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Flashcard 1438616259852

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#3-ene-2017 #el-financiero #noticias
Question
Los principales bancos centrales en el mundo están dejando de [...] y algunos ya iniciaron las alzas en su tasa de referencia, como es el caso de la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos.
Answer
inyectar liquidez


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Los principales bancos centrales en el mundo están dejando de inyectar liquidez y algunos ya iniciaron las alzas en su tasa de referencia, como es el caso de la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos.

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Deuda externa de México frena su crecimiento
exterior fue posible debido a la fuerte liquidez y a las bajas tasas de interés que se presentaron después de la pasada crisis mundial, cuya parte más álgida se alcanzó a finales del 2008. Sin embargo, lo vientos están cambiando. <span>Los principales bancos centrales en el mundo están dejando de inyectar liquidez y algunos ya iniciaron las alzas en su tasa de referencia, como es el caso de la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos. EL MENSAJE DE LAS CALIFICADORAS El freno al crecimiento de la deuda del exterior en México reportado a finales del 2016, resulta una buena señal dado que ha sido uno de







Flashcard 1447771114764

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
To communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ [...] from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself.
Answer
concrete illustrations


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To communicate abstract knowledge, one should employ concrete illustrations from which the reader or listener can make the abstraction for himself since by so doing he grasps the abstract ideas much better than if the writer or speaker gave them to him ready-ma

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Flashcard 1449987017996

Tags
#2-1-3-economic-rent #2-1-types-of-profit-measures #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
Evidence of economic rent attracts additional [...] to the economic endeavor.
Answer
capital funds


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Evidence of economic rent attracts additional capital funds to the economic endeavor.

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2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
er competing firms to compete away any economic profit over the long run. Economic profit that exists over the long run is usually found where competitive conditions persistently are less than perfect in the market. <span>2.1.3. Economic Rent The surplus value known as economic rent results when a particular resource or good is fixed in supply (with a vertical supply curve) and market price is higher than what is required to bring the resource or good onto the market and sustain its use. Essentially, demand determines the price level and the magnitude of economic rent that is forthcoming from the market. Exhibit 1 illustrates this concept, where P 1 is the price level that yields a normal profit return to the business that supplies the item. When demand increases from Demand 1 to Demand 2 , price rises to P 2 , where at this higher price level economic rent is created. The amount of this economic rent is calculated as (P 2 – P 1 ) × Q 1 . The firm has not done anything internally to merit this special reward: It benefits from an increase in demand in conjunction with a supply curve that does not fully adjust with an increase in quantity when price rises. Exhibit 1. Economic Rent Because of their limited availability in nature, certain resources—such as land and specialty commodities—possess highly inelastic supply curves in both the short run and long run (shown in Exhibit 1 as a vertical supply curve). When supply is relatively inelastic, a high degree of market demand can result in pricing that creates economic rent. This economic rent results from the fact that when price increases, the quantity supplied does not change or, at the most, increases only slightly. This is because of the fixation of supply by nature or by such artificial constraints as government policy. How is the concept of economic rent useful in financial analysis? Commodities or resources that command economic rent have the potential to reward equity investors more than what is required to attract their capital to that activity, resulting in greater shareholders’ wealth. Evidence of economic rent attracts additional capital funds to the economic endeavor. This new investment capital increases shareholders’ value as investors bid up share prices of existing firms. Any commodity, resource, or good that is fixed or nearly fixed in supply has the potential to yield economic rent. From an analytical perspective, one can obtain industry supply data to calculate the elasticity of supply , which measures the sensitivity of quantity supplied to a change in price. If quantity supplied is relatively unresponsive ( inelastic ) to price changes, then a potential condition exists in the market for economic rent. A reliable forecast of changes in demand can indicate the degree of any economic rent that is forthcoming from the market in the future. When one is analyzing fixed or nearly fixed supply markets (e.g., gold), a fundamental comprehension of demand determinants is necessary to make rational financial decisions based on potential economic rent. EXAMPLE 1 Economic Rent and Investment Decision Making The following market data show the global demand, global supply, and price on an annual basis for gold over the period 2006–2008. Based on the data, what observation can be made about market demand, supply, and economic rent? Year 2006 2007 2008 Percent Change 2006–2008 Supply (in metric tons) 3,569 3,475 3,508 –1.7 Demand (in metric tons) 3,423 3,552 3,805 +11.2 Average spot price (in US$) 603.92 695.39 871.65 +44.3 Source: GFMS and World Gold Council. Solution: The amount of total gold supplied to the world market over this period has actually declined slightly by 1.7 percent during a period when there was a double-digit increase of 11.2 percent in demand. As a consequence, the spot price has dramatically increased by 44.3 percent. Economic rent has resulted from this market relationship of a relatively fixed supply of gold and a rising demand for it. 2.2. Comparison of Profit Measures All three types of profit are interconnected because, according to Equation 4, acco







Flashcard 1450754575628



Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
In this example the breakeven quantity occurs at point [...]
Answer
B

where price is tangent to the minimum point on the ATC.


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In this example the breakeven quantity occurs at output Q BE , which corresponds to point B where price is tangent to the minimum point on the ATC.

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Firms strive to reach initial breakeven as soon as possible to avoid start-up losses for any extended period of time. When businesses are first established, there is an initial period where losses occur at low quantity levels. In Exhibit 17, <span>the breakeven quantity occurs at output Q BE , which corresponds to point B where price is tangent to the minimum point on the ATC. (Keep in mind that normal profit as an implicit cost is included in ATC as a fixed cost.) Exhibit 18 shows the breakeven point under perfect competition using the total rev







Flashcard 1450872016140

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Una reestructuración corporativa se refiere a una reestructuración total de la empresa, enfocada a sus tres aspectos fundamentales a través de las cuales la empresa se manifiesta: [...], [...], [...].
Answer
la parte organizacional, la operativa y la financiera


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REESTRUCTURACIÓN CORPORATIVA Se refiere a una reestructuración total de la empresa, enfocada a sus tres aspectos fundamentales a través de las cuales la empresa se manifiesta: la parte organizacional, la operativa y la financiera. Previa a la reestructuración organizacional, operativa y financiera, es aconsejable efectuar un análisis de la posible Redimensión de la empresa, así como de su

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Flashcard 1451117382924

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#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
Un [...] de la organización se hace con el objetivo de que las funciones, puestos, inversiones, costos y gastos incurridos en la operación se minimicen, y como consecuencia optimizar los recursos involucrados en la empresa.
Answer
redimensionamiento


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y>Redimensionamiento de la empresa. Con el objetivo de dirigir la operación de la empresa conforme al tamaño adecuado que deba tener, así como para enfocarla hacia una actitud de servicio al cliente, se debe hacer un redimensionamiento de la organización, con el objetivo de que las funciones, puestos, inversiones, costos y gastos incurridos en la operación se minimicen, y como consecuencia optimi

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Flashcard 1451399974156

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] provides the materials, and the human intellect conceives and constructs works of civilization which harness nature and increase its value and its services to the human race.
Answer
Nature


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Nature provides the materials, and the human intellect conceives and constructs works of civilization which harness nature and increase its value and its services to the human race

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Flashcard 1453799116044

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question
How is the entire utility function of a consumer represented?


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An indifference curve map represents our consumer’s entire utility function.

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
and lying above and to the right of the first one. Indeed, we could construct any number of indifference curves in the same manner simply by starting at a different initial bundle. The result is an entire family of indifference curves, called <span>an indifference curve map , and it represents our consumer’s entire utility function. The word map is appropriate because the entire set of indifference curves comprises a contour map of this consumer’s utility function. Each contour, or indifference curve, is a set of p







Flashcard 1453804096780

Tags
#conversation-tactics
Question
Another key element of how you say something is, of course, [...]
Answer
your pacing – the speed at which you talk.


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Another key element of how you say something is, of course, your pacing – the speed at which you talk.

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Flashcard 1453805931788

Tags
#provide-sources #rules-of-formulating-knowledge
Question
Except for well-tested and proven knowledge (such as 2+2=4), it is highly recommended that you [...].
Answer
include sources from which you have gathered your knowledge

In real-life situation you will often be confronted with challenges to your knowledge


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Except for well-tested and proven knowledge (such as 2+2=4), it is highly recommended that you include sources from which you have gathered your knowledge. In real-life situation you will often be confronted with challenges to your knowledge

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Provide sources
Except for well-tested and proven knowledge (such as 2+2=4), it is highly recommended that you include sources from which you have gathered your knowledge. In real-life situation you will often be confronted with challenges to your knowledge. Sources can come to your rescue. You will also find that facts and figures differ depending on the source. You can really be surprised how frivolously reputable information agencies pu







Flashcard 1453809077516

Question
Limbic brain started to evolve as [...].
Answer
we began to socialize


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Limbic brain started to evolve as we began to socialize.

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Article 1453810650380

3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit

Profit maximization occurs when the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) is the greatest; marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC); and the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit (as later developed in Equation 12). All three approaches derive the same profit-maximizing output level. In the first approach, a firm starts by forecasting unit sales, which becomes the basis for estimates of future revenue and production costs. By comparing predicted total revenue to predicted total costs for different output levels, the firm targets the quantity that yields the greatest profit. When using the marginal revenue–marginal cost approach, the firm compares the change in predicted total revenue (MR) with the change in predicted total costs (MC) by unit of output. If MR exceeds MC, total profit is increased by producing more units because each successive unit adds more to total reve



#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit

Profit maximization occurs when

  • the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
Profit maximization occurs when the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) is the greatest; marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC); and the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit (as later developed in Equation 12). All three approaches derive the same profit-maximizing output level. In the first approach, a firm starts by forecasting unit s




Flashcard 1453813009676

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question

Profit maximization occurs when

  • the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) [...]

Answer
is the greatest


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Profit maximization occurs when the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) is the greatest; marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC); and the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
Profit maximization occurs when the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) is the greatest; marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC); and the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit (as later developed in Equation 12). All three approaches derive the same profit-maximizing output level. In the first approach, a firm starts by forecasting unit s







Flashcard 1453815368972

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question

Profit maximization occurs when

  • [...] equals [...]

Answer
marginal revenue (MR)

marginal cost (MC)


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Profit maximization occurs when the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) is the greatest; marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC); and the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
Profit maximization occurs when the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) is the greatest; marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC); and the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit (as later developed in Equation 12). All three approaches derive the same profit-maximizing output level. In the first approach, a firm starts by forecasting unit s







#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Aproach:
  • the difference between total revenue (TR) and total costs (TC) is the greatest;

In this approach, a firm starts by forecasting unit sales, which becomes the basis for estimates of future revenue and production costs. By comparing predicted total revenue to predicted total costs for different output levels, the firm targets the quantity that yields the greatest profit.

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit (as later developed in Equation 12). All three approaches derive the same profit-maximizing output level. <span>In the first approach, a firm starts by forecasting unit sales, which becomes the basis for estimates of future revenue and production costs. By comparing predicted total revenue to predicted total costs for different output levels, the firm targets the quantity that yields the greatest profit. When using the marginal revenue–marginal cost approach, the firm compares the change in predicted total revenue (MR) with the change in predicted total costs (MC) by unit of output. If




#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Aproach:
  • marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC);

When using the marginal revenue–marginal cost approach, the firm compares the change in predicted total revenue (MR) with the change in predicted total costs (MC) by unit of output. If MR exceeds MC, total profit is increased by producing more units because each successive unit adds more to total revenue than it does to total costs. If MC is greater than MR, total profit is decreased when additional units are produced. The point of profit maximization occurs where MR equals MC.

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
nit sales, which becomes the basis for estimates of future revenue and production costs. By comparing predicted total revenue to predicted total costs for different output levels, the firm targets the quantity that yields the greatest profit. <span>When using the marginal revenue–marginal cost approach, the firm compares the change in predicted total revenue (MR) with the change in predicted total costs (MC) by unit of output. If MR exceeds MC, total profit is increased by producing more units because each successive unit adds more to total revenue than it does to total costs. If MC is greater than MR, total profit is decreased when additional units are produced. The point of profit maximization occurs where MR equals MC. The third method compares the estimated cost of each unit of input to that input’s contribution with projected total revenue. If the increase in projected total revenue coming from the




#cfa-level-1 #economics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Aproach:
  • the revenue value of the output from the last unit of input employed equals the cost of employing that input unit

This method compares the estimated cost of each unit of input to that input’s contribution with projected total revenue.

If the increase in projected total revenue coming from the input unit exceeds its cost, it contributes to total profit.

If the increase in projected total revenue does not cover the input unit’s cost, total profit is diminished.

Profit maximization based on the employment of inputs occurs where the next input unit for each type of resource used no longer makes any contribution to total profit.

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3.1.4. Output Optimization and Maximization of Profit
ore units because each successive unit adds more to total revenue than it does to total costs. If MC is greater than MR, total profit is decreased when additional units are produced. The point of profit maximization occurs where MR equals MC. <span>The third method compares the estimated cost of each unit of input to that input’s contribution with projected total revenue. If the increase in projected total revenue coming from the input unit exceeds its cost, a contribution to total profit is evident. In turn, this justifies further employment of that input. On the other hand, if the increase in projected total revenue does not cover the input unit’s cost, total profit is diminished. Profit maximization based on the employment of inputs occurs where the next input unit for each type of resource used no longer makes any contribution to total profit. <span><body><html>




How to Link Mnemonic Images
#art-of-memory

Images can be linked or not linked.

If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy.

Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste.

Types of image links

-proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other:

  1. Transforming one image into another
  2. Interaction between two images
  3. Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method)

The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not.

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How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki
How to Link Mnemonic Images - Memory Techniques Wiki How to Link Mnemonic Images From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search Images can be linked or not linked. If the images are not linked, then it is harder to recall them in the right order. For example when you made a shopping list that you forgot home, then at store you probably won't be able to recall all the items you want to buy. Linked images are somehow connected. For instance if the first two items of the list were oranges and tooth paste, then in order to link the images of orange and toothpaste you could imagine that you drill a hole in the orange and fill it with toothpaste. Types of image links r30 proposed three 3 basic ways to link images with each other: Transforming one image into another Interaction between two images Chaining multiple images with a story (a.k.a the story method) The images of the chain (Story Method) can be connected using interaction and/or transformation. Then the chain becomes what we like to call a story, be the story logical or not. This method is demonstrated at this page. More information and examples (with pictures) of all three linking techniques can be found at r30's website. See Linking Techniques Comparison discussion for some initial ideas. T




1. Used terminology
#art-of-memory #linking-methods
  • Base object “ or just „ base “ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.
    Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects).

  • Data object “ or just „ dobe “– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe. In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe).

  • Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe.

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r30's mnemonics
on? 3.5 3.5 Some exceptions 3.6 Inside vs next-to placement 4 4. Interaction Method 5 5. Link Systems 5.1 5.1 Mnemonic Link System 5.1.1 5.1.1 IM- or TM-based chain? 5.2 5.2 Pinned Link System 6 6. When to use which linking technique? <span>1. Used terminology „Base object“ or just „base“ – real object (or just image) that we already know. In linking techniques it is the first object in your link.Besides it being an "object", it may also be a person, or something general like room, wall, ground, etc. If it is an item from your Peg System, then we call it peg. In method of loci we call it locus (base has a position with respect to other objects). „Data object“ or just „dobe“– object that we want to memorize. It may be visual or nonvisual, e.g an abstract concept. If it is nonvisual then it is useful to first create a mnemonic image for the dobe (see How to Create Mnemonic Images). In MLS (and PLS) a random middle dobe of the chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation m




#art-of-memory #linking-methods
The following two methods cover all the ways to link dobe to base :
  1. Transformation method or just TM.
    Link: transforming base into dobe (+using similarities). It' s similar to previously known substitution method , but far more enhanced.

  2. I nteraction method or just IM.
    Link: interaction between base and dobe (quite often used to link dobe to peg/locus, but usually used in MLS to link two adjacent dobes in the chain).

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r30's mnemonics
chain is also base (you use it to recall the next dobe). Dobe is linked to base (an association made between them). Later you can use that base to recall the dobe. I took the liberty to classify different types of mnemonic linking techniques. <span>The following two methods cover all the ways (that I can think of) to link dobe to base : Transformation method or just TM. Link: transforming base into dobe (+using similarities). This method isn't so commonly acknowledged and used among mnemonists. It's similar to previously known substitution method, but far more enhanced. Interaction method or just IM. Link: interaction between base and dobe (quite often used to link dobe to peg/locus, but usually used in MLS to link two adjacent dobes in the chain). TM and IM are also the basic tools for these two link systems: Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking techniq




#art-of-memory #linking-methods
TM and IM are also the basic tools for these two link systems:
  1. Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking technique. * MLS and IM form traditional linking techniques *

  2. Pinned Link System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain.

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r30's mnemonics
previously known substitution method, but far more enhanced. Interaction method or just IM. Link: interaction between base and dobe (quite often used to link dobe to peg/locus, but usually used in MLS to link two adjacent dobes in the chain). <span>TM and IM are also the basic tools for these two link systems: Mnemonic Link System or just MLS links dobes together into a story. (IM-based) MLS is the most often used linking technique. * MLS and IM form traditional linking techniques* Pinned Link System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain. To understand the differences between these techniques, look at this picture and read this section. Transforming – changing object's properties like shape, material, color, behaviour, s




Mnemonic Peg System

A peg system is a technique for memorizing lists. It works by pre-memorizing a list of words that are easy to associate with the numbers they represent (1 to 10, 1-100, 1-1000, etc.). Those objects form the "pegs" of the system.

To rapidly memorize a list of arbitrary objects, each one is associated with the mnemonic image for the appropriate peg. Generally, a Peg List only has to be memorized one time, and can then be used over and over every time a list of items needs to be memorized.

Many people have come across the peg list system via the books of Harry Lorayne.

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Mnemonic Peg System - Memory Techniques Wiki
Mnemonic Peg System - Memory Techniques Wiki Mnemonic Peg System From Memory Techniques Wiki Jump to: navigation, search A peg system is a technique for memorizing lists. It works by pre-memorizing a list of words that are easy to associate with the numbers they represent (1 to 10, 1-100, 1-1000, etc.). Those objects form the "pegs" of the system. To rapidly memorize a list of arbitrary objects, each one is associated with the mnemonic image for the appropriate peg. Generally, a Peg List only has to be memorized one time, and can then be used over and over every time a list of items needs to be memorized. Many people have come across the peg list system via the books of Harry Lorayne. It is generally considered by serious mnemonists as less versatile than the Method of Loci (a.k.a., Memory Palaces) which allows easier association between locations and the object being memorized. It's also easier to create new memory palaces than to create new peg lists. Example Usage Create a Number Rhyme System where each number from 1 to 10 have a rhyming mnemonic keyword: one - gun two - shoe three - tree four - door five - hive six -




#art-of-memory #linking-methods
Transforming changing object's properties like shape, material, color, behaviour, sound, touch etc.
If all properties of an object are changed it is better to call it substitution (we substitute old object with new one, that's the old substitution method). Thus substitution is just a special case of transformation.


Hybrid - object that has some properties of base and some properties of dobe; it is the result of my algorithm

Surface layer (of an object) - Every object has a general shape (e.g. it is round). But it also has little shapes on the surface. E.g a hedgehog is pretty round. But it has these spikes on its surface. Its skin with all the stuff that's on it (spikes) form its surface layer. Surface layer has a color.
Note that a surface can be constructed of other objects (each spike can be thought as seperate object).
We use this fact for letting base be constructed of little dobes (e.g lamp bulbs instead of spikes and skin) or just from dobe's surface (bulb's glass covering the skin and spikes).

(mnemo) deduction – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be recalling dobe from another dobe.
I use often term deduction instead of recall because in lot of cases the link between base and dobe is somehow logical and thus dobe can be deduced from its base. In case of TM the logic lies in similarities between base and dobe.

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r30's mnemonics
System (PLS) is a special and stronger case of MLS. It picks some additional bases and creates links between them and some dobes of the chain. To understand the differences between these techniques, look at this picture and read this section. <span>Transforming – changing object's properties like shape, material, color, behaviour, sound, touch etc. If all properties of an object are changed it is better to call it substitution (we substitute old object with new one, that's the old substitution method). Thus substitution is just a special case of transformation. Hybrid - object that has some properties of base and some properties of dobe; it is the result of my algorithm Surface layer (of an object) - Every object has a general shape (e.g. it is round). But it also has little shapes on the surface. E.g a hedgehog is pretty round. But it has these spikes on its surface. Its skin with all the stuff that's on it (spikes) form its surface layer. Surface layer has a color.Note that a surface can be constructed of other objects (each spike can be thought as seperate object).We use this fact for letting base be constructed of little dobes (e.g lamp bulbs instead of spikes and skin) or just from dobe's surface (bulb's glass covering the skin and spikes). (mnemo)deduction – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be recalling dobe from another dobe.I use often term deduction instead of recall because in lot of cases the link between base and dobe is somehow logical and thus dobe can be deduced from its base. In case of TM the logic lies in similarities between base and dobe. [imagelink] 2. TM & IM & MLS Comparison Transformation M Interaction M Mnemonic Link System Number of dobes: One One Many We place the dobe(s): *INSIDE its bas




Algorithm for linking base and dobe in TM:

  1. Find the most suitable base object for dobe (the most similar to dobe) (OPTIONAL)
  2. Place the dobe inside base (then it's easier to perform the next task)
  3. Let the base take the shape of the dobe (by expanding and/or shrinking it OR by multiplying it)
    -Now the dobe’s outer layer is constructed from base’s material. It also has the same color as the base’s surface.
  4. Strengthen the link (by creating a behaviour similarity and/or nonvisual similarities)

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r30's mnemonics
similarity) and visualize, how this package-heart starts pumping the orange juice (behaviour similarity) . You can also sense the nonvisual similarities: hear the pumping sound of this package-heart or feel its warmth.*** 3.2 r30's algorithm <span>Algorithm for linking base and dobe in TM: Find the most suitable base object for dobe (the most similar to dobe) (OPTIONAL) Place the dobe inside base (then it's easier to perform the next task) Let the base take the shape of the dobe (by expanding and/or shrinking it OR by multiplying it)-Now the dobe’s outer layer is constructed from base’s material. It also has the same color as the base’s surface. Strengthen the link (by creating a behaviour similarity and/or nonvisual similarities) ***Alternatives to task 3 (we don't change the shape of base) 3.2 Transform base's surface layer and color into dobe's surface layer and color [mirror-chair example] (If dobe's materi





Transformation method
#art-of-memory #has-images #linking-methods
Transforming – changing object's properties like shape, material, color, behaviour, sound, touch etc.

​ If all properties of an object are changed it is better to call it substitution (we substitute old object with new one, that's the old substitution method). Thus substitution is just a special case of transformation.

Hybrid - object that has some properties of base and some properties of dobe; it is the result of my algorithm

Surface layer (of an object) - Every object has a general shape (e.g. it is round). But it also has little shapes on the surface. E.g a hedgehog is pretty round. But it has these spikes on its surface. Its skin with all the stuff that's on it (spikes) form its surface layer. Surface layer has a color.

Note that a surface can be constructed of other objects (each spike can be thought as seperate object).
We use this fact for letting base be constructed of little dobes (e.g lamp bulbs instead of spikes and skin) or just from dobe's surface (bulb's glass covering the skin and spikes).

(mnemo) deduction – Process of recalling dobe from its base (when the link between base and dobe is already made and we try to recall the dobe when seeing the base). In case of MLS the deduction would be recalling dobe from another dobe.

I use often term deduction instead of recall because in lot of cases the link between base and dobe is somehow logical and thus dobe can be deduced from its base. In case of TM the logic lies in similarities between base and dobe.

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#48-laws-of-power
Instead of using coercion or outright treachery, the perfect courtier got his way through seduction, charm, deception, and subtle strategy, always planning several moves ahead.

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#48-laws-of-power
Today we face a peculiarly similar paradox to that of the courtier: Everything must appear civilized, decent, democratic, and fair. But if we play by those rules too strictly, if we take them too literally, we are crushed by those around us who are not so foolish.

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#48-laws-of-power
Niccolò Machiavelli wrote, “Any man who tries to be good all the time is bound to come to ruin among the great number who are not good.”

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#48-laws-of-power
Napoleon advised: Place your iron hand inside a velvet glove.

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#48-laws-of-power
If you can master the arts of indirection, learning to seduce, charm, deceive, and subtly outmaneuver your opponents, you will attain the heights of power.

If you can master the arts of indirection, you will be able to make people bend to your will without their realizing what you have done. And if they do not realize what you have done, they will neither resent nor resist you.

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#48-laws-of-power
Another strategy of the supposed nonplayer is to demand equality in every area of life. Everyone must be treated alike, whatever their status and strength.

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#48-laws-of-power
To some people the notion of consciously playing power games—no matter how indirect—seems evil, asocial, a relic of the past. They believe they can opt out of the game by behaving in ways that have nothing to do with power. You must beware of such people, for while they express such opinions outwardly, they are often among the most adept players at power.

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#48-laws-of-power
Yet another way of avoiding the game would be perfect honesty and straightforwardness, since one of the main techniques of those who seek power is deceit and secrecy. But being perfectly honest will inevitably hurt and insult a great many people, some of whom will choose to injure you in return.

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#48-laws-of-power
The only means to gain one’s ends with people are force and cunning. Love also, they say; but that is to wait for sunshine, and life needs every moment

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#48-laws-of-power
the better you are at dealing with power, the better friend, lover, husband, wife, and person you become.

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#48-laws-of-power
Learning the game of power requires a certain way of looking at the world, a shifting of perspective. It takes effort and years of practice, for much of the game may not come naturally. Certain basic skills are required, and once you master these skills you will be able to apply the laws of power more easily.

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#48-laws-of-power
An emotional response to a situation is the single greatest barrier to power, a mistake that will cost you a lot more than any temporary satisfaction you might gain by expressing your feelings.

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#48-laws-of-power
Emotions cloud reason, and if you cannot see the situation clearly, you cannot prepare for and respond to it with any degree of control.

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#48-laws-of-power
If you are trying to destroy an enemy who has hurt you, far better to keep him off-guard by feigning friendliness than showing your anger.

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#48-laws-of-power
Love and affection are potentially destructive, in that they blind you to the often self-serving interests of those whom you least suspect of playing a power game.

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#48-laws-of-power
You cannot repress anger or love, or avoid feeling them, and you should not try. But you should be careful about how you express them, and most important, they should never influence your plans and strategies in any way.

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#48-laws-of-power
Related to mastering your emotions is the ability to distance yourself from the present moment and think objectively about the past and future.

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#48-laws-of-power
You must be able to look in both directions at once, the better to handle danger from wherever it comes. Such is the face you must create for yourself-one face looking continuously to the future and the other to the past.

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#48-laws-of-power
I thought to myself with what means, with what deceptions, with how many varied arts, with what industry a man sharpens his wits to deceive another, and through these variations the world is made more beautiful.

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#48-laws-of-power
For the future, the motto is, “No days unalert.” Nothing should catch you by surprise because you are constantly imagining problems before they arise.

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#48-laws-of-power
Instead of spending your time dreaming of your plan’s happy ending, you must work on calculating every possible permutation and pitfall that might emerge in it.

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#48-laws-of-power
The further you see, the more steps ahead you plan, the more powerful you become

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#48-laws-of-power
The other face of Janus looks constantly to the past—though not to remember past hurts or bear grudges.

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#48-laws-of-power
Half of the game is learning how to forget those events in the past that eat away at you and cloud your reason.

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#48-laws-of-power
The real purpose of the backward-glancing eye is to educate yourself constantly—you look at the past to learn from those who came before you. (The many historical examples in this book will greatly help that process.)

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#48-laws-of-power
There are no principles; there are only events.

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#48-laws-of-power
There is no good and bad, there are only circumstances.

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#48-laws-of-power
You begin by examining the mistakes you have made in the past, the ones that have most grievously held you back.

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#48-laws-of-power
You analyze the mistakes in your past in terms of the 48 laws of power, and you extract from them a lesson and an oath: “I shall never repeat such a mistake; I shall never fall into such a trap again.”

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#48-laws-of-power
If you can evaluate and observe your past self with the 48 laws, you can learn to break the patterns of the past—an immensely valuable skill.

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#48-laws-of-power
Power requires the ability to play with appearances. To this end you must learn to wear many masks and keep a bag full of deceptive tricks.

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#48-laws-of-power
Deception and masquerade should not be seen as ugly or immoral. All human interaction requires deception on many levels

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#48-laws-of-power
Deception is a developed art of civilization and the most potent weapon in the game of power.

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#48-laws-of-power
You cannot succeed at deception unless you take a somewhat distanced approach to yourself— unless you can be many different people, wearing the mask that the day and the moment require.

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#48-laws-of-power
If deception is the most potent weapon in your arsenal, then patience in all things is your crucial shield.

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#48-laws-of-power
Like mastering your emotions, patience is a skill—it does not come naturally.

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#48-laws-of-power
nothing about power is natural; power is more godlike than anything in the natural world.

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#48-laws-of-power
patience is the supreme virtue of the gods, who have nothing but time.

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#48-laws-of-power
Impatience, on the other hand, only makes you look weak. It is a principal impediment to power.

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#48-laws-of-power
Power is essentially amoral and one of the most important skills to acquire is the ability to see circumstances rather than good or evil

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#48-laws-of-power
Power is a game—this cannot be repeated too often—and in games you do not judge your opponents by their intentions but by the effect of their actions.

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#48-laws-of-power
It is only natural for people to cover up their actions with all kinds of justifications, always assuming that they have acted out of goodness. You must learn to inwardly laugh each time you hear this and never get caught up in gauging someone’s intentions and actions through a set of moral judgments that are really an excuse for the accumulation of power.

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#48-laws-of-power
It is a game. Both of you behave as gentlemen. observing the rules of the game and taking nothing personally.

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#48-laws-of-power
Half of your mastery of power comes from what you do not do, what you do not allow yourself to get dragged into.

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#48-laws-of-power
Half of your mastery of power comes from what you do not do, what you do not allow yourself to get dragged into. For this skill you must learn to judge all things by what they cost you. As Nietzsche wrote, “The value of a thing sometimes lies not in what one attains with it, but in what one pays for it —what it costs us.”

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#48-laws-of-power
Perhaps you will attain your goal, and a worthy goal at that, but at what price? Apply this standard to everything, including whether to collaborate with other people or come to their aid.

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#48-laws-of-power
Never waste valuable time, or mental peace of mind, on the affairs of others—that is too high a price to pay.

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#48-laws-of-power
Power is a social game. To learn and master it, you must develop the ability to study and understand people.

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#48-laws-of-power
To be a master player you must also be a master psychologist. You must recognize motivations and see through the cloud of dust with which people surround their actions.

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#48-laws-of-power
An understanding of people’s hidden motives is the single greatest piece of knowledge you can have in acquiring power. It opens up endless possibilities of deception, seduction, and manipulation.

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#48-laws-of-power
People are of infinite complexity and you can spend a lifetime watching them without ever fully understanding them. So it is all the more important, then, to begin your education now.

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#48-laws-of-power
Never discriminate as to whom you study and whom you trust.

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#48-laws-of-power
Never trust anyone completely and study everyone, including friends and loved ones.

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#48-laws-of-power
Finally, you must learn always to take the indirect route to power.

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#48-laws-of-power
Disguise your cunning. Like a billiard ball that caroms several times before it hits its target, your moves must be planned and developed in the least obvious way.

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#48-laws-of-power
By training yourself to be indirect, you can thrive in the modern court, appearing the paragon of decency while being the consummate manipulator.

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#48-laws-of-power
The laws have a simple premise: Certain actions almost always increase one’s power (the observance of the law), while others decrease it and even ruin us (the transgression of the law).

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#48-laws-of-power
The gods of power frown on the frivolous; they give ultimate satisfaction only to those who study and reflect, and punish those who skim the surfaces looking for a good time.

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#48-laws-of-power
Any man who tries to be good all the time is bound to come to ruin among the great number who are not good. Hence a prince who wants to keep his authority must learn how not to be good, and use that knowledge, or refrain from using it, as necessity requires.

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