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Subject 4. Consumer Equilibrium: Maximizing Utility Subject to the Budget Constraint
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #subject-4-consumer-equilibrium-maximizing-utility-subject-to-the-budget-contraint
The budget constraint line separates consumption bundles that are attainable from those that are unattainable. A consumer will maximise utility by consuming on the highest possible indifference curve (i.e., we assume all income is spent). This is where an indifference curve is tangent to the highest possible budget line.

A consumer could consume at G, for example, but would be on a higher indifference curve at H. This means that to maximise utility the consumer would consume Q1 of product A and Q2 of product B.

The consumer is maximising utility where the budget line and indifference curve are tangent, i.e., MUB/MUA = PB/PA.

An Increase in Income

An increase in income shifts the budget line out parallel. The new combinations of products that maximise utility can be identified.

If this is a normal good, an increase in income increases the quantity demanded.

Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand. Demand falls as income rises.

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Subject 5. Revisiting the Consumer's Demand Function
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Indifference curve analysis lies behind a demand curve. It can be used to examine the effect of price changes and income changes.

If the price of B now falls, the budget line will pivot. The consumer now maximises utility consuming Q3 of product A and Q4 of product B. The fall in the price of product B has led to an increase in the quantity demanded of Q2Q4. This can be shown on a demand curve.

There are two different phenomena underlying a consumer's response to a price drop:

  • As the price of a product declines, the lower opportunity cost will induce consumers to buy more of it since it becomes less expensive - even if they have to give up other products. This is called the substitution effect.

    To isolate this effect diagrammatically, we move the new budget line inwards and parallel until it is tangent to the old indifference curve. The new slope reflects the new relative prices but the utility is the same as it was originally. The substitution effect is Q2Q6. The substitution effect will always lead to more of the relatively cheaper product being demanded.

  • With a fixed amount of money income, a reduction in the price of a product will increase a consumer's real income - the amount of goods and services consumers are able to purchase. Typically, consumers will respond by purchasing more of the cheaper products (as well as other products). This is called the income effect. The income effect is identified by shifting the budget line back outwards again. In this case, this leads to an increase in the quantity demanded of Q6 Q4.

The substitution and income effects will generally work in the same direction, causing consumers to purchase more as the price falls and less as the price rises. The indifference curve can be used to separate these two effects.

In the case of a normal good, higher real income leads to an increase in quantity demanded; this complements the increase due to the substitution effect. This change is shown in the diagram below.

In the case of an inferior product, the income effect leads to a fall in the quantity demanded, which will work against the substitution effect. In the following diagram the substitution effect is Q2 Q5; the income effect is Q5 Q4. However, the substitution effect outweighs the income effect and overall the quantity demanded rises. The overall change in quantity demanded results in an increase of Q2 Q4. This means the demand curve is downward-sloping, because a price fall increases the quantity demanded.

When a good is inferior and the income effect outweighs the substitution effect, it is called a Giffen good. This is, however, unlikely, because the substitution effect is almost always stronger than the income effect.

Another exception is the case where an increase in price causes an increase in demand. This results in an upward-sloping demand curve, and...
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Flashcard 1420429495564

Question
Vad regleras av m2 receptorn i hjärtat?
Answer
muscarinic potassium channels

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M2-receptors modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate.

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
is claim instead found no significant association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence. [8] Olfactory behavior[edit] Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating) [9] Mechanism of action[edit] <span>M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. Ligands[edit] Few highly selective M 2 agonists are available at present, although there are several non-selective muscarinic agonists that stimulate M 2 , and a number of selectiv







Flashcard 1421621988620

Question
[...] part of the G protein of M2 can open K+ channels, which slows down the heart rate
Answer
G-Beta-gamma

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G-Beta-gamma part of the G protein of M 2 can open K + channels, which slows down the heart rate

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
is claim instead found no significant association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence. [8] Olfactory behavior[edit] Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating) [9] Mechanism of action[edit] <span>M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. Ligands[edit] Few highly selective M 2 agonists are available at present, although there are several non-selective muscarinic agonists that stimulate M 2 , and a number of selectiv







Flashcard 1421631950092

Question
[...] regulates water excretion by increasing the water permeability of the collecting duct
Answer
Vasopressin

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Vasopressin regulates water excretion by increasing the water permeability of the collecting duct

Original toplevel document

Vasopressin receptor - Wikipedia
luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V 1 R, but not the afferent arteriole. [1] V 2 receptor[edit] <span>V 2 receptor (V 2 R) differs from V 1 R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V 1 R has sites at both the amino-terminus and at the extracellular loop, whereas the V 2 R has a single site at the extracellular amino-terminus. [1] The well known antidiuretic effect of vasopressin occurs via activation of V 2 R. [1] Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct – an effect that is explained by coupling of the V 2 R with the G s signaling pathway, which activates cAMP. Interestingly, the V 2 R continues to activate G s after being internalized by β-arrestin rather than being desensitized. This internalized G s signaling by V 2 R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V 2 R, β-arrestin, and heterotrimeric G s . [3] The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption. [1] V 3 receptor[edit] The human V 3 receptor (V 3 R, previously known as V 1B R) is a G-protein-coupled pituitary receptor that, because of its scarcity, was only recently characteri







Vasopressin
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Vasopressin regulates water excretion by increasing the water permeability of the collecting duct

Original toplevel document

Vasopressin receptor - Wikipedia
luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V 1 R, but not the afferent arteriole. [1] V 2 receptor[edit] <span>V 2 receptor (V 2 R) differs from V 1 R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V 1 R has sites at both the amino-terminus and at the extracellular loop, whereas the V 2 R has a single site at the extracellular amino-terminus. [1] The well known antidiuretic effect of vasopressin occurs via activation of V 2 R. [1] Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct – an effect that is explained by coupling of the V 2 R with the G s signaling pathway, which activates cAMP. Interestingly, the V 2 R continues to activate G s after being internalized by β-arrestin rather than being desensitized. This internalized G s signaling by V 2 R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V 2 R, β-arrestin, and heterotrimeric G s . [3] The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption. [1] V 3 receptor[edit] The human V 3 receptor (V 3 R, previously known as V 1B R) is a G-protein-coupled pituitary receptor that, because of its scarcity, was only recently characteri




Flashcard 1421657378060

Question
[...] regulates water excretion by increasing the water permeability of the collecting duct
Answer
Vasopressin

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Vasopressin regulates water excretion by increasing the water permeability of the collecting duct

Original toplevel document

Vasopressin receptor - Wikipedia
luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin selectively contracts efferent arterioles probably through the V 1 R, but not the afferent arteriole. [1] V 2 receptor[edit] <span>V 2 receptor (V 2 R) differs from V 1 R primarily in the number of sites susceptible to N-linked glycosylation; the V 1 R has sites at both the amino-terminus and at the extracellular loop, whereas the V 2 R has a single site at the extracellular amino-terminus. [1] The well known antidiuretic effect of vasopressin occurs via activation of V 2 R. [1] Vasopressin regulates water excretion from the kidney by increasing the osmotic water permeability of the renal collecting duct – an effect that is explained by coupling of the V 2 R with the G s signaling pathway, which activates cAMP. Interestingly, the V 2 R continues to activate G s after being internalized by β-arrestin rather than being desensitized. This internalized G s signaling by V 2 R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V 2 R, β-arrestin, and heterotrimeric G s . [3] The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption. [1] V 3 receptor[edit] The human V 3 receptor (V 3 R, previously known as V 1B R) is a G-protein-coupled pituitary receptor that, because of its scarcity, was only recently characteri







rate
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G-Beta-gamma part of the G protein of M 2 can open K + channels, which slows down the heart rate

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
is claim instead found no significant association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence. [8] Olfactory behavior[edit] Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating) [9] Mechanism of action[edit] <span>M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. Ligands[edit] Few highly selective M 2 agonists are available at present, although there are several non-selective muscarinic agonists that stimulate M 2 , and a number of selectiv




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #subject-4-consumer-equilibrium-maximizing-utility-subject-to-the-budget-contraint
The budget constraint line separates consumption bundles that are attainable from those that are unattainable. A consumer will maximise utility by consuming on the highest possible indifference curve (i.e., we assume all income is spent). This is where an indifference curve is tangent to the highest possible budget line.

A consumer could consume at G, for example, but would be on a higher indifference curve at H. This means that to maximise utility the consumer would consume Q1 of product A and Q2 of product B.

The consumer is maximising utility where the budget line and indifference curve are tangent, i.e., MUB/MUA = PB/PA.

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Subject 4. Consumer Equilibrium: Maximizing Utility Subject to the Budget Constraint
The budget constraint line separates consumption bundles that are attainable from those that are unattainable. A consumer will maximise utility by consuming on the highest possible indifference curve (i.e., we assume all income is spent). This is where an indifference curve is tangent to the highest possible budget line. A consumer could consume at G, for example, but would be on a higher indifference curve at H. This means that to maximise utility the consumer would consume Q1 of product A and Q2 of product B. The consumer is maximising utility where the budget line and indifference curve are tangent, i.e., MU B /MU A = P B /P A . An Increase in Income An increase in income shifts the budget line out parallel. The new combinations of products that maximise utility can be id




#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #subject-4-consumer-equilibrium-maximizing-utility-subject-to-the-budget-contraint
An Increase in Income

An increase in income shifts the budget line out parallel. The new combinations of products that maximise utility can be identified.

If this is a normal good, an increase in income increases the quantity demanded.

Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand. Demand falls as income rises.

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Subject 4. Consumer Equilibrium: Maximizing Utility Subject to the Budget Constraint
ximise utility the consumer would consume Q1 of product A and Q2 of product B. The consumer is maximising utility where the budget line and indifference curve are tangent, i.e., MU B /MU A = P B /P A . <span>An Increase in Income An increase in income shifts the budget line out parallel. The new combinations of products that maximise utility can be identified. If this is a normal good, an increase in income increases the quantity demanded. Inferior goods have a negative income elasticity of demand. Demand falls as income rises. <span><body><html>




this central hydrophobic core, which would have an extremely high energy cost. This caveat does not apply to cholesterol (Fig. 2-3), whose polar head is a single hydroxyl group. The energy cost of dragging this small polar hydroxyl group through the bilayer is relatively low, thus permitting rela- tively rapid cholesterol fl ip-fl op
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#odersky-programming-in-scala-3ed #scala
Each package is allowed to have one package object.
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The lipid bilayer is ideally suited to separate two aqueous compartments. Its hydrophilic head groups interact well with water at both membrane surfaces, whereas the hydro- phobic center ensures that
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Stål (latinskt namn: chalybs eller aciarium) är en legering som till största delen består av järn. Kol är det viktigaste legeringsämnet och ingår alltid i varierande mängd i stål. Moderna stålsorter innehåller även många andra ämnen (exempelvis krom, molybden och vanadin) vilket ger stålet olika egenskaper. Stål med små mängder legeringsämnen utöver kol kallas olegerade stål eller kolstål.
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Stål – Wikipedia
källor (fotnoter). Uppgifter utan källhänvisning kan ifrågasättas och tas bort. Diskutera på diskussionssidan. För efternamnet Stål/Ståhl och personer som bär detta namn, se Ståhl. [imagelink] Tillverkning av stål i elektrougn <span>Stål (latinskt namn: chalybs eller aciarium) är en legering som till största delen består av järn. Kol är det viktigaste legeringsämnet och ingår alltid i varierande mängd i stål. Moderna stålsorter innehåller även många andra ämnen (exempelvis krom, molybden och vanadin) vilket ger stålet olika egenskaper. Stål med små mängder legeringsämnen utöver kol kallas olegerade stål eller kolstål. Stål som innehåller högre halt legeringsämnen utöver kol kallas legerade stål. [1] Kolstål är magnetiskt, men austenitiskt stål är det inte. Dock avtar magnetismen med ökad temperatur




Flashcard 1421678087436

Question
Vilken del av M2 receptorn öppnar K+-kanaler?
Answer
G-Beta-gamma

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G-Beta-gamma part of the G protein of M 2 can open K + channels, which slows down the heart rate

Original toplevel document

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 - Wikipedia
is claim instead found no significant association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence. [8] Olfactory behavior[edit] Mediating olfactory guided behaviors (e.g. odor discrimination, aggression, mating) [9] Mechanism of action[edit] <span>M 2 muscarinic receptors act via a G i type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects. They appear to serve as autoreceptors. [10] In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels. [11] [12] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate. They do so by the G beta gamma subunit of the G protein coupled to M 2 . This part of the G protein can open K + channels in the parasympathetic notches in the heart, which causes an outward current of potassium, which slows down the heart rate. Ligands[edit] Few highly selective M 2 agonists are available at present, although there are several non-selective muscarinic agonists that stimulate M 2 , and a number of selectiv