỏ-tía hay trắng. Khi chín, quả nho có thể ăn tươi hoặc được sấy khô để làm nho khô, cũng như được dùng để sản xuất các loại rượu vang, thạch nho, nước quả, mật nho, dầu hạt nho. Trong tiếng Trung, nó đ




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Nho là một loại quả mọng lấy từ [...] leo thuộc chi Nho (Vitis). Quả nho mọc thành chùm từ 6 đến 300 quả, chúng có màu đen, lam, vàng, lục, đỏ-tía hay trắng
Answer
các loài cây thân

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Nho là một loại quả mọng lấy từ các loài cây thân leo thuộc chi Nho (Vitis). Quả nho mọc thành chùm từ 6 đến 300 quả, chúng có màu đen, lam, vàng, lục, đỏ-tía hay trắng

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Nho – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
= Đơn vị quốc tế (International unit) Tỷ lệ phần trăm xấp xỉ gần đúng sử dụng lượng hấp thụ thực phẩm tham chiếu (Khuyến cáo của Hoa Kỳ) cho người trưởng thành. Nguồn: CSDL Dinh dưỡng của USDA <span>Nho là một loại quả mọng lấy từ các loài cây thân leo thuộc chi Nho (Vitis). Quả nho mọc thành chùm từ 6 đến 300 quả, chúng có màu đen, lam, vàng, lục, đỏ-tía hay trắng. Khi chín, quả nho có thể ăn tươi hoặc được sấy khô để làm nho khô, cũng như được dùng để sản xuất các loại rượu vang, thạch nho, nước quả, mật nho, dầu hạt nho. Trong tiếng Trung, nó đ







#con #ga
Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây nhiều phiền toái, do chúng che phủ các loài thực vật khác với tốc độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình.
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Nho – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
ùng để sản xuất các loại rượu vang, thạch nho, nước quả, mật nho, dầu hạt nho. Trong tiếng Trung, nó được gọi là bồ đào (葡萄) và khi người ta nói đến rượu bồ đào tức là rượu sản xuất từ quả nho. <span>Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây nhiều phiền toái, do chúng che phủ các loài thực vật khác với tốc độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình. Nho bị ấu trùng của một số loài côn trùng thuộc bộ Lepidoptera phá hại - xem thêm tại Danh sách các loài cánh vẩy phá hại nho. Mục lục 1 Lịch sử 2 Các giống nho 3 Diện tích trồng 4 Rượu




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Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây [...], do chúng che phủ các loài thực vật khác với tốc độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình.
Answer
nhiều phiền toái

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Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây nhiều phiền toái, do chúng che phủ các loài thực vật khác với tốc độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình.

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Nho – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
ùng để sản xuất các loại rượu vang, thạch nho, nước quả, mật nho, dầu hạt nho. Trong tiếng Trung, nó được gọi là bồ đào (葡萄) và khi người ta nói đến rượu bồ đào tức là rượu sản xuất từ quả nho. <span>Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây nhiều phiền toái, do chúng che phủ các loài thực vật khác với tốc độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình. Nho bị ấu trùng của một số loài côn trùng thuộc bộ Lepidoptera phá hại - xem thêm tại Danh sách các loài cánh vẩy phá hại nho. Mục lục 1 Lịch sử 2 Các giống nho 3 Diện tích trồng 4 Rượu







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Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây nhiều phiền toái, do chúng che phủ các loà[...] độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình.
Answer
i thực vật khác với tốc

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Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây nhiều phiền toái, do chúng che phủ các loài thực vật khác với tốc độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình.

Original toplevel document

Nho – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
ùng để sản xuất các loại rượu vang, thạch nho, nước quả, mật nho, dầu hạt nho. Trong tiếng Trung, nó được gọi là bồ đào (葡萄) và khi người ta nói đến rượu bồ đào tức là rượu sản xuất từ quả nho. <span>Tuy nhiên, các loài nho dại lại bị coi là một loại cỏ dại gây nhiều phiền toái, do chúng che phủ các loài thực vật khác với tốc độ tăng trưởng rất nhanh của mình. Nho bị ấu trùng của một số loài côn trùng thuộc bộ Lepidoptera phá hại - xem thêm tại Danh sách các loài cánh vẩy phá hại nho. Mục lục 1 Lịch sử 2 Các giống nho 3 Diện tích trồng 4 Rượu







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#has-images #introduction-to-finite-element-analysis
Question
Represent schematically and discuss the main elements of numerical simulation and the associated errors.
[unknown IMAGE 5879326706956]
Answer
The main elements of numerical simulation and the associated errors are indicated schematically in Figure 1.1. Some errors are associated with the mathematical model and some errors are associated with its numerical solution. These are called errors of idealization and errors of discretization respectively. For the predictions to be reliable both kinds of errors have to be sufficiently small. The errors of idealization are also called modeling errors. Conceptualization is a process by which a mathematical model is formulated. Discretization is a process by which the exact solution of the mathematical model is approximated. Extraction is a process by which the data of interest are computed from the approximate solution. Some authors refer to the data of interest by the term “system response quantities” (SRQs).

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Question
Describe briefly the Monte Carlo method for accounting uncertainties in the formulation of a mathematical model.
Answer
Various methods are available for accounting for uncertainties. The choice of method depends on the quality and reliability of the available information. One such method, known as the Monte Carlo method, is to characterize input data as random variables and use repeated random sampling to compute their effects on the data of interest. If the probability density functions of the input data are sufficiently accurate and sufficiently large samples are taken then a reasonable estimate of the probability distribution of the data of interest can be obtained.

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#introduction-to-finite-element-analysis
In the engineering literature the commonly used simplified models are grouped into separate model classes, called theories. For example, various beam, plate and shell theories have been developed. The formulation of these theories typically involves a statement on the assumed mode of deformation (e.g., plane sections remain plane and normal to the mid-surface of a deformed beam), the relationship between the functions that characterize the deformation and the strain tensor (e.g., the strain is proportional to the curvature and the distance from the neutral axis), application of Hooke’s law, and statement of the equations of the equilibrium. In undergraduate engineering curricula each model class is presented as a thing in itself and consequently there is a strong predisposition in the engineering community to view each model class as a separate entity. It is much more useful, however, to view any mathematical model as a special case of a more comprehensive model, rather than a member of a conventionally defined model class. For example, the usual beam, plate and shell models are special cases of a model based on the three-dimensional linear theory of elasticity, which in turn is a special case of a large family of models based on the equations of continuum mechanics that account for a variety of hyperelastic, elasto-plastic and other material laws, large deformation, contact, etc. This is the hierarchic view of mathematical models.
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Question
Discuss about separate model classes and the hierarchic view of mathematical models.
Answer

In the engineering literature the commonly used simplified models are grouped into separate model classes, called theories. For example, various beam, plate and shell theories have been developed. The formulation of these theories typically involves a statement on the assumed mode of deformation (e.g., plane sections remain plane and normal to the mid-surface of a deformed beam), the relationship between the functions that characterize the deformation and the strain tensor (e.g., the strain is proportional to the curvature and the distance from the neutral axis), application of Hooke’s law, and statement of the equations of the equilibrium.

In undergraduate engineering curricula each model class is presented as a thing in itself and consequently there is a strong predisposition in the engineering community to view each model class as a separate entity. It is much more useful, however, to view any mathematical model as a special case of a more comprehensive model, rather than a member of a conventionally defined model class. For example, the usual beam, plate and shell models are special cases of a model based on the three-dimensional linear theory of elasticity, which in turn is a special case of a large family of models based on the equations of continuum mechanics that account for a variety of hyperelastic, elasto-plastic and other material laws, large deformation, contact, etc. This is the hierarchic view of mathematical models.


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In the engineering literature the commonly used simplified models are grouped into separate model classes, called theories. For example, various beam, plate and shell theories have been developed. The formulation of these theories typically involves a statement on the assumed mode of deformation (e.g., plane sections remain plane and normal to the mid-surface of a deformed beam), the relationship between the functions that characterize the deformation and the strain tensor (e.g., the strain is proportional to the curvature and the distance from the neutral axis), application of Hooke’s law, and statement of the equations of the equilibrium. In undergraduate engineering curricula each model class is presented as a thing in itself and consequently there is a strong predisposition in the engineering community to view each model class as a separate entity. It is much more useful, however, to view any mathematical model as a special case of a more comprehensive model, rather than a member of a conventionally defined model class. For example, the usual beam, plate and shell models are special cases of a model based on the three-dimensional linear theory of elasticity, which in turn is a special case of a large family of models based on the equations of continuum mechanics that account for a variety of hyperelastic, elasto-plastic and other material laws, large deformation, contact, etc. This is the hierarchic view of mathematical models.

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Question
Describe the goal of conceptualization.
Answer
The goal of conceptualization is to identify the simplest mathematical model that can provide predictions of the data of interest within a specified range of accuracy.

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Question
Describe the validation of a mathematical model.
[unknown IMAGE 5879435234572]
Answer
Validation is a process by which the predictive capabilities of a mathematical model are tested against experimental data. We will be concerned primarily with problems in solid mechanics for which the predictions can be tested through experiments especially designed for that purpose. This is a very large class of problems that includes all mathematical models designed for the prediction of the performance of mass-produced items. There are other important problems, such as the effects of earthquakes and other natural disasters, unique design problems, such as dams, siting of nuclear power plants and the like, for which the predictions based on mathematical models cannot be tested at full scale. In such cases the models are analyzed a posteriori and modified in the light of new information collected following an incident. Associated with each mathematical model is a modeling error (illustrated schematically in Figure 1.1). Therefore it is necessary to have a process for testing the predictive capabilities of mathematical models. This process, called validation. is illustrated schematically in Figure 1.2.

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Flashcard 5879568403724

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Flashcard 5879573384460

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Flashcard 5879578365196

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Flashcard 5879583345932

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statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Flashcard 5879588326668

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Flashcard 5879593307404

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Flashcard 5879598288140

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Flashcard 5879603268876

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Flashcard 5879608249612

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Flashcard 5879613230348

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statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Flashcard 5879618211084

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Flashcard 5879625026828

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Flashcard 5879630269708

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Flashcard 5879635250444

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Flashcard 5879640231180

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Flashcard 5879645211916

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Flashcard 5879650192652

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Flashcard 5879655173388

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Flashcard 5879663037708

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Flashcard 5879668018444

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Flashcard 5879672999180

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Flashcard 5879677979916

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Flashcard 5879682960652

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Flashcard 5879687941388

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Flashcard 5879692922124

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Flashcard 5879698427148

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Flashcard 5879703407884

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Flashcard 5879708388620

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#mechanics-of-composite-materials #stiffness #strength

Structural materials should possess a great number of physical, chemical and other types of properties, but there exist at least two principal characteristics that are of primary importance. These characteristics are stiffness and strength that provide the structure with the ability to maintain its shape and dimensions under loading or any other external action.

High stiffness means that material exhibits low deformation under loading. However, saying that stiffness is an important property we do not mean that it should be necessarily high. Ability of structure to have controlled deformation (compliance) can be also important for some applications (e.g., springs; shock absorbers; pressure, force, and displacement gauges).

Shortage of material strength results in uncontrolled compliance, i.e., in failure after which a structure does not exist any more. Usually, we need to have as high strength as possible, but there are some exceptions (e.g., controlled failure of explosive bolts is used to separate rocket stages).

Thus, without controlled stiffness and strength the structure cannot exist. Naturally, both properties depend greatly on the structure design but are determined by stiffness and strength of the structural material because a good design is only a proper utilization of material properties.

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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
meaning is part of an object to the extent that it acts upon intelligence in a predictable way
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
Perhaps works of art are trying to convey their style more than any thing else. In that case, if you could ever plumb a style to its very bottom, you could dispense with the creations in that style. "Style", "outer message", "decoding technique"—all ways of expressing the same basic idea.
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
To understand the inner message is to have extracted the meaning intended by the sender.
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
To understand the frame message is to recognize the need for a decoding-mechanism.
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
To understand the outer message is to build, or know how to build, the correct decoding mechanism for the inner message
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
the trap was the idea that before you can use any rule, you have to have a rule which tells you how to use that rule
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
the trap is the idea that before you can understand any message, you have to have a message which tells you how to understand that message; in other words, there is an infinite hierarchy of levels of messages, which prevents any message from ever getting understood
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
It would be nice if we could define intelligence in some other way than "that which gets the same meaning out of a sequence of symbols as we do".
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#artificial-intelligence #geb #goedel-escher-bach #hofstadter
It is fair to say, then, that an isolated record of John Cage's music does not have an intrinsic meaning. However, for a listener who is sufficiently well versed in Western and Eastern cultures, particularly in the trends in West ern music over the last few decades, it does carry meaning—but such a listener is like a jukebox, and the piece is like a pair of buttons. The meaning is mostly contained inside the listener to begin with; the music serves only to trigger it.
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[unknown IMAGE 5881747082508] #_check #elastic-material #has-images #hyperelastic-material #mechanics-of-laminated-composites
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