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Flashcard 1447328615692

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
There are four internal senses:

The imagination,

The [...],

The common or central or synthesizing sense,

and instinct.
Answer
sensuous memory


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There are four internal senses: The imagination , The sensuous memory , The common or central or synthesizing sense , and instinct .

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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Flashcard 1635360050444

Question
risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline [...] 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.
Answer
(1-1.5 mL/kg/h)


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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Flashcard 1635361623308

Question
risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) [...] hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.
Answer
3 to 12


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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Flashcard 1635363196172

Question
risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for [...] hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.
Answer
6 to 24


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risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and administration of intravenous isotonic saline (1-1.5 mL/kg/h) 3 to 12 hours before the procedure and continued for 6 to 24 hours afterward has been shown to decrease the incidence of CIN in high-risk patients.

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Risk factors include age older than 75 years, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, conditions of decreased renal perfusion, and concurrent use of nephrotoxic drugs.

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Flashcard 1635366341900

Question
Risk factors for contrast indused nephroathy include
Answer
age older than 75 years, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, conditions of decreased renal perfusion, and concurrent use of nephrotoxic drugs.


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Risk factors include age older than 75 years, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, conditions of decreased renal perfusion, and concurrent use of nephrotoxic drugs.

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discontinuing omeprazole, repeat kidney function testing in 5 to 7 days is the most appropriate management for this patient with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).

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Flashcard 1635370274060

Question
discontinuing omeprazole, repeat kidney function testing in [...] days is the most appropriate management for this patient with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).
Answer
5 to 7


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discontinuing omeprazole, repeat kidney function testing in 5 to 7 days is the most appropriate management for this patient with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).

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Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

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Flashcard 1635373419788

Question
Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine [...] days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Answer
7 to 10


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Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAI

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Flashcard 1635374992652

Question
Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within [...] of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Answer
1 day


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Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

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Flashcard 1635376565516

Question
Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur [...] after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Answer
months


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y>Drug-induced AIN is characterized by a slowly increasing serum creatinine 7 to 10 days after exposure; however, it can occur within 1 day of exposure if the patient has been exposed previously. Drug-induced AIN can also occur months after exposure, often with NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)<body><html>

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AIN may be asymptomatic or present with mild, nonspecific symptoms; only 10% to 30% have the classic triad of fever, rash, and eosinophilia.

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Flashcard 1635379711244

Question
AIN may be asymptomatic or present with mild, nonspecific symptoms; only 10% to 30% have the classic triad of [...]
Answer
fever, rash, and eosinophilia.


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AIN may be asymptomatic or present with mild, nonspecific symptoms; only 10% to 30% have the classic triad of fever, rash, and eosinophilia.

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Flashcard 1635398061324

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of [...] scales
Answer
nominal scales.


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Subject 2. Measurement Scales
st level of measurement. It consists of assigning items to groups or categories. No quantitative information is conveyed and no ordering (ranking) of the items is implied. Nominal scales are qualitative rather than quantitative. <span>Religious preference, race, and sex are all examples of nominal scales. Another example is portfolio managers categorized as value or growth style will have a scale of 1 for value and 2 for growth. Frequency distributions are usually used to analyze data me







Flashcard 1636237184268

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
A [...] is a tabular display of data categorized into a small number of non-overlapping intervals.
Answer
frequency distribution


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
ency distribution. An interval, also called a class, is a set of values within which an observation falls. Each interval has a lower limit and an upper limit. Intervals must be all-inclusive and non-overlapping. <span>A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categorized into a small number of non-overlapping intervals. Note that: Each observation can only lie in one interval. The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population. The range for an interval is unique. This mean







Flashcard 1636239543564

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
An interval is also called a [...]
Answer
class.


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
with individual numbers becomes laborious and messy. In such circumstances, it is neater and more convenient to summarize results into what is known as a frequency table. The data in the display is called a frequency distribution. <span>An interval, also called a class, is a set of values within which an observation falls. Each interval has a lower limit and an upper limit. Intervals must be all-inclusive and non-overlapping. A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categor







Flashcard 1636241116428

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
An [...] is a set of values within which an observation falls.
Answer
interval


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
with individual numbers becomes laborious and messy. In such circumstances, it is neater and more convenient to summarize results into what is known as a frequency table. The data in the display is called a frequency distribution. <span>An interval, also called a class, is a set of values within which an observation falls. Each interval has a lower limit and an upper limit. Intervals must be all-inclusive and non-overlapping. A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categor







#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categorized into a small number of non-overlapping intervals. Note that:
  • Each observation can only lie in one interval.
  • The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population.
  • The range for an interval is unique. This means a value (observation) can only fall into one interval.

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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
ency distribution. An interval, also called a class, is a set of values within which an observation falls. Each interval has a lower limit and an upper limit. Intervals must be all-inclusive and non-overlapping. <span>A frequency distribution is a tabular display of data categorized into a small number of non-overlapping intervals. Note that: Each observation can only lie in one interval. The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population. The range for an interval is unique. This means a value (observation) can only fall into one interval. It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too ma




#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
In a frequency distribution It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too many intervals are used, we may not summarize enough.

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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
that: Each observation can only lie in one interval. The total number of intervals will incorporate the whole population. The range for an interval is unique. This means a value (observation) can only fall into one interval. <span>It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too many intervals are used, we may not summarize enough. A frequency distribution is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percent




#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
A frequency distribution is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percentage of scores in each interval are displayed. This helps in the analysis of large amount of statistical data, and works with all types of measurement scales.

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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
It is important to consider the number of intervals to be used. If too few intervals are used, too much data may be summarized and we may lose important characteristics; if too many intervals are used, we may not summarize enough. <span>A frequency distribution is constructed by dividing the scores into intervals and counting the number of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percentage of scores in each interval are displayed. This helps in the analysis of large amount of statistical data, and works with all types of measurement scales. Absolute frequency is the actual number of observations in a given interval. Relative frequency is the result of dividing the absolute frequency of e




Flashcard 1636249505036

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
[...] is the actual number of observations in a given interval.
Answer
Absolute frequency


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
of scores in each interval. The actual number of scores and the percentage of scores in each interval are displayed. This helps in the analysis of large amount of statistical data, and works with all types of measurement scales. <span>Absolute frequency is the actual number of observations in a given interval. Relative frequency is the result of dividing the absolute frequency of each return interval by the total number of observations. Cumulative absol







Flashcard 1636251864332

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
[...] is the result of dividing the absolute frequency of each return interval by the total number of observations.
Answer
Relative frequency


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
al are displayed. This helps in the analysis of large amount of statistical data, and works with all types of measurement scales. Absolute frequency is the actual number of observations in a given interval. <span>Relative frequency is the result of dividing the absolute frequency of each return interval by the total number of observations. Cumulative absolute frequency and cumulative relative frequency are the results from cumulating the absolute and relative frequencies as we move from the first to the l







Flashcard 1636254223628

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
[...] are the results from cumulating the absolute and relative frequencies as we move from the first to the last interval.
Answer
Cumulative absolute frequency and cumulative relative frequency


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
olute frequency is the actual number of observations in a given interval. Relative frequency is the result of dividing the absolute frequency of each return interval by the total number of observations. <span>Cumulative absolute frequency and cumulative relative frequency are the results from cumulating the absolute and relative frequencies as we move from the first to the last interval. The following steps are required when organizing data into a frequency distribution together with suggestions on constructing the frequency distribution. Identify the







#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
The following steps are required when organizing data into a frequency distribution together with suggestions on constructing the frequency distribution.
  • Identify the highest and lowest values of the observations.

  • Setup classes (groups into which data is divided). The classes must be mutually exclusive and of equal size.

  • Add up the number of observations and assign each observation to its class.

  • Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency.

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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
by the total number of observations. Cumulative absolute frequency and cumulative relative frequency are the results from cumulating the absolute and relative frequencies as we move from the first to the last interval. <span>The following steps are required when organizing data into a frequency distribution together with suggestions on constructing the frequency distribution. Identify the highest and lowest values of the observations. Setup classes (groups into which data is divided). The classes must be mutually exclusive and of equal size. Add up the number of observations and assign each observation to its class. Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency. Data can be divided into two types: discrete and continuous. Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as




Flashcard 1636258155788

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
Data can be divided into two types: [...] and [...]
Answer
discrete

continuous.


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
t be mutually exclusive and of equal size. Add up the number of observations and assign each observation to its class. Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency. <span>Data can be divided into two types: discrete and continuous. Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares compris







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Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index.

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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
mber of observations and assign each observation to its class. Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency. Data can be divided into two types: discrete and continuous. <span>Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index. Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.




#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.e., all values can be included in the data set). Examples would include the height of a person and the time to complete an assignment. These values can be measured using sufficiently accurate tools to numerous decimal places.

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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
ed into two types: discrete and continuous. Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index. <span>Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.e., all values can be included in the data set). Examples would include the height of a person and the time to complete an assignment. These values can be measured using sufficiently accurate tools to numerous decimal places. There are two methods that graphically represent continuous data: histograms and frequency polygons. 1. A histogram is a bar chart that displays a frequency distributi




Flashcard 1636263660812

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
There are two methods that graphically represent continuous data: [...] and [...]

Answer
histograms

frequency polygons.


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
values (i.e., all values can be included in the data set). Examples would include the height of a person and the time to complete an assignment. These values can be measured using sufficiently accurate tools to numerous decimal places. <span>There are two methods that graphically represent continuous data: histograms and frequency polygons. 1. A histogram is a bar chart that displays a frequency distribution. It is constructed as follows: The class frequencies are shown on the vertical (y) axis (by







Flashcard 1636296166668

Tags
#reading-7-discounted-cashflows-applications
Question
Is Bank discount yield a meaningful measure of the return on investment?
Answer
not


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Subject 4. Different Yield Measures of a U.S. Treasury Bill
unt basis D = the dollar discount, which is equal to the difference between the face value of the bill, F, and its purchase price, P t = the number of days remaining to maturity 360 = the bank convention of the number of days in a year. <span>Bank discount yield is not a meaningful measure of the return on investment because: It is based on the face value, not on the purchase price. Instead, return on investment should be measured based on cost of investment. It is annualized using a 360-day year, not a 365-day year. It annualizes with simple interest and ignores the effect of interest on interest (compound interest). Holding period yield (HPY) is the return earned by an investor if the money market instrument is held until maturity: P 0 =







I am, of course, particularly curious to find out how these summaries express the plight of Ausländer in Germany. I discover that the students either avoided the topic ‘foreigner’ altogether and described the story as a story of discrimina- tion against a child from‘anethnic minority’, or they tried to coin words impossi- ble in German like ‘first generation German’ or ‘Turco-German’ that reflect their American understanding of the situation. I am starting to see that the silence I experienced in class was more than a linguistic problem; it was a cultural problem.

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Miller (1956) established 7 ± 2 items as an estimate of work- ing memory capacity, but this value was later shown to be age dependent, increasing during childhood development and decreasing with ageing

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self-reflection and self-consciousness are a poet's way of expressing a need to define his social status and his social role, and to delin- eate a clear relationship with the audience.

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The Abbasid age was a period of exploration and questioning in every sense. ... If modernity is to be understood as the breaking down of stereotypes, creating difference, and rebelling against established systems, then the Arabic literary tradition witnessed a "modernist" and metapoetic phase long before the twentieth century.

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metapoetic instances also represent the poets' commentaries on the critical frameworks that were dominant at the time.

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By calling themselves the Free Verse poets, the pioneers of this movement announced their liberation from the q~Uiah form that had dominated Arabic poetry for centuries.

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Flashcard 1636462628108

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
[...]: The values in the data set can be counted.
Answer
Discrete


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
mber of observations and assign each observation to its class. Count the number of observations in each class. This is called the class frequency. Data can be divided into two types: discrete and continuous. <span>Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index. Continuous: The values in the data set can be measu







Flashcard 1636464987404

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
[...]: The values in the data set can be measured.
Answer
Continuous


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
ed into two types: discrete and continuous. Discrete: The values in the data set can be counted. There are distinct spaces between the values, such as the number of children in a family or the number of shares comprising an index. <span>Continuous: The values in the data set can be measured. There are normally lots of decimal places involved and (theoretically, at least) there are no gaps between permissible values (i.e., all values can be included in the data set). Example







Flashcard 1636467346700

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
A [...] is a bar chart that displays a frequency distribution.
Answer
histogram


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
me to complete an assignment. These values can be measured using sufficiently accurate tools to numerous decimal places. There are two methods that graphically represent continuous data: histograms and frequency polygons. 1. <span>A histogram is a bar chart that displays a frequency distribution. It is constructed as follows: The class frequencies are shown on the vertical (y) axis (by the heights of bars drawn next to each other). The classes (intervals) are shown







Flashcard 1636469705996

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
In a histogram the [...] are shown on the vertical (y) axis
Answer
class frequencies

(by the heights of bars drawn next to each other).


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
al places. There are two methods that graphically represent continuous data: histograms and frequency polygons. 1. A histogram is a bar chart that displays a frequency distribution. It is constructed as follows: <span>The class frequencies are shown on the vertical (y) axis (by the heights of bars drawn next to each other). The classes (intervals) are shown on the horizontal (x) axis. There is no space between the bars. From a histogram, we can see quickly where most of the observa







Flashcard 1636472065292

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
In a frequency histogram [...] are shown on the horizontal (x) axis.
Answer
the classes (intervals)


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
polygons. 1. A histogram is a bar chart that displays a frequency distribution. It is constructed as follows: The class frequencies are shown on the vertical (y) axis (by the heights of bars drawn next to each other). <span>The classes (intervals) are shown on the horizontal (x) axis. There is no space between the bars. From a histogram, we can see quickly where most of the observations lie. The shapes of histograms will vary, depending on th







Flashcard 1636474424588

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Question
How much space is there between the bars of a histogram
Answer
There is no space between the bars


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
ays a frequency distribution. It is constructed as follows: The class frequencies are shown on the vertical (y) axis (by the heights of bars drawn next to each other). The classes (intervals) are shown on the horizontal (x) axis. <span>There is no space between the bars. From a histogram, we can see quickly where most of the observations lie. The shapes of histograms will vary, depending on the choice of the size of the interva







Flashcard 1636476783884

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Question
From a histogram, we can see quickly where [...].
Answer
most of the observations lie


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
#13; The class frequencies are shown on the vertical (y) axis (by the heights of bars drawn next to each other). The classes (intervals) are shown on the horizontal (x) axis. There is no space between the bars. <span>From a histogram, we can see quickly where most of the observations lie. The shapes of histograms will vary, depending on the choice of the size of the intervals. 2. The frequency polygon is another means of graphically displaying data. It is si







Flashcard 1636479143180

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Question
The shapes of histograms will vary, depending on [...]
Answer
the choice of the size of the intervals.


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
the heights of bars drawn next to each other). The classes (intervals) are shown on the horizontal (x) axis. There is no space between the bars. From a histogram, we can see quickly where most of the observations lie. <span>The shapes of histograms will vary, depending on the choice of the size of the intervals. 2. The frequency polygon is another means of graphically displaying data. It is similar to a histogram but the bars are replaced by a line joined together. It is constructe







Flashcard 1636481502476

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Question
Besides the histogram, the [...] is another means of graphically displaying data.
Answer
frequency polygon


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
s. There is no space between the bars. From a histogram, we can see quickly where most of the observations lie. The shapes of histograms will vary, depending on the choice of the size of the intervals. 2. <span>The frequency polygon is another means of graphically displaying data. It is similar to a histogram but the bars are replaced by a line joined together. It is constructed in the following manner: Absolute frequency for each interval is plotted







Flashcard 1636484648204

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Question
In the [...] the midpoint of each class (interval) is shown on the horizontal (x) axis.
Answer
Frequency Polygon


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
f graphically displaying data. It is similar to a histogram but the bars are replaced by a line joined together. It is constructed in the following manner: Absolute frequency for each interval is plotted on the vertical (y) axis. <span>The midpoint of each class (interval) is shown on the horizontal (x) axis. Neighboring points are connected with a straight line. Unlike a histogram, a frequency polygon adds a degree of continuity to the presentation of the distribution. It







Flashcard 1636487007500

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Question
Unlike a histogram, a frequency polygon adds a degree of [...] to the presentation of the distribution.

Answer
continuity


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
e following manner: Absolute frequency for each interval is plotted on the vertical (y) axis. The midpoint of each class (interval) is shown on the horizontal (x) axis. Neighboring points are connected with a straight line. <span>Unlike a histogram, a frequency polygon adds a degree of continuity to the presentation of the distribution. It is helpful, when drawing a frequency polygon, first to draw a histogram in pencil, then to plot the points and join the lines, and finally to rub out the histogram. In th







Flashcard 1636489366796

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Question
The [...] for a class is calculated by dividing the number of observations in a class by the total number of observations and converting this figure to a percentage.
Answer
relative frequency


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
first to draw a histogram in pencil, then to plot the points and join the lines, and finally to rub out the histogram. In this way, the histogram can be used as an initial guide to drawing the polygon. <span>The relative frequency for a class is calculated by dividing the number of observations in a class by the total number of observations and converting this figure to a percentage (multiplying the fraction by 100). Simply, relative frequency is the percentage of total observations falling within each interval. It is another way of analyzing data; it tells us, for each class, what proportion (or pe







Flashcard 1636491726092

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Question
Simply, relative frequency is the [...] of total observations falling within each interval.
Answer
percentage


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
; The relative frequency for a class is calculated by dividing the number of observations in a class by the total number of observations and converting this figure to a percentage (multiplying the fraction by 100). <span>Simply, relative frequency is the percentage of total observations falling within each interval. It is another way of analyzing data; it tells us, for each class, what proportion (or percentage) of data falls in that class. Let's look at an example. The fo







Flashcard 1636494085388

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Question
If, in an examination, your relative frequency column does not sum [...], you know that you have made a mistake.
Answer
to 1 (or 100%)


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Subject 3. Frequency Distributions
st one is -27%. Let's use 6 non-overlapping intervals, each with a width of 10%. The first interval starts at -27% and the last one ends at 33%. Therefore, the entire range of the HPRs is covered. Hint: <span>If, in an examination, your relative frequency column does not sum to 1 (or 100%), you know that you have made a mistake. <span><body><html>







Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
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Measures of central tendency specify where data are centered. They attempt to use a typical value to represent all the observations in the data set.

Population Mean

The population mean is the average for a finite population. It is unique; a given population has only one mean.

where:

  • N = the number of observations in the entire population
  • Xi = the ith observation
  • ΣXi = add up Xi, where i is from 0 to N

Sample Mean

The sample mean is the average for a sample. It is a statistic and is used to estimate the population mean.

where n = the number of observations in the sample

Arithmetic Mean

The arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the average. The population mean and sample mean are both examples of the arithmetic mean.

  • If the data set encompasses an entire population, the arithmetic mean is called a population mean.
  • If the data set includes a sample of values taken from a population, the arithmetic mean is called a sample mean.

This is the most widely used measure of central tendency. When the word "mean" is used without a modifier, it can be assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. The mean is the sum of all scores divided by the number of scores. It is used to measure the prospective (expected future) performance (return) of an investment over a number of periods.

  • All interval and ratio data sets (e.g., incomes, ages, rates of return) have an arithmetic mean.
  • All data values are considered and included in the arithmetic mean computation.
  • A data set has only one arithmetic mean. This indicates that the mean is unique.
  • The arithmetic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. Deviation from the arithmetic mean is the distance between the mean and an observation in the data set.

The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages:

  • The mean can be affected by extremes, that is, unusually large or small values.
  • The mean cannot be determined for an open-ended data set (i.e., n is unknown).

Geometric Mean

The geometric mean has three important properties:

  • It exists only if all the observations are greater than or equal to zero. In other words, it cannot be determined if any value of the data set is zero or negative.
  • If values in the data set are all equal, both the arithmetic and geometric means will be equal to that value.
  • It is always less than the arithmetic mean if values in the data set are not equal.

It is typically used when calculating returns over multiple periods. It is a better measure of the compound growth rate of an investment. When returns are variable by period, the geometric mean will always be less than the arithmetic mean. The more dispersed the rates of returns, the greater the difference between the two. This measurement is not as highly influenced by extreme values as the arithmetic mean.

Weighted Mean

The weighted mean is computed by weighting each observed value according to its importance. In contrast, the arithmetic mean assigns equal weight to each value. Notice that the return of a portfolio is the weighted mean of the returns of individual

...

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Flashcard 1636515319052

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Question
[...] specify where data are centered.
Answer
Measures of central tendency


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
Measures of central tendency specify where data are centered. They attempt to use a typical value to represent all the observations in the data set. Population Mean The population mean is the average for a finite populatio







Flashcard 1636517678348

Tags
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Question

The population mean formula

Answer


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
head><head> Measures of central tendency specify where data are centered. They attempt to use a typical value to represent all the observations in the data set. Population Mean The population mean is the average for a finite population. It is unique; a given population has only one mean. where: N = the number of observations in the entire population X i = the ith observation ΣX i = add up X i , where i is from 0 to







Flashcard 1636520037644

Tags
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Question
Population mean

where:

  • N = [...]
  • Xi = [...]
  • ΣXi = [...]
Answer
the number of observations in the entire population

the ith observation

add up Xi, where i is from 0 to N


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
represent all the observations in the data set. Population Mean The population mean is the average for a finite population. It is unique; a given population has only one mean. <span>where: N = the number of observations in the entire population X i = the ith observation ΣX i = add up X i , where i is from 0 to N Sample Mean The sample mean is the average for a sample. It is a statistic and is used to estimate the population mean.







Flashcard 1636522396940

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Question

Sample Mean Formula

Answer


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
que; a given population has only one mean. where: N = the number of observations in the entire population X i = the ith observation ΣX i = add up X i , where i is from 0 to N <span>Sample Mean The sample mean is the average for a sample. It is a statistic and is used to estimate the population mean. where n = the number of observations in the sample Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the a







Flashcard 1636524756236

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Question
The population mean and sample mean are both examples of the [...] mean.
Answer
arithmetic


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
stic and is used to estimate the population mean. where n = the number of observations in the sample Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the average. <span>The population mean and sample mean are both examples of the arithmetic mean. If the data set encompasses an entire population, the arithmetic mean is called a population mean. If the data set includes a sample of values taken from a population, the







Flashcard 1636527115532

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Question
If the data set encompasses an entire population, the arithmetic mean is called a [...]
Answer
population mean.


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
here n = the number of observations in the sample Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the average. The population mean and sample mean are both examples of the arithmetic mean. <span>If the data set encompasses an entire population, the arithmetic mean is called a population mean. If the data set includes a sample of values taken from a population, the arithmetic mean is called a sample mean. This is the most widely used measure of central tendency.







Flashcard 1636529474828

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
If the data set includes a sample of values taken from a population, the arithmetic mean is called a [...]
Answer
sample mean.


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
thmetic mean is what is commonly called the average. The population mean and sample mean are both examples of the arithmetic mean. If the data set encompasses an entire population, the arithmetic mean is called a population mean. <span>If the data set includes a sample of values taken from a population, the arithmetic mean is called a sample mean. This is the most widely used measure of central tendency. When the word "mean" is used without a modifier, it can be assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. The







Flashcard 1636531834124

Tags
#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
What is the most widely used measure of central tendency?
Answer
Arithmetic mean


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
an. If the data set encompasses an entire population, the arithmetic mean is called a population mean. If the data set includes a sample of values taken from a population, the arithmetic mean is called a sample mean. <span>This is the most widely used measure of central tendency. When the word "mean" is used without a modifier, it can be assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. The mean is the sum of all scores divided by the number of scores. It is us







Flashcard 1636534193420

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Question
When the word "mean" is used without a modifier, it can be assumed to refer to the [...] .
Answer
arithmetic mean


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
ulation, the arithmetic mean is called a population mean. If the data set includes a sample of values taken from a population, the arithmetic mean is called a sample mean. This is the most widely used measure of central tendency. <span>When the word "mean" is used without a modifier, it can be assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. The mean is the sum of all scores divided by the number of scores. It is used to measure the prospective (expected future) performance (return) of an investment over a number of periods







Flashcard 1636536552716

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Question
All [...] and [...] (measurement scales) data sets have an arithmetic mean.
Answer
interval

ratio


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
e assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. The mean is the sum of all scores divided by the number of scores. It is used to measure the prospective (expected future) performance (return) of an investment over a number of periods. <span>All interval and ratio data sets (e.g., incomes, ages, rates of return) have an arithmetic mean. All data values are considered and included in the arithmetic mean computation. A data set has only one arithmetic mean. This indicates that the mean is unique. The arithmetic mean is t







#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
All data values are considered and included in the arithmetic mean computation.

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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
r of scores. It is used to measure the prospective (expected future) performance (return) of an investment over a number of periods. All interval and ratio data sets (e.g., incomes, ages, rates of return) have an arithmetic mean. <span>All data values are considered and included in the arithmetic mean computation. A data set has only one arithmetic mean. This indicates that the mean is unique. The arithmetic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each valu




Flashcard 1636540484876

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
How many arirhmetic means does a data set have.
Answer
only one arithmetic mean.

his indicates that the mean is unique.


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
(return) of an investment over a number of periods. All interval and ratio data sets (e.g., incomes, ages, rates of return) have an arithmetic mean. All data values are considered and included in the arithmetic mean computation. <span>A data set has only one arithmetic mean. This indicates that the mean is unique. The arithmetic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. Deviation from the arithmetic mean is the distanc







Flashcard 1636542844172

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
The [...] is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero.
Answer
arithmetic mean


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
d ratio data sets (e.g., incomes, ages, rates of return) have an arithmetic mean. All data values are considered and included in the arithmetic mean computation. A data set has only one arithmetic mean. This indicates that the mean is unique. <span>The arithmetic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. Deviation from the arithmetic mean is the distance between the mean and an observation in the data set. The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages: Th







Flashcard 1636545203468

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Question
[...] from the arithmetic mean is the distance between the mean and an observation in the data set.
Answer
Deviation


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
thmetic mean computation. A data set has only one arithmetic mean. This indicates that the mean is unique. The arithmetic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. <span>Deviation from the arithmetic mean is the distance between the mean and an observation in the data set. The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages: The mean can be affected by extremes, that is, unusually large or small values. The mean cannot be determi







Flashcard 1636547562764

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Question

The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages:

  • The mean can be [...]
Answer
affected by extremes.

unusually large or small values.


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
etic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. Deviation from the arithmetic mean is the distance between the mean and an observation in the data set. <span>The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages: The mean can be affected by extremes, that is, unusually large or small values. The mean cannot be determined for an open-ended data set (i.e., n is unknown). Geometric Mean The geometric mean has three important







Flashcard 1636549922060

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question

The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages:

  • The mean cannot be determined for [...]
Answer
an open-ended data set (i.e., n is unknown).


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
etic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. Deviation from the arithmetic mean is the distance between the mean and an observation in the data set. <span>The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages: The mean can be affected by extremes, that is, unusually large or small values. The mean cannot be determined for an open-ended data set (i.e., n is unknown). Geometric Mean The geometric mean has three important properties: It exists only if all the observations are greater th







Flashcard 1636552281356

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Question

Geometric Mean formula

Answer


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
13; The arithmetic mean has the following disadvantages: The mean can be affected by extremes, that is, unusually large or small values. The mean cannot be determined for an open-ended data set (i.e., n is unknown). <span>Geometric Mean The geometric mean has three important properties: It exists only if all the observations are greater than or equal to zero. In othe







Flashcard 1636554902796

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question

The geometric mean has two important properties:

  • It exists [...]
  • It is always less than the arithmetic mean if values in the data set are not equal.
Answer
only if all the observations are greater than or equal to zero.


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
s: The mean can be affected by extremes, that is, unusually large or small values. The mean cannot be determined for an open-ended data set (i.e., n is unknown). Geometric Mean <span>The geometric mean has three important properties: It exists only if all the observations are greater than or equal to zero. In other words, it cannot be determined if any value of the data set is zero or negative. If values in the data set are all equal, both the arithmetic and geometric means will be equal to that value. It is always less than the arithmetic mean if values in the data set are not equal. It is typically used when calculating returns over multiple periods. It is a better measure of the compound growth rate of an investment. When returns are variable by perio







Flashcard 1636557262092

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
Which mean is typically used when calculating returns over multiple periods.
Answer
Geometric mean


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
f the data set is zero or negative. If values in the data set are all equal, both the arithmetic and geometric means will be equal to that value. It is always less than the arithmetic mean if values in the data set are not equal. <span>It is typically used when calculating returns over multiple periods. It is a better measure of the compound growth rate of an investment. When returns are variable by period, the geometric mean will always be less than the arithmetic mean. The more dispe







Flashcard 1636559621388

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
When returns are variable by period, the geometric mean will always be [...] than the arithmetic mean.
Answer
less


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
value. It is always less than the arithmetic mean if values in the data set are not equal. It is typically used when calculating returns over multiple periods. It is a better measure of the compound growth rate of an investment. <span>When returns are variable by period, the geometric mean will always be less than the arithmetic mean. The more dispersed the rates of returns, the greater the difference between the two. This measurement is not as highly influenced by extreme values as the arithmetic mean.







Flashcard 1636561980684

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
The more [...] the rates of returns, the greater the difference between Arithmetic and Geometric mean.
Answer
dispersed


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
; It is typically used when calculating returns over multiple periods. It is a better measure of the compound growth rate of an investment. When returns are variable by period, the geometric mean will always be less than the arithmetic mean. <span>The more dispersed the rates of returns, the greater the difference between the two. This measurement is not as highly influenced by extreme values as the arithmetic mean. Weighted Mean The weighted mean is computed by weighting each observed v







Flashcard 1636564602124

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
Which measurement is more highly influenced by extreme values, the arithmetic mean or geometric mean?
Answer
Arithmetic


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
r measure of the compound growth rate of an investment. When returns are variable by period, the geometric mean will always be less than the arithmetic mean. The more dispersed the rates of returns, the greater the difference between the two. <span>This measurement is not as highly influenced by extreme values as the arithmetic mean. Weighted Mean The weighted mean is computed by weighting each observed value according to its importance. In contrast, the arithmetic mean assigns equal weight







Flashcard 1636566961420

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
The [...] is computed by weighting each observed value according to its importance.
Answer
weighted mean


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
less than the arithmetic mean. The more dispersed the rates of returns, the greater the difference between the two. This measurement is not as highly influenced by extreme values as the arithmetic mean. Weighted Mean <span>The weighted mean is computed by weighting each observed value according to its importance. In contrast, the arithmetic mean assigns equal weight to each value. Notice that the return of a portfolio is the weighted mean of the returns of individual assets in the portfolio. The







Flashcard 1636569320716

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
the return of a portfolio is the [...] of the returns of individual assets in the portfolio.
Answer
weighted mean


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
alues as the arithmetic mean. Weighted Mean The weighted mean is computed by weighting each observed value according to its importance. In contrast, the arithmetic mean assigns equal weight to each value. Notice that <span>the return of a portfolio is the weighted mean of the returns of individual assets in the portfolio. The assets are weighted on their market values relative to the market value of the portfolio. When we take a weighted average of forward-looking data, the weighted mean is called expect







Flashcard 1636571942156

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Question
When we take a weighted average of forward-looking data, the weighted mean is called [...]
Answer
expected value.


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
assigns equal weight to each value. Notice that the return of a portfolio is the weighted mean of the returns of individual assets in the portfolio. The assets are weighted on their market values relative to the market value of the portfolio. <span>When we take a weighted average of forward-looking data, the weighted mean is called expected value. Example A year ago, a certain share had a price of $6. Six months ago, the same share had a price of $6.20. The share is now trading at $7.50. Because the most







Flashcard 1636574301452

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Question
The median is the value that [...]
Answer
stands in the middle of the data set, and divides it into two equal halves


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
ice inflates the weighted mean relative to the un-weighted mean. Median In English, the word "mediate" means to go between or to stand in the middle of two groups, in order to act as a referee, so to speak. <span>The median does the same thing; it is the value that stands in the middle of the data set, and divides it into two equal halves, with an equal number of data values in each half. To determine the median, arrange the data from highest to lowest (or lowest to highest) and find the middle observation.







Flashcard 1636576660748

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
To determine the median the first step is to [...]
Answer
arrange the data from highest to lowest (or lowest to highest)


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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
groups, in order to act as a referee, so to speak. The median does the same thing; it is the value that stands in the middle of the data set, and divides it into two equal halves, with an equal number of data values in each half. <span>To determine the median, arrange the data from highest to lowest (or lowest to highest) and find the middle observation. If there are an odd number of observations in the data set, the median is the middle observation (n + 1)/2 of the data set. If the number of observation







Flashcard 1636579020044

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#reading-8-statistical-concepts-and-market-returns
Question
Second step in finding the median
Answer
find the middle observation.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Subject 4. Measures of Center Tendency
value that stands in the middle of the data set, and divides it into two equal halves, with an equal number of data values in each half. To determine the median, arrange the data from highest to lowest (or lowest to highest) and <span>find the middle observation. If there are an odd number of observations in the data set, the median is the middle observation (n + 1)/2 of the data set. If the number of observations is even, there is no single mid