# on 18-Jul-2018 (Wed)

#### Annotation 3075437366540

 #math #mistakes When breaking up a square of the form $$41^2$$ to make the squaring easier make sure that broken up form actually computes to the original number. For example $$40+1=41$$ but $$40-1\neq1$$

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 An example of a goal for behavioral change might be to speak up and give your opinion more often at office meetings, a cognitive goal might be to stop assuming that every time your chest feels tight it could be a heart attack, and an emotional goal might be to feel less tense and agitated whenever you think about retirement.

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 The idea that some people may decide to pay for producing and promoting a product (instead of buying it), and bear the risk associated with that decision, represents a further step in the evolution of consumers’ roles, that involves a mix of entrepreneurship and social network participation. The selection of the initiatives to be supported, the monetary investment from consumers, the outsourcing of entrepreneurial risk by the organization that sets up the crowdfunding activity, and the blurring boundaries between marketing and finance are only some of the new issues involved with crowdfunding initiatives.

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 It is not surprising that the financing of early-stage creative projects and ventures is typically geographically localized since these types of funding decisions are usually predicated on personal relationships and due diligence requiring face-to-face interactions in response to high levels of risk, uncertainty, and information asymmetry. So, to economists, the recent rise of crowdfunding - raising capital from many people through an online platform - which offers little opportunity for careful due diligence and involves not only friends and family but also many strangers from near and far, is initially startling.

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 In general, the most critical differences between equity and non-equity crowdfunding will arise due to the amplification of information asymmetries. Whereas the asymmetry problem currently concerns the feasibility of and the creator’s ability to deliver the product, in the equity setting the asymmetry problem includes the above as well as the creator’s ability to generate equity value by building a company rather than just delivering a product. In the absence of strict governance, reporting, accounting, and other requirements common in publicly traded securities markets, crowdfunders are subject to an unusually high degree of risk.

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 Not only are creators motivated to raise funds, but they are motivated to raise funds in a democratic way. A respondent noted: “…it feels…you know, democratic, and people are able to contribute if they want and not to contribute if they don’t want.

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 Funders are motivated to raise funds in a way that is consistent with their values. This is consistent with identity- based motivation in which people are motivated to give in ways that are consistent with their identity [27]. This is also consistent with identity-based motivations for joining online communities [13].

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 committed long-term interactions allow creators to collaborate directly with funders, blurring the role between producer and consumer. An informant noted: “[Participating in Kickstarter] made me realize that I don’t want my projects to be like only mine. Like, I want others to share in my projects. So, I think all of my projects moving forward, they would all have some type of either interactive, interactivity to them? Or some means of crowd- based engagement.”

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#### Annotation 3092507659532

 Creators: Establish Relationships In addition to raising funds, initial evidence finds that creators are motivated to engage in crowdfunding for the direct connection to the funders through a long term interaction that extends beyond the moment of the financial transaction. An informant noted: “[The funding process] creates a longer-term connection to people that you know. Weeks later, months later, you’re still interacting, and they are expecting to get something….I think potentially you can build relationships with people, you know, over the course of time.” Such committed long-term interactions allow creators to collaborate directly with funders, blurring the role between producer and consumer. An informant noted: “[Participating in Kickstarter] made me realize that I don’t want my projects to be like only mine. Like, I want others to share in my projects. So, I think all of my projects moving forward, they would all have some type of either interactive, interactivity to them? Or some means of crowd- based engagement.” The long term relationship stands in contrast to the short term relationship that occurs in many online financial transactions, however it is consistent with many online communities that are not focused on financial transactions, such as online discussion communities [13].

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 Creators: Receive Validation Initial evidence suggests that a creator’s online validation increases perceptions of ability. People’s beliefs in their ability increase when they have successful experiences and receive public recognition of their success [36]. An informant who sought funds for a youth photography workshop documenting neighborhood improvements commented on the effect of crowdfunding on his confidence to complete the project: “I feel much more confident about my ability to do it [his project]” An informant describes her experience before launching her project and how her confidence increased through online conversation. “You sort of wonder if people are going to like you and like your research, and so I definitely got more confident once people were clearly interested in it and clearly engaging in the dialogue and supporting me financially.” A founder of RocketHub describes how validation occurs. Funders seek funds from a community of people who care not just about the project, but about the individual’s success. The founder explains: “You are embedding yourself in an active community…you are being validated…Friends and families become evangelists for you…these are completely normal people [creators] and they are working way outside their comfort zone…With crowdfunding, you are allowing people to do something…You have people saying, I believe in you.” Online validation supports perceptions of ability and pushes people to expand capability. This finding is consistent with social cognitive theory, which suggests that people build beliefs in their ability through social interactions [36]. This finding is supported by prior research in online communities, which finds that people engage in these communities to build self-esteem [22].

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 Creators: Replicate Successful Experience of Others Initial findings suggest that people participate in crowdfunding because they want to replicate the success of others [37]. An informant describes how her project success helped encourage another creator to pursue crowdfunding: “There’s a fellow archeologist that I’ve never met, but she just started a new Rockethub project, and so she’s in the process of funding, and she claimed to be inspired by me.” Another informant spreads out his successful Kickstarter experience to people he knows after he launched a project, and several people got motivated and started to follow along and participate in crowdfunding as a creator: "After I did this Kickstarter fundraising, and it was successful…a number of people I know started their own Kickstarter projects. I think, I kind of, you know motivate some people to try it themselves." Successful experiences can be replicated among people through social proof. Beyond establishing general relationships within the online community, creators not only generate more interest among people but also show them how to become a creator recognized by the larger online community through doing. Seeing other creators succeed in launching a project online provides social proof for anyone who wants to get started and become a creator on crowdfunding platforms.

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 Initial evidence suggests that funders are aware of the exchange of value. Further, they are disappointed when funds are not used to produce rewards directly related to the project. A funder who contributed funds to a weather prediction app noted: “Don’t spend that money on making t-shirts, spend it on building software…I want to see, like, I know that my money is being used well.”

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 another funder noted the sense of security she felt by giving money through Kickstarter, which has an all or nothing funding model. “There’s a security to knowing that if the goal isn’t met, my money doesn’t just get wasted.”

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 The first two chapters contain a brief introduction to cognitive therapy and an invitation to take another look at your own anxiety.

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The first two chapters contain a brief introduction to cognitive therapy and an invitation to take another look at your own anxiety. In Chapter 3 you’ll read about the anxious mind—the cognitive view of anxiety. Then, in Chapter 4, you will learn about how cognitive therapy works and what types of exercises you’ll be

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#### Annotation 3092529941772

 #math #mistakes Remember that the Distributive Property of Multiplication applies to both sums and subtractions so it's $$a(b\pm c)$$ not just $$a(b+c)$$.