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on 12-May-2016 (Thu)

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Flashcard 1333626539276

Tags
#urology
Question
Autonomic dysreflexia is secondary to exaggerated sympathetic outflow in response to stimuli below the SC lesion.
It occurs with SC injury above [what level] only.
Answer
T6

NB: stimuli = bladder distention, rectal manipulation, fracture, cystoscopy, etc


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)
  • calcific (wear & tear)
  • ​rheumatic

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Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important

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Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)

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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors

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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble

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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

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Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)

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Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis

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New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - no limitation
II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity
III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity
IV - symptoms at rest or any activity

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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation

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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher

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Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction

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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function

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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation

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Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations

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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)

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Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic

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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

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Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343480532236

[unknown IMAGE 1343481842956]
Tags
#2015 #book-2 #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #schweser
Question
What is on axes? Say company produces shirts.


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Flashcard 1343766269196

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-[...]
-degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)
  • calcific (wear & tear)
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
congenital bicuspid valve


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343767842060

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-[...]
  • calcific (wear & tear)
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343769414924

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-degenerative ([...] restricts valve opening)
  • calcific (wear & tear)
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
Ca & fibrosis


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343770987788

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)
  • [...]
  • ​rheumatic
Answer
calcific (wear & tear)


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343772560652

Question
Pathology of Aortic stenosis:
-congenital bicuspid valve
-degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening)
  • calcific (wear & tear)
[...]
Answer
rheumatic


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Pathology of Aortic stenosis: -congenital bicuspid valve -degenerative (Ca & fibrosis restricts valve opening) calcific (wear & tear) ​rheumatic

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343774919948

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-[...]% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
50


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343776492812

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in [...] results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
valve orifice


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent foll

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343778065676

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in valve orifice results in [...]
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
minimal pressure gradient


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent follow-up is important</h

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343779638540

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce [...] in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-Careful, frequent follow-up is important
Answer
exponential increases


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Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent follow-up is important

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343781211404

Question
Progression of aortic stenosis:
-50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient
-Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient
-Progression is variable between individuals
-[...] is important
Answer
Careful, frequent follow-up


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pan>Progression of aortic stenosis: -50% reduction in valve orifice results in minimal pressure gradient -Increments beyond this produce exponential increases in gradient -Progression is variable between individuals -Careful, frequent follow-up is important<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343783570700

Question
Syncope:
-Classically [...]
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
exertional


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmi

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343785143564

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is [...] and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
fixed


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (vent

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343786716428

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot [...] with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
rise


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atria

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343788289292

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---[...] occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
Vasodilation


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Open it
Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343789862156

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → [...] & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
Blood pressure


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Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343791435020

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & [...] fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
cerebral perfusion


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Open it
Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343793007884

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from [...]
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
arrhythmia


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head>Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)<html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343794580748

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---[...]
---Bradycardia (heart block)
Answer
Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)


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pan>Syncope: -Classically exertional ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---<span>Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---Bradycardia (heart block)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343796153612

Question
Syncope:
-Classically exertional
---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise
---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall

-May also be from arrhythmia
---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial)
---[...]
Answer
Bradycardia (heart block)


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3; ---Cardiac output is fixed and cannot rise with exercise ---Vasodilation occurs during exercise → Blood pressure & cerebral perfusion fall -May also be from arrhythmia ---Tachycardia (ventricular or atrial) ---<span>Bradycardia (heart block)<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343800872204

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is [...]
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
basically non-existent


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increa

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343802445068

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = [...] treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
mechanical


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to m

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343804017932

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-[...] drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
Afterload-reducing


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosi

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343805590796

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = [...] x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
CO


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam,

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343807163660

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x [...] (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
resistance


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-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogr

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Flashcard 1343808736524

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will [...] b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
shoot down


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>-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk -

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Flashcard 1343810309388

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't [...])
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
increase to compensate


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cal therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent -Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't <span>increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk ---Treat associated atherosclerotic

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Flashcard 1343811882252

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: [3 things]
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
history, exam, echocardiogram


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ent -Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: <span>history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk ---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343814241548

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: [...]
---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors
Answer
endocarditis risk


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dicated ---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: <span>endocarditis risk ---Treat associated atherosclerotic risk factors<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343815814412

Question
-Medical therapy for Aortic stenosis is basically non-existent
-Mechanical problem = mechanical treatment
-Afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated
---BP = CO x resistance (by reducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate)
-Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis:
---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram
---Warn re: endocarditis risk
---Treat associated [...]
Answer
atherosclerotic risk factors


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ducing resistance, BP will shoot down b/c CO can't increase to compensate) -Mild to moderate asymptomatic aortic stenosis: ---Close follow up: history, exam, echocardiogram ---Warn re: endocarditis risk ---Treat associated <span>atherosclerotic risk factors<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343818173708

Question
[...] will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fract

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Flashcard 1343819746572

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in [...] and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
left ventricular fibrosis


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

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Flashcard 1343821319436

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and
[...]
As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
systolic dysfunction


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural

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Flashcard 1343822892300

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, [...] and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
wall tension


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of s

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Flashcard 1343824465164

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and [...] rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
filling pressure


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Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of

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Flashcard 1343826038028

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

[...] falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
Ejection fraction


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tml>Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgit

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343827610892

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing [...] and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
stroke volume


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>Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing <span>stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's

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Flashcard 1343829183756

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and
[...]
Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
forward output


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rtic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and <span>forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343831543052

Question
Chronic severe aortic regurgitation will eventually result in left ventricular fibrosis and systolic dysfunction

As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise

Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output

Irreversible structural changes may occur [...] to the development of symptoms
-one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble
Answer
prior


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is and systolic dysfunction As the ventricle dilates further, wall tension and filling pressure rise Ejection fraction falls, reducing stroke volume and forward output Irreversible structural changes may occur <span>prior to the development of symptoms -one of the insidious features of regurgitation is that by the time sx's occur, you're already in big trouble<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343842028812

Question
Aortic stenosis → [...]
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
pressure overload


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling<

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343843601676

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → [...]
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
volume overload


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343845174540

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“[...] hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
Concentric


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling<

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343846747404

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“[...] hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
Eccentric


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343848320268

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for
[...]
Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling
Answer
symptoms


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343849893132

Question
Aortic stenosis → pressure overload
--“Concentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for symptoms

Aortic regurgitation → volume overload
--“Eccentric hypertrophy”
--Operate for [...]
Answer
adverse ventricular remodeling


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Aortic stenosis → pressure overload --“Concentric hypertrophy” --Operate for symptoms Aortic regurgitation → volume overload --“Eccentric hypertrophy” --Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling

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. A Baixa Idade Média: A Idade Média – séculos V ao XV – é marcada pelo sistema social feudal na

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História do Brasil - Aula no 1 - As grandes navegações
é redondo através da viagem da circunavegação. Não se deve perder de vista, no entanto, o sentido de toda essa expansão marítima. O objetivo central dos europeus era obter riquezas. 2. Transição da Idade Média à Idade Moderna: <span>. A Baixa Idade Média: A Idade Média – séculos V ao XV – é marcada pelo sistema social feudal na Europa. A Idade Média é dividida em duas, a Alta Idade Média – séculos V ao X – e a Baixa Idade Média – séculos X ao XV. Nessa segunda parte as invasões estrangeiras diminuem bastan




a burguesia. Esta não tem o poder sobre o Estado, mas terá grande influência junto a este.

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História do Brasil - Aula no 1 - As grandes navegações
nobres e o alto clero perdem poder, mas ainda são os grupos dominantes da sociedade. As monarquias passam agora a ser centralizadas, com grande poder na mão dos reis. Existe, ainda, uma classe que surgira na Baixa Idade Média: <span>a burguesia. Esta não tem o poder sobre o Estado, mas terá grande influência junto a este. 3. Portugal, do surgimento à expansão marítima: . O surgimento de Portugal: Na guerra de Reconquista na península ibérica, nobres da Europa lutam contra os mouros – muçulmanos




Flashcard 1343870864652

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: [...], Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital
Answer
Calcified mitral annulus


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343872437516

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, [...], Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital
Answer
Atrial myxoma


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343874010380

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, [...], Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital
Answer
Endocarditis


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343875583244

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, [...], Congenital
Answer
Carcinoid valvulopathy


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343877156108

Question
Etiology of mitral stenosis

Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, [...]
Answer
Congenital


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Etiology of mitral stenosis Rare causes: Calcified mitral annulus, Atrial myxoma, Endocarditis, Carcinoid valvulopathy, Congenital

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Flashcard 1343887379724



Tags
#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of [...] mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
25


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Flashcard 1343889476876



Tags
#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes [...] into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
transudation of fluid


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pdf

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Flashcard 1343892884748



Tags
#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in [...]

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
dyspnea


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Flashcard 1343899700492



Tags
#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise [...]
Answer
pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)


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Flashcard 1343901011212



Tags
#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of [...] mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and capillary pressures raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
25


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Flashcard 1343903632652



Tags
#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and [...] raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
capillary pressures


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Flashcard 1343906778380



Tags
#has-images
Question
Pathophysiology of mitral stenosis:

-A pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 25mmHg causes transudation of fluid into alveoli, resulting in dyspnea

-Increases in pulmonary venous and [...] raise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (pulm HTN)
Answer
capillary pressures


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Flashcard 1343909924108



Tags
#has-images
Question
What increases with mitral stenosis?


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Flashcard 1343914904844



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#has-images
Question
What pressures are elevated as a result of mitral stenosis?


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Flashcard 1343920409868

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-[...] & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
Pulmonary edema


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343921982732

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & [...]
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
hemoptysis


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343923555596

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-[...] and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
Atrial fibrillation


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343925128460

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and [...]
-Right heart failure
-Endocarditis
Answer
cardioembolism


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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1343926701324

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-[...]
-Endocarditis
Answer
Right heart failure


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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343928274188

Question
Complications of mitral stenosis:

-Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis
-Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism
-Right heart failure
-[...]
Answer
Endocarditis


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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Complications of mitral stenosis: -Pulmonary edema & hemoptysis -Atrial fibrillation and cardioembolism -Right heart failure -Endocarditis

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Flashcard 1343930633484

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - [...]
II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity
III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity
IV - symptoms at rest or any activity
Answer
no limitation


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New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity</

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Flashcard 1343932206348

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - no limitation
II - [...]
III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity
IV - symptoms at rest or any activity
Answer
slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity


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New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity

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Flashcard 1343933779212

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - no limitation
II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity
III - [...]
IV - symptoms at rest or any activity
Answer
marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity

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Flashcard 1343935352076

Question
New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class:

I - no limitation
II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity
III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity
IV - [...]
Answer
symptoms at rest or any activity


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>New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: I - no limitation II - slight limitation, symptoms with ordinary activity III - marked limitation, symptoms with less than ordinary activity IV - symptoms at rest or any activity<html>

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Flashcard 1343937711372

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA [...] & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
III-IV


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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) &

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Flashcard 1343939284236

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < [...] cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
1.5


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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

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Flashcard 1343941905676

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---severe [...] & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 )


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis

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Flashcard 1343943478540

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe [...] & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation

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Flashcard 1343945051404

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA
[...]
-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
I-II


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osis: -Definite ---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA <span>I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343948459276

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---[...] patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
Asymptomatic


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-NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---<span>Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343950032140

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with [...] mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
moderate or worse


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ea < 1.5 cm^2 -Very Probable ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with <span>moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343951605004

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< [...] cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation
Answer
1.5


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le ---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< <span>1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343953177868

Question
Indications for Intervention in mitral stenosis:

-Definite
---NYHA III-IV & valve area < 1.5 cm^2

-Very Probable
---Severe mitral stenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II

-Probable
---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset [...]
Answer
atrial fibrillation


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tenosis (< 1.0 cm^2 ) & severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure > 60-80 mmHg) & NYHA I-II -Probable ---Asymptomatic patients with moderate or worse mitral stenosis (< 1.5 cm^2 ) with new onset <span>atrial fibrillation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343955537164

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---[...] vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
durability


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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prosthes

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Flashcard 1343957110028

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs.
[...]
-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
anti-coagulation


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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic

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Flashcard 1343958682892

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate [...]%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
~ 3


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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher</bod

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Flashcard 1343960255756

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- [...]% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
~30


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Surgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher

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Flashcard 1343961828620

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at [...] years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher
Answer
10


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rgery for Mitral Stenosis -Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves ---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at <span>10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c thrombotic rate is higher<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343963401484

Question
Surgery for Mitral Stenosis

-Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves
---durability vs. anti-coagulation

-Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year

- ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years

-mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c [...]
Answer
thrombotic rate is higher


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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---durability vs. anti-coagulation -Mechanical valve thromboembolic complication rate ~ 3%/year - ~30% of bioprosthetic mitral valves fail at 10 years -mitral prostheses tend to last less than aortic ones b/c <span>thrombotic rate is higher<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343966547212

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-[...]
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Leaflets/chordae


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papi

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Flashcard 1343968120076

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-[...]
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Annulus


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343969692940

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-[...]
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Papillary muscles


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -<span>Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343971265804

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---[...], Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Open it
Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343972838668

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), [...], Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Rheumatic


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction</sp

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Flashcard 1343974411532

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, [...], Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Endocarditis (gets chewed up)


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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Open it
Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343975984396

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up),
[...]
-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Congenital


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Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343977557260

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---
[...]
-Papillary muscles
---Ischemia or infarction
Answer
Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
Etiology of mitral regurg: -Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---Ischemia or infarction

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Flashcard 1343979130124

Question
Etiology of mitral regurg:

-Leaflets/chordae
---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital

-Annulus
---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy)

-Papillary muscles
---[...]
Answer
Ischemia or infarction


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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Open it
-Leaflets/chordae ---Myxomatous (becomes progressively floppy), Rheumatic, Endocarditis (gets chewed up), Congenital -Annulus ---Left ventricular dilation (cardiomyopathy) -Papillary muscles ---<span>Ischemia or infarction<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343981489420

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume
[...]
-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
overload


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “ou

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Flashcard 1343983062284

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-[...] may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
Left ventricular systolic function


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reducti

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Flashcard 1343984635148

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until [...] and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
fibrosis


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration&#1

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Flashcard 1343986208012

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and [...] herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
progressive dilation


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html>Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ej

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Flashcard 1343987780876

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in
[...]
-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
ejection fraction


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physiology of chronic mitral regurg -A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in <span>ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired co

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Flashcard 1343989353740

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure [...] is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
left atrial “outlet”


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-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure <span>left atrial “outlet” is a form of afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function<span><body>

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Flashcard 1343990926604

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg

-A state of left ventricular and left atrial volume overload

-Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction

-The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of [...] - and may mask clinical deterioration
---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function
Answer
afterload reduction


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eft atrial volume overload -Left ventricular systolic function may remain normal for years until fibrosis and progressive dilation herald a decline in ejection fraction -The low-pressure left atrial “outlet” is a form of <span>afterload reduction - and may mask clinical deterioration ---Left ventricular ejection fraction may be normal despite impaired contractile function<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343993285900

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced [...] in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
left ventricular ejection fraction


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial &

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Flashcard 1343994858764

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates [...]!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
a poor prognosis regardless of treatment


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Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further

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Flashcard 1343996431628

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, [...], left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
diastolic filling pressures


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>Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343998004492

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, [...] & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
left atrial


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onic mitral regurg: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, <span>left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1343999577356

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & [...] pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
pulmonary


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: -Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & <span>pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344001150220

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to [...], increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
dilate


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in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to <span>dilate, increasing afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344002723084

Question
Pathophysiology of chronic mitral regurg:

-Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mitral regurgitation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment!

-When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing [...] further... creating more mitral regurgitation
Answer
afterload


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ation is serious... and indicates a poor prognosis regardless of treatment! -When ejection fraction declines, diastolic filling pressures, left atrial & pulmonary pressures rise, Causing the left ventricle to dilate, increasing <span>afterload further... creating more mitral regurgitation<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344005082380

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-[...]
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Fatigue


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344006655244

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-[...]
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Exertional dyspnea


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344008228108

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-[...]
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Orthopnea


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344009800972

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-[...]
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Palpitations
Answer
Edema


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344011373836

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-[...]
-Palpitations
Answer
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344012946700

Question
Clinical Features of mitral regurg:
-Fatigue
-Exertional dyspnea
-Orthopnea
-Edema
-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-[...]
Answer
Palpitations


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Clinical Features of mitral regurg: -Fatigue -Exertional dyspnea -Orthopnea -Edema -Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea -Palpitations

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Flashcard 1344015305996

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat [...] (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
the underlying cause


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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics &amp

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Flashcard 1344016878860

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-[...] e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Afterload reduction


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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognitio

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Flashcard 1344018451724

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. [...]
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
ACE inhibitors


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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Ant

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Flashcard 1344020024588

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying [...]
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)


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Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)

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Flashcard 1344021597452

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-[...] reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Preload


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body>Medical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<body><html>

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Flashcard 1344023170316

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: [...] & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
diuretics


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dical Therapy of mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: <span>diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344024743180

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & [...]
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
nitrates


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mitral regurg: -Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & <span>nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344026316044

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-[...] recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Endocarditis


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-Treat the underlying cause (if possible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -<span>Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344027888908

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-[...] and anti-coagulants (for complications)
Answer
Anti-arrhythmics


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ossible) -Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -<span>Anti-arrhythmics and anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344029461772

Question
Medical Therapy of mitral regurg:

-Treat the underlying cause (if possible)
-Afterload reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors
---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery)
-Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates
-Endocarditis recognition and treatment
-Anti-arrhythmics and [...] (for complications)
Answer
anti-coagulants


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oad reduction e.g. ACE inhibitors ---however, little if any benefit in delaying surgery (fundamental rx is surgery) -Preload reduction: diuretics & nitrates -Endocarditis recognition and treatment -Anti-arrhythmics and <span>anti-coagulants (for complications)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344031821068

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for [...] / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic
Answer
myxomatous degeneration


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Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic</b

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Flashcard 1344033393932

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for myxomatous degeneration / [...]; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic
Answer
prolapse


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Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic

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Flashcard 1344034966796

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: [...] vs. bioprosthetic
Answer
Mechanical


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>Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. bioprosthetic<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344036539660

Question
Surgical Therapy (mitral regurg)

-Valve repair:
---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies
---good outcomes in selected patients
---preferable

-Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. [...]
Answer
bioprosthetic


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Therapy (mitral regurg) -Valve repair: ---for myxomatous degeneration / prolapse; less successful in other etiologies ---good outcomes in selected patients ---preferable -Valve replacement: Mechanical vs. <span>bioprosthetic<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344038898956

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular [...], pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
underfilling


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms<

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344040471820

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, [...]
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
pulm edema


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms</htm

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344042044684

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-[...] or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
Balloon


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344043617548

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or [...] for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
surgery


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344045190412

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for
[...]
Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
symptoms


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344046763276

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular [...]
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
volume overload


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344048336140

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-[...] for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms
Answer
Operate


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344049909004

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse [...] or symptoms
Answer
ventricular remodeling


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
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Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344051481868

Question
Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema
-Balloon or surgery for symptoms

Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload
-Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or [...]
Answer
symptoms


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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ad><head>Mitral stenosis → Lt ventricular underfilling, pulm edema -Balloon or surgery for symptoms Mitral regurgitation → Left ventricular volume overload -Operate for adverse ventricular remodeling or symptoms<html>

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Flashcard 1344053841164

Question
[...] + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis
Answer
Transient Bacteremia (exposure)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344055414028

Question
Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + [...] = Infective Endocarditis
Answer
Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344056986892

Question
Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) ([...]) = Infective Endocarditis
Answer
abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344058559756

Question
Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = [...]
Answer
Infective Endocarditis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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Transient Bacteremia (exposure) + Predisposing Cardiac Lesion (diathesis) (abn leaky flow, turbulent flow, etc) = Infective Endocarditis

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344060919052

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted [...] therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
parenteral animicrobial


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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodyna

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344062491916

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---[...], intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
Narrow-spectrum


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recu

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344064064780

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, [...], synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
intensive


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embol

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344065637644

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, [...]
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
synergistic


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For lar

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344067210508

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on [...]!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
culture and sensitivity


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344068783372

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate [...] (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
portal of entry


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocardi

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344070356236

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-[...] surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
Valve


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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>Treatment of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal end

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344071929100

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For [...]
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
hemodynamic compromise


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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nt of Endocarditis: -Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For <span>hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1344073501964

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For [...]
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
recurrent embolism


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
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Parent (intermediate) annotation

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geted parenteral animicrobial therapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For <span>recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344075074828

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For [...]
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
large and highly mobile vegetations


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
herapy ---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For <span>large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344076647692

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For [...]
---For fungal endocarditis
Answer
prosthetic valve endocarditis


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gistic ---Depends on culture and sensitivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For <span>prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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Flashcard 1344078220556

Question
Treatment of Endocarditis:

-Targeted parenteral animicrobial therapy
---Narrow-spectrum, intensive, synergistic
---Depends on culture and sensitivity!
-Eliminate portal of entry (if possible)
-Valve surgery
---For hemodynamic compromise
---For recurrent embolism
---For large and highly mobile vegetations
---For prosthetic valve endocarditis
---For [...]
Answer
fungal endocarditis


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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itivity! -Eliminate portal of entry (if possible) -Valve surgery ---For hemodynamic compromise ---For recurrent embolism ---For large and highly mobile vegetations ---For prosthetic valve endocarditis ---For <span>fungal endocarditis<span><body><html>

Original toplevel document (pdf)

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